Extractive Metallurgy of CopperBy
- William Davenport, University of Arizona, AZ, USA
- Matthew King, Hatch Associates Pty Ltd., Perth, Western Australia
- Mark Schlesinger, Missouri University of Science and Technology, MO, USA
- A.K. Biswas
This new edition has been extensively revised and updated since the 3rd edition published in 1994. It contains an even greater depth of industrial information, focussing on how copper metal is extracted from ore and scrap, and how this extraction could be made more efficient. Modern high intensity smelting processes are presented in detail, specifically flash, Contop, Isasmelt, Noranda, Teniente and direct-to-blister smelting. Considerable attention is paid to the control of SO2 emissions and manufacture of H2SO4. Recent developments in electrorefining, particularly stainless steel cathode technology are examined. Leaching, solvent extraction and electrowinning are evaluated together with their impact upon optimizing mineral resource utilization. The book demonstrates how recycling of copper and copper alloy scrap is an important source of copper and copper alloys. Copper quality control is also discussed and the book incorporates an important section on extraction economics. Each chapter is followed by a summary of concepts previously described and offers suggested further reading and references.
For metallurgists, mining engineers, chemical engineers and chemists.
Hardbound, 452 Pages
Published: September 2002
- Selected Papers. Overview. Extracting copper from copper-iron-sulfide ores. Hydrometallurgical extraction of copper. Melting and casting cathode copper. Recycle of copper and copper-alloy scrap.
Production and Use. Locations of copper deposits. Location of extraction plants. Copper minerals and 'cut-off' grades. Price of copper.
Concentrating Copper Ores. Concentration flowsheet. Crushing and grinding (comminution). Flotation feed particle size. Froth flotation. Specific flotation procedures for Cu ores. Flotation cells.
Matte Smelting Fundamentals. Why smelting?. Matte and slag. Reactions during matte smelting. The smelting process: general considerations. Smelting products: matte, slag and offgas.
Flash Smelting - Outokumpu Process. Outokumpu flash furnace. Peripheral equipment. Furnace operation. Control. impurity behavior. Future trends.
Inco Flash Smelting. Furnace details. Auxiliary equipment. operation. Control strategy. Cu-in-slag and molten converter slag recycle. Inco vs. outokumpu flash smelting.
Noranda and Teniente Smelting. Noranda process. Reaction mechanisms. Operation and control. Production rate enhancement. Impurity distribution. Teniente future.
Ausmelt/Isasmelt Matte Smelting. Feed materials. The isasmelt furnace and lance. Smelting mechanisms. Startup and shutdown. Current installations. Other coppermaking uses of ausmelt/isasmelt technology.
Batch Converting Of Cu Matte. Chemistry. Industrial peirce-smith converting operations. Oxygen enrichment of peirce-smith converter blast. Maximizing converter productivity. Recent developments in converting - shrouded blast injection. Alternatives to peirce-smith converting.
Continuous Converting. Common features of continuous converting. Downward lance mitsubishi continuous converting. Solid matte outokumpu flash converting. Submerged-tuyere noranda continuous converting. % Cu-in-slag.
Copper Loss In Slag. Copper in slags. Decreasing copper in slag I: minimizing slag generation. Decreasing copper in slag II: minimizing Cu concentration in slag. Decreasing copper in slag III: pyrometallurgical slag settling/reduction. Decreasing copper in slag IV: slag minerals processing.
Direct-To-Copper Flash Smelting. The ideal direct-to-copper process. Industrial single furnace direct-to-copper smelting. Chemistry. Industrial details.
Mitsubishi Continuous Smelting/Converting. The Mitsubishi Process. Smelting Furnace Details. Electric Slag Cleaning Furnace Details. Converting Furnace Details.
Capture And Fixation Of Sulfur. Offgases from smelting and converting processes. Sulfuric acid manufacture. Smelter offgas treatment. Gas drying. Acid plant chemical reactions.
Fire Refining And Casting Of Anodes: Sulfur And Oxygen Removal. Electrolytic Refining. Industrial methods of fire refining. Chemistry of fire refining. Choice of hydrocarbon for deoxidation. Casting anodes. Continuous anode casting.
Electrolytic Refining. Behavior of anode impurities during electrorefining. Industrial electrorefining. Cathodes. Electrolyte. Cells and electrical connections.
Hydrometallurgical Copper Extraction: Introduction and Leaching. Heap leaching. Industrial heap leaching. Steady-state leaching. Leaching of chalcopyrite concentrates. Other leaching processes.
Solvent Extraction Transfer Of Cu from Leach Solution to Electrolyte.The solvent extraction process. Chemistry. Extractants. Industrial solvent extraction plants. Quantitative design of series circuit.
Electrowinning. Electrowinning reactions. Electrowinning tankhouse practice. Maximizing copper purity. Maximizing current efficiency.
Collection and Processing of Recycled Copper. The materials cycle. Secondary copper grades and definitions. Scrap processing and beneficiation. Summary.
Chemical Metallurgy of Copper Recycling.The secondary copper smelter. Scrap processing in primary copper smelters. Summary. Suggested reading.
Melting and Casting. Product grades and quality. Melting technology. Casting machines. Summary.
Costs Of Copper Production. Overall investment costs: mine through refinery. Overall direct operating costs: mine through refinery. Total production costs, selling prices, profitability.Concentrating costs. Smelting costs.