Engineering Materials 2

An Introduction to Microstructures and Processing


  • D R H Jones, President, Christ's College, Cambridge, UK
  • Michael Ashby, Professor Emeritus, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK

Engineering Materials: An Introduction to Microstructures and Processing is a comprehensive introduction to microstructures and processing of materials for engineering students and other related courses. It is composed of chapters that are arranged into four sections: metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites, which are the distinct generic classes of materials. The materials are presented in an easy-to-read style, while establishing the main concepts and providing details on how processing, microstructures, and physicochemical characters are interrelated. The book emphasizes the relationship between structure, processing and properties, of both conventional and innovative materials. It provides detailed discussions of the different aspects of transformations, including interface kinetics, nucleation and growth, and constitutional undercooling. The book also presents new case studies and examples to illustrate, develop and consolidate the different topics. The text features new photographs and links to Google Earth, websites and video clips, and a companion site with access to instructors' resources: solution manual, image bank of figures from the book and a section of interactive materials science tutorials. The text aims to provide detailed discussions about engineering materials to senior-level and postgraduate students of mechanical engineering, manufacturing, materials science, engineering design, products design, aeronautical engineering, and other engineering sciences.
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Senior level and postgraduate study in departments of mechanical engineering; materials sciences; manufacturing; engineering design; materials design; product design; aeronautical engineering; engineering sciences.


Book information

  • Published: December 2012
  • ISBN: 978-0-08-096668-7

Table of Contents

Preface to the Fourth Edition


General Introduction

Part A Metals

    Chapter 1 Metals

         1.1 Introduction

         1.2 Metals for a Model Steam Engine

         1.3 Metals for Drinks Cans

         1.4 Metals for Hip Joints

         1.5 Data for Metals

    Chapter 2 Metal Structures

         2.1 Introduction

         2.2 Crystal and Glass Structures

         2.3 Structures of Solutions and Compounds

         2.4 Phases

         2.5 Grain and Phase Boundaries

         2.6 Shapes of Grains and Phases

         2.7 Summary-Constitution and Structure

         Worked Example

    Chapter 3 Phase Diagrams1

         3.1 Introduction

         3.2 Source Books

         3.3 Components, Phases, and Structures

         Worked Example

         Worked Example

         3.4 One-and Two-Component Systems

         Worked Example

         3.5 Solutions to Examples

    Chapter 4 Phase Diagrams 2

         4.1 Eutectics, Eutectoids, and Peritectics

         4.2 Test Examples

         4.3 Solutions to Examples

    Chapter 5 Case Studies in Phase Diagrams

         5.1 Introduction

         5.2 Choosing Soft Solders

         5.3 Pure Silicon for Microchips

         5.4 Making Bubble-Free Ice

         Worked Example

    Chapter 6 Driving Force for Structural Change

         6.1 Introduction

         6.2 Driving Forces

         6.3 Reversibility

         6.4 Stability, Instability, and Metastability

         6.5 Driving Force for Solidification

         6.6 Solid-State Phase Changes

         6.7 Precipitate Coarsening

         6.8 Grain Growth

         6.9 Recrystallization

         6.10 Sizes of Driving Forces

         Worked Example

    Chapter 7 Kinetics 1-Diffusive Transformations

         7.1 Introduction

         7.2 Solidification

         7.3 Heat-Flow Effects

         7.4 Solid-State Phase Changes

         7.5 Diffusion-Controlled Kinetics

         7.6 Shapes of Grains and Phases

         Worked Example

    Chapter 8 Kinetics 2-Nucleation

         8.1 Introduction

         8.2 Nucleation in Liquids

         8.3 Heterogeneous Nucleation

         8.4 Nucleation in Solids

         8.5 Summary

         8.6 Nucleation Everywhere

         Worked Example

    Chapter 9 Kinetics 3-Displacive Transformations

         9.1 Introduction

         9.2 Diffusive f.c.c. to b.c.c.Transformation in Pure Iron

         9.3 Time Temperature Transformation Diagram

         9.4 Displacive b.c.c.Transformation

         9.5 Details of Martensite Formation

         9.6 Martensite Transformation in Steels

         Worked Example

    Chapter 10 Case Studies in Phase Transformations

         10.1 Introduction

         10.2 Making Rain

         10.3 Fine-Grained Castings

         10.4 Single Crystals for Semiconductors

         10.5 Amorphous Metals

         Worked Example

    Chapter 11 Light Alloys

         11.1 Introduction

         11.2 Solid Solution Hardening

         11.3 Age (Precipitation) Hardening

         11.4 Work Hardening

         Worked Example

    Chapter 12 Steels 1-Carbon Steels

         12.1 Introduction

         12.2 Microstructures After Slow Cooling (Normalizing)

         12.3 Mechanical Properties of Normalized Steels

         12.4 Quenched-and-Tempered Steels

         12.5 Notes on the TTT Diagram

    Chapter 13 Steels 2 - Alloy Steels

         13.1 Introduction

         13.2 Hardenability

         13.3 Solution Hardening

         13.4 Precipitation Hardening

         13.5 Corrosion Resistance

         13.6 Stainless Steels

         13.7 Phases in Stainless Steels

         13.8 Improving Stainless Steels

         Worked Example

    Chapter 14 Case Studies in Steels

         14.1 Detective Work After a Boiler Explosion

         14.2 Welding Steels Safely

         14.3 The Case of the Broken Hammer

    Chapter 15 Processing Metals 1

         15.1 Introduction

         15.2 Casting

         15.3 Deformation Processing

         15.4 Recrystallization

         Worked Example

    Chapter 16 Processing Metals 2

         16.1 Machining

         16.2 Joining

         16.3 Heat Treating

         16.4 Special Topics

         Worked Example

Part B Ceramics

    Chapter 17 Ceramics

         17.1 Introduction

         17.2 Generic Ceramics

         17.3 Ceramic Composites

         17.4 Data for Ceramics

    Chapter 18 Ceramic Structures

         18.1 Introduction

         18.2 Ionic and Covalent Ceramics

         18.3 Simple Ionic Ceramics

         18.4 Simple Covalent Ceramics

         18.5 Silica and Silicates

         18.6 Silicate Glasses

         18.7 Ceramic Alloys

         18.8 Microstructures of Ceramics

         18.9 Vitreous Ceramics

         18.10 Stone and Rock

         18.11 Ceramic Composites

         Worked Example

    Chapter 19 Mechanical Properties of Ceramics

         19.1 Introduction

         19.2 Elastic Moduli

         19.3 Strength, Hardness, and Lattice Resistance

         19.4 Fracture Strength of Ceramics

         19.5 Modulus of Rupture

         19.6 Compression Test

         19.7 Thermal Shock Resistance

         19.8 Time Dependence of Strength

         19.9 Creep of Ceramics

    Chapter 20 Processing Ceramics

         20.1 Introduction

         20.2 Production of Engineering Ceramics

         20.3 Forming Engineering Ceramics

         20.4 Production and Forming of Glass

         20.5 Processing Pottery, Porcelain, and Brick

         20.6 Improving Ceramics

         20.7 Joining Ceramics

         Worked Example

    Chapter 21 Cement and Concrete

         21.1 Introduction

         21.2 Chemistry of Cement

         21.3 Structure of Portland Cement

         21.4 Concrete

         21.5 Strength of Cement and Concrete

         21.6 High-Strength Cement

         21.7 Reinforcing Cement and Concrete

         Worked Example

    Chapter 22 Case Studies in Ceramics

         22.1 Hard as Flint

         22.2 Slate - Natural Roofing Material

         22.3 Glass Roof Beams

         Worked Example

Part C Polymers

    Chapter 23 Polymers

         23.1 Introduction

         23.2 Generic Polymers

         23.3 Material Data

         Worked Example

    Chapter 24 Polymer Structures

         24.1 Introduction

         24.2 Molecular Length

         24.3 Molecular Architecture

         24.4 Molecular Packing and Glass Transition

         Worked Example

    Chapter 25 Mechanical Properties of Polymers

         25.1 Introduction

         25.2 Stiffness-Time and Temperature Dependent Modulus

         25.3 Strength-Cold Drawing and Crazing

    Chapter 26 Processing Polymers

         26.1 Introduction

         26.2 Polymer Synthesis

         26.3 Polymer Alloys

         26.4 Forming Polymers

         26.5 Joining Polymers

         Worked Example

    Chapter 27 Case Studies in Polymers

         27.1 Fatal Bungee Jumping Accident

         27.2 Polyethylene Gas Pipes

         27.3 Ultra strong Fibers for Yacht Rigging

Part D Composites

    Chapter 28 Properties of Composites and Foams

         28.1 Introduction

         28.2 Fiber Composites

         28.3 Modulus

         28.4 Tensile Strength

         28.5 Toughness

         28.6 Foams and Cellular Solids

         28.7 Properties of Foams

         28.8 Materials that are Engineered

    Chapter 29 Wood Structure and Properties

         29.1 Introduction

         29.2 Structure of Wood

         29.3 Mechanical Properties of Wood

         29.4 Elasticity

         29.5 Tensile and Compressive Strength.

         29.6 Toughness

         29.7 Wood Compared to Other Materials

         Worked Example

    Chapter 30 Case Studies in Composites

         30.1 Materials for Violin Bodies

         30.2 Failure of a GFRP Surgical Instrument

         30.3 Cork-A Unique Natural Foam

         Worked Example

Appendix Symbols and Formulae