Foam and Foam Films
Theory, Experiment, ApplicationBy
- D. Exerowa, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
- P.M. Kruglyakov, State Academy of Architecture and Building, Institute of Civil Engineering, Penza, Russia
The main physicochemical aspects of foam and foam films such as preparation, structure, properties, are considered, giving a special emphasis on foam stability. It is shown that the foam and foam films are an efficient object in the study of various surface phenomena and in establishing regularities common for different interfaces, in particular, water/oil interface. The techniques and results on foam films have an independent meaning and involve the latest achievement in this field, with a focus on authors' results.
The book has an expressed monographic character. It reveals joint ideas, i.e. the quantitative approach in treating foams is based on foam film behaviour and the techniques for controlling the foam liquid content, developed by the authors. A major contribution represents the independent consideration of formation and stability of foam films in theoretical and experimental aspects. No monograph published so far reveals these topics in the mentioned manner. Data and information about foams, physicochemical characterization of surfactants, phospholipids and polymers can also be found. Furthermore, the book provides information about: techniques involved in the study of foam films and foam structure and properties; foam drainage; processes of destruction in gravitational and centrifugal fields; reasons for stability of films and their role in the processes running in the foam; mechanical, rheological, optical, thermophysical, electrical properties; foam destruction upon addition of antifoams (mechanism of destruction, techniques, application); scientific principles of controlling foam properties and their application in foam separation and concentration; enhanced oil recovery; thermodynamic and non-equilibrium properties of foam films, stabilized by surfactants, phospholipids and polymers; techniques for the study of surface forces; formation and stability of foam films; black films, including bilayers; new theories of stability of amphiphile bilayer; experiments involved in this stability; application in biology and medicine.
Those dealing with thin liquid films, colloids, application in biology and medicine; oil recovery.
Studies in Interface Science
- Chapter headings and sub headings:. Preface. Acknowledgements. Introduction. Formation and Structure of Foams. Pressure in the Liquid and Gas Phases of Foams. Methods for Foam Generation. Shape of Films and Bubbles in Foam. Foam Dispersity. Pressure in Liquid Phase of Foam and Bubbles. Experimental Methods Involved in the Study of Foam Films. Microscopic Thin Liquid Films. Macroscopic Foam Films. Spherical Foam Films. Physical Chemistry of Foam Films. Elements of the Thermodynamics of Foam Films. Non-equilibrium Properties of Foam Films. Surface Forces in Foam Films. Black Foam Films (Nano Black Films). Diffusion Processes in Foam Films. Similarity of Foam Films with Emulsion and Asymmetric Thin Liquid Films. Foam Structural Parameters and Related Properties: Techniques for Determination. Relation Between the Geometrical (Structural) Parameters of a Foam and its Physicochemical Characteristics. Determination of Foam Expansion Ratio (Foam Density). Determination of Pressure in Foam Plateau Borders. Determination of Foam Dispersity. Study of Foam Liquid Distribution and Plateau Border Profiles. Foam Drainage. A Brief Characterisation of Foam Drainage. Techniques for the Study of Foam Drainage. Foam Drainage at High Pressure Drop. Gravitational Drainage of a Foam. Influence of Internal Foam Collapse on Drainage. Foam Collapse. Techniques Involved in the Study of the Kinetics of Internal Foam Collapse. Internal Foam Collapse at Diffusion Gas Transfer. Coalescence and Structural Rearrangement. Kinetics of Internal Foam Collapse. Decay of the Foam Column. Comparison Between the Rate of Internal Foam Collapse and the Decrease in Foam Volume. Foam Stability and the Stabilising Ability of Surfactants. Definition of the Term Foam Stability and Foaming Ability of Solutions. Characteristics of Stability Related to Foam Column Decay. Kinetic Factors of Foam Stability. Thermodynamic Factors of Foam Stability. Model Approach to the Study of Foam Stability and Analysis of the Stabilising Factors. Physicochemical Properties of Surfactants and the Stabilising Ability of their Solutions. Dependence of the Foaming Ability on the Mode of Foam Formation and the Properties of Surfactant Solutions. Foaming Ability of Solutions and Foam Stability. Stabilising Ability and Hydrophile-lipophile Balance of Surfactants. Stability of Dynamic Foams. Foamed Emulsions with Large Volume Fraction of the Disperse Phase. Physical Properties of Foams. Mechanical Properties. Rheological Properties. Electrical Properties. Optical Properties. Thermophysical Properties. Foam Breakdown by Antifoams. Techniques for Determination of the Defoaming Efficiency of Substances. Adsorption (Homogeneous) Mechanism of Foam Breakdown. Defoaming in Heterogeneous Systems. Defoaming Ability of Solid Hydrophobic Particles. Inversion of the Defoaming Ability of Alcohols. Technological Application of Foams: Physicochemical Ground. Classification of Foams and Films by the Properties Determining their Technological Application. General Principles of Regulation of the Physicochemical Properties of Foams. Accumulation and Separation of Surfactants in a Foam. Optimisation of the Processing Properties of Solidifying Foams. Examples of Foam Inhibition in the Process of Extraction and in Emulsion Metalworking Fluids. Examples of the Use of Natural Products as Foaming Agents. Use of Foams in Petroleum and Gas Industries. Black Foam Films: Application in Medicine. Black Film Method for Assessment of Foetal Lung Maturity. Phase State of Foam Bilayer (NBF) from Amniotic Fluid. A New Hypothesis of the Structure and Stability of Alveolar Surface. Black Film Method for Assessment of Therapeutic Surfactants. Symbols. Subject Index. 450 figures, 50 tables, 1500 references.