Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences book cover

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences

Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations.

Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists - and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis.

Hardbound, 2250 Pages

Published: February 2013

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-382165-2

Contents

  • Anthropology/Odontology
    Animal Effects on Bone
    History of Forensic Anthropology
    Introduction
    Taphonomy
    Recovery and Retrieval: Forensic Archaeology
    Post Mortem Interval
    Species: Human vs. Non-human
    Sexing
    Aging the Dead and the Living
    Stature and Build
    Ancestry
    Facial Approximation
    Personal Identification
    Bone Pathology and Ante Mortem Trauma
    Biomechanics of Bone Trauma
    Bone Trauma
    Identification of the Living
    Odontology
    Behavioral
    Autoerotic death: Criminological aspects
    Criminal Profiling
    Detection of Deception
    Interpretation
    Investigative Psychology
    Lie Detection
    Modus Operandi
    Offender Signature
    Overview
    Phonetics
    Forensic Linguistics
    Psychological Autopsies
    Psychiatry and Psychology: Overview
    Psychiatry
    Psychology
    Serial Killing
    Stalking
    Biology/DNA
    Overview/History
    Basic Principles
    DNA Extraction and Quantitation
    Short Tandem Repeats
    Accreditation in Forensic DNA Analysis
    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
    miniSTRs
    Mixture Interpretation
    Low Copy Number DNA Testing
    X-chromosome markers
    Mitochondrial DNA
    Non-Human DNA
    Biology/DNA/Methods/Analytical Techniques
    Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Genetics
    Biology/DNA
    Next generation sequencing technologies
    Statistical Analysis
    Parentage Testing and Kinship Analysis
    Significance
    Future Analytical Techniques 1: DNA mass spectrometry
    DNA Databanks
    Laboratory automation and LIMS in forensics
    Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMS)
    Disaster Victim Identification
    Advisory Groups: DAB, SWGDAM, ENFSI, BSAG
    Forensic Laboratory Efficiency & Funding
    Bayesian Networks
    Internet accessible databases: YHRD, EMPOP, etc.
    International Society of Forensic Sciences (ISFG)
    Forensic DNA Phenotyping: DNA testing for externally visible characteristics
    Missings Persons (NameUS)
    Biology/DNA/RNA
    mRNA and microRNA for body fluid identification
    Biology/DNA/Entomology
    Overview
    Biology/DNA/Wildlife
    DNA and endangered species
    Biology/DNA/Botany
    Cannabis DNA
    Biology/DNA
    Microbiology and Bio-terrorism
    Chemistry/Trace/Drugs of Abuse
    Clandestine Laboratories
    Analysis
    Classification
    Designer Drugs
    Chemistry/Trace/Explosives
    Clandestine Laboratories
    Improvised Explosive Devices
    Analysis
    Commercial
    Military
    Improvised Explosives
    Mechanisms of Explosion
    Chemistry/Trace/Trace Evidence
    Overview
    Microchemistry
    Chemistry/Trace/Fibers
    Overview
    Transfer
    Persistence & Recovery
    Protocols for Examination
    Identification and Comparison
    Textile and Fiber Damage
    Fiber Microscopy
    Colour Analysis
    Interpretation of Fiber Evidence
    Chemistry/Trace/Fire Investigation
    Chemistry of Fire
    Physics/Thermodynamics
    Thermal Degradation
    Analysis of Fire Debris
    Interpretation of Fire Debris Analysis
    Chemistry/Trace/Glass
    Overview
    Glass Analysis
    Interpretation of Glass Evidence
    Chemistry/Trace/Paint and Coating
    Overview
    Architectural Paint
    Automotive Paint
    Forensic Paint Analysis
    Interpretation of Paint Evidence
    Chemistry/Trace/Forensic Geosciences
    Crime Scene Considerations
    Soils
    Forensic Geosciences
    Botany
    Chemistry/Trace/Firearm Discharge Residues
    Overview, Analysis and Interpretation
    Chemistry/Trace/Adhesive Tapes
    Overview, Analysis and Interpretation
    Chemistry/Trace/Environmental Analysis
    Overview, Analysis and Interpretation
    Chemistry/Trace/Miscellaneous Unknowns
    Overview, Analysis and Interpretation
    Chemistry/Trace/Decomposition Chemistry
    Overview, Analysis and Interpretation
    Chemistry/Trace
    Stomach Content Analysis
    Digital Evidence
    Child Pornography
    Cellular Phones
    Digital Evidence/Photography and Digital Imaging
    Overview
    Digital Evidence
    Digital Image and Enhancement
    Digital Evidence/Audio Forensics
    Audio Enhancement and Authentication
    Digital Evidence/Black boxes and security cameras
    Aircraft Flight Data Recorders
    Documents
    Analytical Methods
    Document Dating
    Forgery/Counterfeits
    Handwriting
    Ink Analysis
    Paper Analysis
    History
    Overview
    Engineering
    Forensic Engineering / Accident Reconstruction / Biomechanics of Injury | Philosophy, Basic Theory and 
    Accident Reconstruction Methodology / Computer Methods in Accident Reconstruction
    Air Bag Technology / Occupant Kinematics / Biomechanics of Injury
    Electronic Data Recorders (EDR’s, black boxes)
    Analog Tachograph Chart Analysis
    Human Factors Investigation and Analysis of Accidents and Incidents
    Railroad Accident Investigation
    Analysis of Digital Evidence
    Investigation and Analysis of Structural Collapses
    Biomechanics of Human Gait - Slip and Fall Analysis
    Forensic Chemical Engineering Investigation and Analysis
    Materials Analysis
    Investigation and analysis of electrical accidents
    Forensic Medicine/Causes of Death
    Blunt trauma
    Burns and scalds
    Asphyctic deaths - Overview and pathophysiology
    Strangulation
    Traumatic and postural asphyxia, physical restraint
    Immersion deaths
    Sharp trauma
    Systemic response to trauma
    Sudden natural death in adults
    SIDS
    Gunshot wounds
    Forensic Medicine/Clinical
    Clinical forensic medicine - Overview
    Domestic violence
    Sexual Violence
    Child abuse
    Defense wounds
    Self-inflicted injuries
    Elder abuse
    Torture
    Forensic age estimation
    Hyperthermia/Hypothermia
    Death from electrocution and lightning
    Neonaticide
    Identification
    Deaths in custody
    Suicide
    Traffic injuries and deaths
    Airplane crashes and other mass disasters
    Forensic Medicine/Pathology
    Forensic pathology - principles and overview
    External postmortem examination
    Autopsy
    Histopathology
    Early and late postmortem changes
    Post Mortem Time Since Death
    Vital reactions and wound healing
    Postmortem imaging
    Deaths associated with medical procedures
    Foundations
    History / Forensic Sciences
    Basic Principles of Forensic Sciences
    Legal Classification of Evidence
    Evidence / Statistical Interpretation of Evidence / Classical-Frequentist Approach
    Evidence / Statistical Interpretation of Evidence / Bayesian Analysis
    Interpretation / Forensic Intelligence
    Interpretation / Identification - Individualization
    Interpretation / Semiotics & Heuristics: Inferences used by Forensic Scientists
    Interpretation / The Comparative Method
    Forensic Classification of Evidence
    Foundations/Fundamentals
    Measurement Uncertainty
    Investigations
    Collection and Chain of Evidence
    Contamination
    Forensic Intelligence Analysis
    Fingerprints
    Major Incident Scene Management
    Packaging
    Preservation
    Recording
    Recovery of Human Remains
    Scene Analysis and Reconstruction
    Suspicious Deaths
    Evidence Recovery at the Fire-scene
    Fire Scene Inspection Methodology
    Fire-scene Patterns
    Types of Fire
    Counterfeit Goods
    Counterfeit Currency
    Identity Theft
    Forensic Accounting
    Payment Cards
    From Crime Scene to Court
    Explosions
    Legal
    Innocence Project
    DNA Exonerations
    Expert Witness Qualifications and Testimony
    Forensic Laboratory Reports
    Legal Aspects of Forensic Science
    Legal Systems - Adversarial and Inquisitorial
    When Science Changes, How Does Law Respond
    History of law/forensics
    International Courts and Forensic Science     
    Management/Administration of Forensic Science
    International Organisations and Cooperation
    Principles for Field/Police Organisation
    Management/Quality in Forensic Science
    Principles of Quality Assurance
    Accreditation
    Certification
    Standard Methods
    Risk Management
    Effectiveness
    Health and Safety
    Observer Bias Issues/Sequential Unmasking
    Methods
    Capillary Electrophoresis: Basic Principles
    Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Biology
    Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Chemistry
    Chromatography: Basic Principles
    Gas Chromatography
    Liquid and Thin-Layer Chromatographic
    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    Mass Spectrometry
    Analytical Light Microscopy
    Microscopy (Electron)
    Presumptive Chemical Tests
    Non-chromatographic Separation Techniques
    Spectroscopic Techniques
    Spectroscopy: Basic Principles
    Field deployable devices
    Chemometrics
    Pattern Evidence/Fingerprints (Dactyloscopy)
    Friction Ridge Print Examination
    Authomated methods, including Criminal Records Administration
    AFIS
    Chemistry of Print Residue
    Identification and Classification
    Sequential Treatment and Enhancement
    Standards of Proof
    Visualization
    Pattern Evidence/Firearms
    Humane Killing Tools
    Laboratory Analysis
    Range
    Residues
    Pattern Evidence/History
    Fingerprint Sciences
    Pattern Evidence
    Vehicle Tire Marks and Tire Track Measurement
    Plastic Bag Striations
    Bare Footprint Marks
    Footprints
    Palm Prints
    Footwear Marks
    Serial Number
    Shotgun Ammunition on a Target
    Physical match
    Tools
    ACE-V
    Professional
    Accreditation of educational programs
    Certification and licensing
    Continuing professional development
    Education and Accreditation in Forensic Science
    Ethics
    Research and publishing
    Training to competency
    NAS
    American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS)
    Australian-New Zealand Forensic Science Society (ANZFSS)
    American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD)
    European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI)
    International Association for Identification (IAI)
    National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME)
    Senior Managers of Australian-New Zealand  Forensic Laboratories (SMANZFL)
    Toxicology/Alcohol
    Blood
    Urine and Body Fluids
    Breath
    Congener Analysis
    Interpretation
    Post-Mortem
    Metabolites
    Toxicology/Drugs of Abuse
    Blood
    Oral Fluid
    Drug Facilitated Crimes
    Drugs and Driving
    Drugs in Hair
    Postmortem Blood
    Urine
    Drugs
    Validation of twelve chemical spot tests for the detection of drugs of abuse
    Toxicology
    History
    Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action of Drugs
    Overview and Applications
    Sports Drug Testing
    Volatile Substances and Inhalants
    Interpretation of Results
    Methods of Analysis-Initial Testing
    Methods of Analysis-ConfirmatoryTesting
    Post-Mortem Specimens
    Herbal psychoactive substances
    Herbal Medicines and Phytopharmaceuticals - contamination
    Behavioral toxicology
    Post-mortem toxicology: artifacts


     

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