Citrus Fruit

Biology, Technology and Evaluation


  • Milind Ladanyia
  • Milind Ladaniya, Principal Scientist, ICAR, India

Post harvest biology and technology of citrus fruits is gaining importance as the therapeutic value of citrus fruits is realized and supported by the increase in health awareness among the general public.This book is the most comprehensive reference on citrus fruit biology, biotechnology and quality. Basic and applied scientific information is interwoven to serve the researcher, marketer, scientist, nutritionist, or dietician. With discussions of fruit morphology, anatomy, physiology and biochemistry and chapters on growth phases, maturity standards, grades and physical and mechanical characteristics of citrus trees, this book provides the foundation for understanding growth, harvest and post harvest aspects of these important plants. Insect-pests and diseases, irrigation, nutrition and rootstocks are also addressed.
View full description


Libraries and research institutes, researchers, scientists, and professors involved in horticulture, botanical research, food science, biotechnology, citrus production, postharvest handling, citrus marketing, and citrus research; nutritionists and dieticians


Book information

  • Published: December 2007
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-374130-1

Table of Contents

1) Introduction- An Overview 2) Commercial fresh citrus cultivars and major producers3) Post harvest losses4) Pre-harvest factors affecting fruit quality and post-harvest life5) Fruit morphology, anatomy and physiology 5.1) Fruit morphology 5.2) Fruit anatomy 5.3) Fruit physiology 6) Fruit biochemistry 6.1) Carbohydrates 6.2) Organic acids 6.3) Nitrogenous compounds 6.4) Enzymes 6.5) Lipids, waxes and other related compounds 6.6) Pigments 6.7) Phenolics, Flavonoids and limonoids 6.8) Vitamins 6.9) Inorganic constituents 6.10) Volatiles7) Growth, maturity, grade standards and physico-mechanical characteristics of fruit 7.1) Growth and development 7.2) Maturation 7.3) Indices of maturity, fruit grades and standards 7.4) Physical and mechanical characteristics8) Harvesting9) Preparation for fresh fruit market 9.1) Degreening 9.2) Packinghouse operations 9.3) Post harvest treatments- Coatings, PBRs & other chemicals10) Packaging 10.1) Containers and other packaging materials 10.2) Film wrapping 10.3) Modified atmosphere packaging 11) Pre-cooling 12) Storage systems and response of citrus fruits 12.1) Refrigerated storage 12.2) Controlled atmosphere and hypobaric storage 12.3) Evaporative and other natural systems 12.4) Ambient storage13) Transportation14) Domestic marketing and distribution systems 15) Irradiation16) Postharvest diseases and management 16.1) Post harvest diseases 16.2) Pesticides, residues and tolerances 16.3) Organic post-harvest management 16.3.1) Bio-agents 16.3.2) Botanicals and other non-hazardous methods 16.3.3) Physical methods 17) Physiological disorders and management 18) Postharvest treatments for insect control 19) Fruit quality control, evaluation and analysis 19.1) Quality control and assurance systems 19.2) Quality evaluation and instruments 19.3) Fruit analysis20) Nutritional and medicinal value of citrus 21) Biotechnological applications in fresh citrus fruit 22) World fresh citrus trade 22.1) Exports and World trade 22.2) Quarantine issues