Gas Dehydration Field Manual book cover

Gas Dehydration Field Manual

Gas Dehydration Field Manual presents different methods of gas dehydration, focusing on the differences between adsorption and absorption. It discusses the various designs and operations in a gas processing facility. As an introduction, the book provides different concepts and theories that describe the gas processing industry. It then discusses the processes involved in the gas processing industry, which include absorption, adsorption, glycol regeneration, glycol filtration, and carbon purification. The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses some of the basic terms and concepts of gas dehydration. The second part focuses on the factors involved in the different gas-dehydration methods. It also describes the difference between absorption and adsorption, as well as the process involved in glycol dehydration. The last part of the book discusses the proper care, maintenance, and troubleshooting methods of glycol dehydration process. This book is mainly designed for engineers, technologists, and operating personnel in the gas processing industry. Aside from engineers and process designers, readers who are interested in the different processes involved in gas dehydration will find this book a useful guide and reference.

Audience

Production Engineers, Reservoir Engineer ,Chemical Engineers, Petroleum Engineers, Pipeline Engineers, Any engineers working with the production, transportation, or drilling of natural gas

Paperback, 260 Pages

Published: August 2011

Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 978-1-85617-980-5

Contents


  • Part 1 Hydrate Prediction and Prevention

        Objectives

        Overview

             Dew Point

             Dew Point Depression

             Why Dehydrate?

        Water Content of Gas

             Introduction

             Partial Pressure and Fugacity

             Empirical Plots

             Sour Gas Correlations

             Effect of Nitrogen and Heavy Ends

             Example 1-1: Calculation of Water Content in a Sour Gas Stream

             Applications

             Amount of Water Condensed

        Gas Hydrates

             What Are Gas Hydrates?

             Why Is Hydrate Control Necessary?

             What Conditions Are Necessary to Promote Hydrate Formation?

             How Do We Prevent or Control Hydrates?

        Prediction of Operating Temperature and Pressure

             Wellhead Conditions

             Flowline Conditions

             Calculation of Temperature and Pressure at the Wellhead

             Calculation of Flowline Downstream Temperature

        Temperature Drop Determination

             Overview

             Temperature Drop Correlation

             Example 1-2: Determine the Temperature Drop across a Choke

        Hydrate Prediction Correlations

             Overview

             Vapor-Solid Equilibrium Constants

             Pressure-Temperature Curves

             Equations of State Calculations

             Vapor-Solid Equilibrium Constants

             Example 1-3: Determination of Hydrate Formation Temperature Using Vapor-Solid Constants

             Pressure-Temperature Curves

             Example 1-4: Determine the Hydrate Formation Temperature Using Pressure-Temperature Correlations

        Hydrate Prevention

             Overview

             Adding Heat

             Temperature Control

             Chemical Injection

             Comparison of Hydrate Prevention Methods

             Summary of Hydrate Prevention Methods

        Hydrate Inhibition

             Hammerschmidt Equation

             Determination of Total Inhibitor Required

             Procedure for Determining Inhibitor Requirements

             Example 1-5: Determining the Amount of Methanol Required in a Wet Gas Stream

        Exercises

    Part 2 Dehydration Considerations

        Overview

        Adsorption

             Process Overview

             Principles of Adsorption

             Process Reversal

             Mass Transfer Zone (MTZ)

             Principles of Operation

             Effect of Process Variables

             Example 2-1: Determination of Pressure Drop through a Dry Bed Desiccant Dehydration Tower

             Equipment

             Inlet Gas Cleaning Equipment

             Adsorber Tower

             Insufficient Gas Distribution

             Inadequate Insulation

             Improper Bed Supports

             Pressurization

             Regeneration Gas Exchangers, Heaters, and Coolers

             Regeneration Gas Separator

             Control Valves

             Expander Plant Molecular Sieve Applications

        Desiccant Performance

             General Conditions

             Moisture Analyzer

             Effect of Contaminants in Inlet Feed Stream

             Effect of Regeneration Gases Rich in Heavy Hydrocarbons

             Effect of Methanol in the Inlet Gas Stream

             Useful Life

             Effect of Insufficient Reactivation

             Effect of High Reactivation Temperature

             Areas Requiring Engineering Attention

             Example 2-2: Preliminary Solid Bed Desiccant Design

        Absorption

             Process Overview

             Principles of Absorption

        Glycol Dehydration

             Principles of Operation

             Gas System

             Glycol System

             Effect of Operating Variables

        System Design

             Sizing Considerations

             Inlet Microfiber Filter Separator

             Glycol Gas Contactor

             Contactor Diameter

             Tray Design

             Tray Spacing

             Glycol Circulation Rate

             Lean Glycol Concentration

             Glycol-Glycol Preheater

             Glycol-Gas Cooler

             Glycol-Glycol Heat Exchanger

             Gas-Glycol-Condensate Separator

             Reconcentrator

             Heat Duty

             Fire Tube Sizing

             Reflux Condenser

             Stripping Still Column

             Diameter Size

             Packing

             Amount of Stripping Gas

             Filters

             Glycol Pumps

             Still Emissions

        Mercury Considerations

             Mercury

             Treatment

        Special Glycol Dehydration Systems

             General Considerations

             Drizo (wt.-2) Process

             Cold Finger Condenser Process

        Systems Utilizing Glycol-Gas Powered Pumps

        Systems Utilizing Electric Driven Pumps

             Example 2-3: Glycol Dehydration







        Nonregenerable Dehydrator

        Nonregenerable Dehydrator

             Overview

             Calcium Chloride Unit

        Physical Properties of Common Glycols

    Part 3 Glycol Maintenance, Care, and Troubleshooting

        Preventive Maintenance

             Scheduled Preventive Maintenance

             Five Steps to a Successful Preventive Maintenance Program

             Record-Keeping

             Mechanical Maintenance

             Glycol Care

             Corrosion Control

             Communication

             General Considerations

             Oxidation

             Thermal Decomposition

             pH Control

             Salt Contamination

             Hydrocarbons

             Sludge

             Foaming

        Analysis and Control of Glycol

             General Considerations

             Visual Inspection

             Chemical Analysis

             Chemical Analysis Interpretation

        Troubleshooting

             General Considerations

             High Dew Points

             Glycol Loss from the Contactor

             Glycol Loss from the Reconcentrator

             Glycol Loss-Glycol Hydrocarbon Separator

             Glycol Loss-Miscellaneous

             Three-Step Approach to Troubleshooting

             Glycol System Cleaning

        Eliminating Operating Problems

             General Considerations

             Inlet Scrubber/Microfiber Filter Separator

             Absorber

             Glycol-Gas Heat Exchanger

             Lean Glycol Storage Tank or Accumulator

             Stripper or Still Column

        Improving Glycol Filtration

             General Considerations

        Use of Carbon Purification

             General Considerations

    References

    Index




Advertisement

advert image