Encyclopedia of Social MeasurementEditor-in-Chief:
- Kimberly Kempf-Leonard
The Encyclopedia of Social Measurement captures the data, techniques, theories, designs, applications, histories, and implications of assigning numerical values to social phenomena. Responding to growing demands for transdisciplinary descriptions of quantitative and qualitative techniques, measurement, sampling, and statistical methods, it will increase the proficiency of everyone who gathers and analyzes data.Covering all core social science disciplines, the 300+ articles of the Encyclopedia of Social Measurement not only present a comprehensive summary of observational frameworks and mathematical models, but also offer tools, background information, qualitative methods, and guidelines for structuring the research process. Articles include examples and applications of research strategies and techniques, highlighting multidisciplinary options for observing social phenomena. The alphabetical arrangement of the articles, their glossaries and cross-references, and the volumes' detailed index will encourage exploration across the social sciences. Descriptions of important data sets and case studies will help readers understand resources they can often instantly access. Also available online via ScienceDirect ? featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com.
University, research, corporate, and government libraries worldwide; all levels of government interested in public policy analysis; industries concerned with data in the the areas of benchmarking, competitive intelligence, data warehousing & data mining, directories, dictionaries/glossaries, discussion groups, information services companies, internet, insurance, marketing, news sources, product development/product management, publications/publishers, rating agencies, regulatory & legal, research, risk managment, technology & automation, trade & profesional associations.
"Written by experienced methodologists in various fields of the social sciences, the 356 alphabetically arranged, signed entries in this encyclopedia describe the "research questions social scientists ask, the sources and methods they use to collect information, and the techniques they use to analyze these data and provide answers to the important questions." The work covers both quantitative and qualitative approaches to the social sciences and social measurement. To aid the reader, an alphabetical list of entries and a table of contents organized by subject precede the text. Articles on such topics as sample design and Web-based surveys consist of a glossary, a defining statement, the main body of the article, a list of cross-references, and a bibliography. An extensive subject index completes the work. The present work and
The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods," Ed. by M.S. Lewis-Beck et al. (CH, Sep '04, 42-0062), complement one another; Sagecovers about 1,000 topics at varying length and ESM provides analysis in greater depth on a smaller number of subjects. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and professionals." -CHOICE "Most social science disciplines â Sociology, Psychology, Population, etc. â have seen the publication of a multi-volume encyclopedia in recent years. The Encyclopedia of Social Measurement cuts across these disciplines with a creative and comprehensive organizing structure. Its authoritative entries range from big picture topics such as research design and experimental vs. non-experimental methods, to specific methods of data collection and analysis such as focus groups, structural equation models, and spatial statistics, to important but often overlooked issues such as the proper use of weights. There are fascinating applications to archeology, criminology, and many other substantive specializations, and biographies of leading figures in the history of these methods. Each entry has a table of contents, glossary and bibliography. This encyclopedia will be a very helpful resource for virtually any social scientist, but it is also a fascinating read and hard to put down!" -Thomas Pullum University of Texas at Austin "With entries on research applications in fields from anthropology to urban studies, on key figures in the history of social measurement, and on major data sources, the Encyclopedia of Social Measurement will be highly valued by general readers, beginning social science researchers, and experienced practitioners alike. Authors offer expert yet accessible coverage of contemporary practices in key phases of social research starting with research design and ranging through measurement and data collection to both basic and sophisticated data analysis. With broad interdisciplinary appeal, the Encyclopedia is an essential compendium on twenty-first century social science inquiry." -Peter Marsden Harvard University "A huge effort to present social measurement in all its depth and width. Highly recommended for every researcher in the social and behavioral sciences. A must for libraries. The editors and authors have done an outstanding job to make technical matters accessible to the substantive researcher." -Ingwer Borg Scientific Director ZUMA (Center for Surveys, Methodology, and Analyses), Mannheim, Germany and Professor of Applied Psychological Methods, University of Giessen, Germany "The Encyclopedia of Social Measurement is a highly valuable resource. It covers a wide range of related topics in depth. If you have any question about social measurement, you should consult it first." -Yu Xie The University of Michigan "This is an encyclopedia for methodologists by methodologists. The articles are clearly written and get you right into the key literature. The breadth of coverage is impressive, with articles from colleagues in all the social and behavioral sciences." -H. Russell Bernard University of Florida "In too many areas of the social sciences, measurement issues are neglected. Instead the emphasis is on relating readily available variables to each other while pretending that these variables are essentially infallible measures of our concepts. This illusion holds back scientific progress. The Encyclopedia of Social Measurement is a welcomed publication that brings renewed emphasis to the critical issues of measurement. It provides different disciplinary perspectives on measurement and modeling with entries that are informative and accessible. Social scientists of diverse backgrounds should find this a useful reference." -Kenneth A. Bollen University of North Carolina "The Encyclopedia of Social Measurement is a magnificent and much needed resource for social and behavioral scientists as well as for scientists in the health care fields. It addresses a broad range of measurement topics which are relevant across several disciplines in a substantive yet understandable way. This will be a valued and well-used reference book in my bookcase." -Ora Strickland Emory University "The Encyclopedia of Social Measurement promises to fill the long-felt need for a new up-to-date and ready-to-apply reference text in the rapidly developing area of measurement methodology in the social and behavioral sciences. The well-designed chapter structure and the impressive ensemble of internationally renowned expert contributors will establish a new standard in the social and behavioral science measurement domain." -Kurt Pawlik University of Hamburg "If you are a social scientist, you'll want to keep the Encyclopedia of Social Measurement close at hand. Whether you're trying to recall the relative merits of different approaches to determining inter-rater reliability, or looking for pointers to foundational work you should cite on the philosophy underlying causal inference, it's all in here (along with a lot more)." -Robert Austin Harvard Business School "This encyclopedia provides a very useful introduction to modern methods of data analysis. The articles on statistical methodology are written in a clear and concise manner, with emphasis on substantive and practical applications. This encyclopedia is strongly recommended to students interested in sociology, demography, and epidemiology as a useful and practical guide to their research." -Leonid Gavrilov University of Chicago "In the social sciences, reflective use of measurement is essential. The Encyclopedia of Social Measurement provides an impressive and comprehensive guide to this field." -Gerd Gigerenzer Max Planck Institute for Human Development "The enyclopedia avoids the usual short articles with definitions and references, and provides fully developed chapters -- by recognized authorities -- that easily replace a substantial library of sociological methodology books." -Karl van Meter Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
- Analytical Techniques:S. Lynch, Bayesian Statistics.R.G. Golledge, Cognitive Maps.S.E. Fienberg, Contingency Tables and Log-Linear Models.D. Lavin-Loucks, Conversation Analysis.A.B. Whitford, Correlations.J.E. Kee, Cost-Benefit Analysis.S.C. Weller, Cultural Consensus Model.K.E. Haynes and M. Dinc, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA).J.A. Bunge and D.H. Judson, Data Mining.P.A. Jargowsky and R. Yang, Descriptive and Inferential Statistics.R.J. Pik, Digital Terrain Modeling.J.L. Jasinski, Domestic Violence: Measurement of Incidence and Prevalence.K.B. Newbold, Dynamic Migration Modeling.C.G. Renfro, Economic Forecasts.C.S. Aneshensel, Elaboration.N.B. Tuma, Event History Analysis.C. Schuster and K.H. Yuan, Factor Analysis.G. Farkas, Fixed Effect Models.S.L. Cutter, Hazards Measurement.M.D. Mumford and L.E. Leritz, Heuristics.J. Gill, Hierarchical Linear Models.J.T. Kerr and J. Cihlar, Land Use Mapping.J. Fox, Linear Models, Problems.C.S. ReVelle and H.A. Eiselt, Location Analysis.C.H. Franklin, Maximum Likelihood Estimation.J. DeCoster, Meta-Analysis.R.J.G.M. Florax and P. Nijkamp, Misspecification in Linear Spatial Regression Models.A. Cliff and P. Haggett, Modeling Diffusion Processes.J.D. Carroll, P. Arabie, and L. Hubert, Multidimensional Scaling (MDS).J.J. Hox and C.J.M. Maas, Multilevel Analysis.P.V. Marsden, Network Analysis.M.E. Ezell and K.C. Land, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS).C. Lleras, Path Analysis.A. Neely and C. Adams, Performance Prism.S.W. Marshall and L. Park, Prevalence and Incidence.W.D. Berry, Probit/Logit and Other Binary Models.T. de Jong, Problem-Solving Methodologies.P. Robbins, Q Methodology.D.J. Clandinin, Qualitative Analysis, Anthropology.K.G. Barnhurst, Qualitative Analysis, Political Science.D. Pawluch, Qualitative Analysis, Sociology.D.W. Read, Quantitative Analysis, Anthropology.C. Renfro, Quantitative Analysis, Economics.E.S. van Leeuwen, P. Nijkamp, and P. Rietveld, Regional Input-Output Analysis.M. Altman, Software.A. Getis, Spatial Pattern Analysis.D. Knoke, Structural Equation Models.D.G. Janelle, Time-Space Modeling.Constructs and Variables:D. McGartland Rubio, Alpha Reliability.W.A.V. Clark and M.C. Deurloo, Categorical Modeling / Automatic Interaction Detection.W.J. van der Linden, Classical Test Theory.L. Epstein and A. Martin, Coding Variables.M.L. Stevens and W.N. Espeland, Commensuration.S. Lorek and J.H. Spangenberg, Consumption and Saving.T. Petersen, Discrimination, Measurement in.P. Auerbach, Economic Development, Technological Change and Growth.D.R. Eignor, Education, Tests and Measures in.F.R.J. Fontaine, Equivalence.V.P. Rindova, Firm Valuation.R.C. Rao, Game Theory, Overview.S.C. Locke, Graph Theory.G. Engelhard, Jr., Guttman Scaling.A.M. Schneiderman, Half-Life Method.Y. Youm, Household Behavior and Family Economics.H. Wolthuis and W.J. Willemse, Insurance Industry, Mortality Tables in.W.C.M. Resing, Intelligence Testing.R.F. DeVellis, Inter-Rater Reliability.D. Read, Judgment and Choice.H.L. Roediger III and J.D. Karpicke, Learning and Memory.I.H. Bernstein, Likert Scale Analysis.J. de Lange, Literacy, Mathematical.P.J. Fensham, Literacy, Scientific.R.A. Zeller, Measurement Error, Issues and Solutions.M.J. Greenwood, Modeling Migration.B. Tillmann, Music Cognition.B.P. Veldkamp, Optimal Test Construction.D. Fields and M.C. Bocarnea, Organizational Behavior.M.G. Marshall, Political Conflict, Measurement of.M.W. Schustack and H.S. Friedman, Psychological Testing, Overview.T. Bovaird, Public Sector Performance.W.D. Cook, Ranking.J.A. Kupfer and C.W. Emerson, Remote Sensing.M.J. White and A.H. Kim, Residential Segregation.T.R. O'Connor and M.T. Eskey, Scales and Indexes, Types of.M. Vasilyeva, Spatial Cognition and Perception.P.M. Atkinson, Spatial Scale, Problems of.R.L. Johnson and J. Penny, Split-Half Reliability.J. Hudson and J.M. Teera, Taxation.C.H. Yu, Test-Retest Reliability.D. Byrne, Theory, Role of.M.W.L. Cheung and P.S.F. Yip, Theta Reliability.M.V.J. Veenman, Thurstone's Scales of Primary Abilities.R. Kitamura, Transportation Research.A.E. Doan, Type I and Type II Error.K.D. Bailey, Typology Construction, Methods and Issues.M.Q. Patton, Utility.Data Collection:D.H. Judson and C.L. Popoff, Administrative Records Reseach.M.H. Bornstein and C.S.L. Cheah, Audiovisual Records, Encoding of.C.F. Citro, Census, Varieties and Uses of Data.R.M. Luecht, Computer-Based Testing.D.O. Segall, Computerized Adaptive Testing.D. Bond, Content Analysis.E. Gakidou and M. Hogan, Data Collection in Developing Countries.J.J. Hox and H.R. Boeije, Data Collection, Primary vs. Secondary.W.L. Thomas, Data Distribution and Cataloging.M.D. Weiner, Election Polls.R. Rosenthal, Experimenter Effects.R.L. Engstrom, Expert Witness Testimony.D.L. Morgan, Focus Groups.P.T. Jaeger, K.M. Thompson, and C.R. McClure, Information Management.F. Drasgow, Innovative Computerized Test Items.C.A. Klofstad, Interviews.W.J. van der Linden, Item Response Theory.D.A. Griffith and A.C. Lea, Locational Decision Making.D.A. Dillman, Mail Surveys.C.D. Gon alves, Neutrality in Data Collection.N. Berg, Non-Response Bias.T.D. Wilson, Participant Observation.D.R. Hodge and D. Gillespie, Phrase Completion Scales.J.A. Fine and D.S. Voss, Polling Organizations.W. Lowe, Rare Events Research.T.R. Graeff, Response Bias.T.C. Wagenaar, Survey Design.E. Martin, Survey Questionnaire Construction.K.A. Rasinski, Surveys.D.A. Dillman, Telephone Surveys.R.M. Lee, Unobtrusive Methods.R.M. Alvarez and C. VanBeselaere, Web-Based Survey.Data Sets and Websites:D. Thilmany and E. Garner, Agricultural Statistics.D.A. Gross, Campaign Finance Data.L.G. Pol, Census, Retail Trade.E. Scharrer, Content Analysis and Television.S. Akins and C. Mosher, Correctional Facilities and Known Offenders.K.D. Johnson-Webb, County and City Data.C. Mosher, Criminal Justice Records.B. Johnson, Federalism: Local, State, Federal and International Data Sources.M.F. Goodchild, Geographic Information Systems.P. Keenan, Geolibraries.A.E. Pisarski, Highway Statistics.A. Marturano, Internet Measurement.C.S. Dunn, Inter-University Consortium of Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Data Sets.J.C. Berto and J.T. Snead, Libraries.C.D. Hulshof, Log File Analysis.J.L. Lauritsen and S. Catalano, National Crime Victimization Surveys.L.A. Drapela, National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88).S. Akins, Police Records and The Uniform Crime Reports.D.E. Campbell, Religious Affiliation and Commitment, Measurement of.M. Riedel, Secondary Data.S. Shekhar, P. Zhang, and S. Chawla, Spatial Databases.D.M. Hedge and R.J. Johnson, State Data for the United States.S.L.J. Smith and A. Massieu, Tourism Statistics.L. Vaughan, Web Hyperlink Analysis.S. Saxena and M. van Ommeren, World Health Organization Instruments for Quality of Life Measurement in Health Settings.Data Sources and Subjects:P.K. Manning, Access.D.S. Voss, Aggregation.S.E. Fienberg, Anonymity and Confidentiality of Data Sources and Subjects.A.R. Piquero and S. Carmichael, Attrition, Mortality, and Exposure Time.L.N. Gray, Computer Simulation.D.A. Snow and C. Morrill, Field Relations.C.L. Popoff, Human Subjects: Risks, Consent and Privacy Rights.R.D. Austin, Knowledge Work.D.F. Alwin, Reliability.S. Holm and L. Irving, Research Ethics Committees in the Social Sciences.N. Beck, Time-Series-Cross-Section Data.V.C. de Munck, Units of Analysis.M.P. McDonald, Validity, Data Sources.Historical Events and Figures:J.G. Lennox, Aristotle.A.I. Dale, Bayes, Thomas.G.L. Geis, Bentham, Jeremy.I. Schneider, Bernoulli, Jakob.L. Schweber, Bertillion, Louis Adolphe.D. Kohnstamm, Binet, Alfred.D.T. Yvette Bartholom e, Campbell, Donald T.R. Bannister, Chapin, Francis Stuart.P. Cr pel, Condorcet.M. Wilcox, Deming, William Edwards.M. Stenbeck, Duncan, Otis Dudley.S.P. Turner, Durkheim, mile.A.I. Dale, Edgeworth, Frances Ysidro.R. Buchanan, Eysenck, Hans J rgen.N.S. Hall, Fisher, Sir Ronald.N.W. Gillham, Galton, Sir Francis.S.P. Turner, Giddings, Franklin Henry.P. Kreager, Graunt, John.S. Levy, Guttman, Louis.H. Maas, Jevons, William Stanley.E. Glas, Laplace, Pierre-Simon.T.N. Clark, Lazarsfeld, Paul.C.R. Rao, Mahalanobis, Prasantha Chandra.E. van Damme, Morgenstern, Oskar.K.W. Thompson, Morgenthau, Hans.J.M. Nicholas, Neyman, Jerzy.G.K. Wolfenstein, Nightingale, Florence.M.E. Magnello, Pearson, Karl.I. Spence and H. Wainer, Playfair, William.A. Desrosi res, Quetelet, Adolphe.D. Andrich, Rasch, Georg.P.E. Tracy, Sellin-Wolfgang Scale of Severity.M. Wilcox, Shewhart, Walter.T. Dehue, Social Experiments, History of.F. Comim, Stone, Richard.H.L. Minton, Terman, Lewis.R.E. Mayer, Thorndike, Edward L..P.A. Furia and A. Kohen, Thucydides.L.V. Thucydides, Thurstone, L.L.A. Oberschall, Weber, Max.D.J. Murray, Wundt, Wilhelm.L. Hepple, Yule, George Udny.Interpretation and Data Limitations:N.D. Glenn, Interpretation and Data Limitations.H.D. Clarke and J. Granato, Autocorrelation.A. Abadie, Causal Inference.D.H. Judson, Computerized Record Linkage and Statistical Matching.D.M. Rubio, Content Validity.M.J. Leaf, Cross-Cultural Data Applicability and Comparisons.K. Dharamsi, Deduction and Induction.P.A. Jargowsky, Ecological Fallacy.T.F. Pettigrew, Ethnocentrism.R.J. Shavelson and N.M. Webb, Generalizability Theory.B. Lev, Intangible Assets: Concepts and Measurement.H. Wainer and S. Sireci, Item and Test Bias.A. Pickles, Missing Data, Problems and Solutions.D.S. Voss, Multicollinearity.M. Yar, Objectivity, Quest for.P.A. Jargowsky, Omitted Variable Bias.S. Maruna and M. Butler, Phenomenology.J.A. Fine and D.S.Voss, Politics, Use of Polls in.F. Newport, Polling Industry.R. Johnston, Regionalization and Classification.E.G. Carmines and J.A. Woods, Reliability Assessment.J.J. Heckman, Selection Bias.D.A. Griffith, Spatial Autocorrelation.B. Hannon, Spatial Discounting.D.M. Hanink, Spatial Externalities.R. Priest, Statistical/Substantive, Interpretations and Data Limitations.M.J. Kolen, Test Equating.T.W. Smith, Total Survey Error.E.G. Carmines, Validity Assessment.Measurement Models:M. Bromwich, Accounting Measures.B. Townley, Critical Views of Performance Measurement.G. Luo, Frameworks of Probabilistic Models for Unfolding Responses.F. Samejima, Graded Response Model.K.J. Euske and L.A. Zander, History of Business Performance Measurement.H. Hoijtink, Item Response Models for Nonmonotone Items.G.H. Fischer, Linear Logistic Test Models.P.K. Dunn, Log Linear Models.J. Michell, Measurement Theory.U. B ckenholt, Models for Paired Comparisons.M.D. Reckase, Multidimensional Item Response Models.R.D. Bock and U. B ckenholt, Nominal Categories Models.K. Sijtsma, Nonparametric Item Response Theory Models.G.N. Masters, Partial Credit Model.E.B. Andersen, Rating Scale Model.C.A.W. Glas, Structural Item Response Models.Research Designs:J. Glazier, Case Study.D.B. Kronenfeld, Cognitive Research Methods.A. Giordano, Computer-Based Mapping.S. Nishisato, Correspondence Analysis and Dual Scaling.D. Weisburd and A. Petrosino, Experiments, Criminology.G. Julnes, Experiments, Overview.R. McDermott, Experiments, Poltical Science.P.Y. Chen and A.D. Krauss, Experiments, Psychology.A.S. Gibbons and C.V. Bunderson, Explore, Explain, Design.B. Benham and C.P. Shimp, Falsification in Social Science Method and Theory.D.P. Green and A.S. Gerber, Field Experimentation.L. Anderson and S. Rubenstein, Field Studies.M.Q. Patton, Goal-Based vs Goal-Free Evaluation.L.D. Walker, Hypothesis Tests and Proofs.F.M. Hess and A.L. Klekotka, Impact/Outcome Evaluation.M. Webster, Jr., Laboratory Experiments in Social Science.D.W. Fiske and S.T. Fiske, Laboratory Studies.J. Bynner, Longitudinal Cohort Designs.S. Menard, Longitudinal Studies, Panel.A. Kitsantas, H.W. Kitsantas, and P. Kitsantas, Observational Studies.J.R. Turner, Pilot Study.S. Vergari, Process Evaluation.L. Heath, Quasi-Experiment.J. Beebe, Rapid Assessment Process.G.L. Munck and J. Verkuilen, Research Designs.C. Baird, Risk and Needs Assessments.S. Durlauf and E. Cohen-Cole, Social Interaction Models.M. Elliot, Statistical Disclosure Control.H.D. Clarke and J. Granato, Time Series Analysis in Political Science.C.S. Reichardt, Treatment Effects.Sampling Design:M. Anderson, Census Undercount and Adjustment.P. Arabie, L.J. Hubert, and J.D. Carroll, Clustering.G. Burruss and T.M. Bray, Confidence Intervals.C.W. Leonard, Election Polls, Margin for Error in.A. Galloway, Non-Probability Sampling.R. Harter, Norc Sampling Design.J.A. Grummel, Population vs. Sample.B.F.J. Manly, Randomization.W.P. Handwerker, Sample Design.C.M. Suchindran, Sample Size.F.B. Butar, Small Area Estimation.R. Wright and M. Stein, Snowball Sampling.P.A. Rogerson, Spatial Sampling.G. Glasgow, Stratified Sampling Types.D.G. Steel, Time Sampling.P.J. Lynn, Weighting.Social Science:D.C. Black and M.R. Dowd, Aggregative Macro Models, Micro-Based Macro Models, and Growth Models.S. Piker, Anthropology, Psychological.P.A. Urban and E.C. Wells, Archaeology.J.S. Lansing, Artificial Societies.S. Greer, Basic vs. Applied Social Science Research.M. Augier, Behavioral Economics: The Carnegie School.F.J. Silva, Behavioral Psychology.G. Kaplan, Biomedicine.K.A. Franck, Built Environment.G.R. Jennings, Business Research, Theoretical Paradigms That Inform.G.R. Jennings, Business, Social Science Methods Used in.S. Schmidt and M.J. Power, Clinical Psychology.C. Weiss and J.F. Disterhoft, Cognitive Neuroscience.J. Wagemans, Cognitive Psychology.A. Oyeleye, Communication.J.R. Hall, Comparative Sociology.W. Medd, Complexity Science and the Social World.C. Britt, Criminology.J.D. Bass, Democracy, Measures of.J.R. Weeks, Demography.E.P. Durrenberger, Economic Anthropology.M. Boumans, Economics, Strategies in Social Science.W.W. Dressler, Epidemiology.M. Levitt and G. Williams, Ethical Issues, Overview.F. Allard and E. Anderson, Ethnography.G.E. Allen, Eugenics.G.J. Smith, Gambling Studies.J.O. Wheeler, Geography.A.J. Lichtman, History, Social Science Methods Used in.G. Lensvelt-Mulders, Human and Population Genetics.M. Ferrari and C. Fernando, Human Growth and Development.B.S. Grewal and P.J. Sheehan, International Economics.B.M. Russett, International Relations.G. Rubinstein, Knowledge Creation.A. McCabe, Language Acquisition.E.A. Posner, Law.G.R. Benjamin, Linguistics.M.A. Skaates, Marketing Industry.D.J. Bartholomew, Mathematical and Statistical Approaches.M. Artzrouni, Mathematical Demography.P.D. Williams and A.R. Williams, Nursing.K.M. Curtin, Operations Research.O.S. Chernyshenko and S. Stark, Organizational Psychology.J.W.Wood, Paleodemography.J.L. Korey, Political Science.A. Bornstein, Political Violence.T.D. Smith and A.M. Burrows, Primate Studies, Ecology and Behavior.P.H. Schonemann, Psychometrics of Intelligence.D.K. Munroe and J.J. Biles, Regional Science.C. Rider, Social Economics.L. Troyer and R. Youngreen, Social Psychology.S.M. Marson, Social Work.B.R. Parker and A. Reisman, Socio-Economic Considerations.J.W. Elder, Sociology.J.P. LeSage, Spatial Econometrics.D.B. Kronenfeld, Structural Models in Anthropology.D.P. McMillen, Urban Economics.P.A. Longley, Urban Studies.