Fluid Flow Measurement

A Practical Guide to Accurate Flow Measurement


  • E. Loy Upp, Former Vice President and Director of Technology, Daniel Industries, and Consultant, Houston, TX, USA
  • Paul J. LaNasa, Consultant, Houston, TX, USA

There is a tendency to make flow measurement a highly theoretical and technical subject but what most influences quality measurement is the practical application of meters, metering principles, and metering equipment and the use of quality equipment that can continue to function through the years with proper maintenance have the most influence in obtaining quality measurement. This guide provides a review of basic laws and principles, an overview of physical characteristics and behavior of gases and liquids, and a look at the dynamics of flow. The authors examine applications of specific meters, readout and related devices, and proving systems. Practical guidelines for the meter in use, condition of the fluid, details of the entire metering system, installation and operation, and the timing and quality of maintenance are also included.This book is dedicated to condensing and sharing the authors' extensive experience in solving flow measurement problems with design engineers, operating personnel (from top supervisors to the newest testers), academically-based engineers, engineers of the manufacturers of flow meter equipment, worldwide practitioners, theorists, and people just getting into the business.
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Professionals involved with pipelines, field production, storage, terminals, refineries, and chemical/process plants and facilities involved with hydrocarbon gases and liquids


Book information

  • Published: January 2002
  • ISBN: 978-0-88415-758-8


Review of first edition: This book shows engineers how to turn theory into practice with realistic advice...valuable guidelines and often overlooked factors that apply in the practice of flow measurement but which are not found in many reviews and industrial standards. (Plant Engineering)

Table of Contents

Introduction; Chapter Overview; Requisites of Flow Measurement; Background of Flow; Measurement; History of Flow Measurement; Definition of Terms; Basic Flow; Measurement Laws; Gas Laws; Expansion of Liquids; Fundamental Flow Equation; ASME; References; Types of Fluid Flow Measurement; Custody Transfer; Non-Custody Transfer Measurement; References; Basic Reference Standards; American Petroleum Institute (API); American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME); Measurement Standards; Sampling Methods; Miscellaneous Standards; Instrument Society of America (ISA); From Theory to Practice; "Ideal" Installations; Non-Ideal Installations; Fluid Characteristics Data; References; Fluids; Fluids - Liquids and GasesFluid Characteristics; References; Flow; Required Characteristics; Measurement Units; Installation Requirements; Flow Pattern; References; Operations; Operational Considerations; Operational Influences on Gas Measurement; Uncertainty; Linear Meter; Element Uncertainty Examples; Other Fluid Flow Considerations; Maintenance Meter Equipment; Gas Measurement Maintenance; Effects of Liquids and Solids on Orifice Measurement; Effects on Other Meters; General Maintenance of Liquid Meters; Specific Liquid Maintenance Problems; Measurement and Meters; Meter Characteristics; Types of Meters; Differential (Head) Meters; Orifice Meter; Meter Design Changed; Orifice Meter Description; Sizing; Equations; Maintenance; Flow Nozzles; Venturi Meters; Venturi Installation; Other Head Meters; Intrusive Linear and Special Meters; Non-Intrusive Meters; Coriolis Meters; Magnetic Meters; Ultrasonic Meters; Dopplers; Transit-Time Ultrasonic Meters; Intrusive Meters; Multiphase Meters; Positive Displacement Meters; Turbine Meters; Vortex Shedding Meters; Other and Special Purpose Meters; References; Readouts and Related Devices; Electronics; Related Devices; Crude Oil Sampling; Natural Gas Sampling; Calorimetry; References; Proving Systems; Liquid Provers; Gas Provers; Critical Flow Provers; Central Test Facility; References; "Loss and Unaccounted for" Fluids; Introduction; Liquid; Gas; Auditing; Introduction; Gas Meters; Liquid Meters; Analysis Equipment; Audit Principles; Objective; Procedures; Evidence; Definitive Testing; Sources of Information; Contract Review; Field Measurement Equipment Review; Data Review and Comparison; Auditing Gas Measurement Systems; Chart Review; Auditing Liquid Measurement; Finalizing the Audit; Conclusion; Index