# Equations of State and PVT Analysis

This title covers a wide range of topics related to the Pressure Volume Temperature (PVT) behavior of complex hydrocarbon systems and documents the ability of Equations of State (EOS) in modeling their behavior. This book aims to provide the practicing engineer and engineering student with tools needed to solve problems that require a description of the PVT of hydrocarbon systems from their compositions. Because of the dramatic evolution in computational capabilities, petroleum engineers can now study such phenomena as the development of miscibility during gas injection, compositional gradient as a function of depth and the behavior near critical hydrocarbon systems with more sophisticated EOS models.

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Published: November 2013

Imprint: Gulf Publishing Company

ISBN: 978-0-12-799978-4

## Contents

• Preface

Acknowledgments

1 Fundamentals of Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior

Single-Component Systems

Two-Component Systems

Three-Component Systems

Multicomponent Systems

Classification of Reservoirs and Reservoir Fluids

Phase Rule

Problems

References

2 Characterizing Hydrocarbon-Plus Fractions

Generalized Correlations

PNA Determination

Graphical Correlations

Splitting and Lumping Schemes

Problems

References

3 Natural Gas Properties

Behavior of Ideal Gases

Behavior of Real Gases

Problems

References

4 PVT Properties of Crude Oils

Crude Oil Gravity

Specific Gravity of the Solution Gas

Crude Oil Density

Gas Solubility

Bubble-Point Pressure

Oil Formation Volume Factor

Isothermal Compressibility Coefficient of Crude Oil

Undersaturated Oil Properties

Total-Formation Volume Factor

Crude Oil Viscosity

Surface/Interfacial Tension

PVT Correlations for Gulf of Mexico Oil

Properties of Reservoir Water

Laboratory Analysis of Reservoir Fluids

Problems

References

5 Equations of State and Phase Equilibria

Equilibrium Ratios

Flash Calculations

Equilibrium Ratios for Real Solutions

Equilibrium Ratios for the Plus Fractions

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Calculations

Equations of State

Equation-of-State Applications

Simulation of Laboratory PVT Data by Equations of State

Tuning EOS Parameters

Original Fluid Composition from a Sample Contaminated with Oil-Based Mud

Problems

References

6 Flow Assurance

Hydrocarbon Solids: Assessment of Risk

Phase Behavior of Asphaltenes

Asphaltene Deposit Envelope

Modeling the Asphaltene Deposit

Phase Behavior of Waxes

Modeling Wax Deposit

Prediction of Wax Appearance Temperature

Gas Hydrates

Problems

References

Appendix

Index