Circumventricular Organs and Brain Fluid Environment

Molecular and Functional Aspects

Edited by

  • A. Ermisch
  • R. Landgraf
  • H.-J. Rühle, Section of Biosciences, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

This volume provides a picture of the state of the art and of the perspectives opened by new powerful approaches to the study of the structure and function of "Circumventricular Organs" (CVOs). Studies on the CVOs reflected in this book comprise many aspects, from cellular elements to the whole organism: the accessibility of these organs for chemical signals, signal (ligand)-receptor interactions, the transfer of information to distinct brain regions, the effects induced in these brain regions and the influence on the regulation of body functions including autonomic and behavioral alterations. Some of these aspects strongly depend upon the microenvironment of the cells involved in this cascade of events. Therefore, the brain fluid environment in its broadest sense is a central focus.

This excellent work is therefore an up-to-date report on interdisciplinary approaches and concepts, offering new insights into the complex phenomena of brain function, and shows directions in which to proceed.

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Book information

  • Published: August 1992
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-81419-7

Table of Contents

List of contributors. Preface. Acknowledgements. Section I - Microenvironment of the brain: blood - interstitial fluid - CSF. 1. A role for centrally-released vasopressin in brain ion and volume regulation: an hypothesis. 2. Neuronal plasticity depending on a glycoprotein synthesized in goldfish leptomeninx. 3. Goldfish ependymins: cerebrospinal fluid proteins of meningeal origin. 4. Effect of central administration of angiotensin II on cerebrospinal fluid formation in rabbits. 5. Adrenalectomy aggravates ischemic brain edema in female Sprague-Dawley rats with carotid arteries ligated. 6. Central release of vasopressin: stimuli, dynamics, consequences. 7. Pregnancy and opiod interactions with the anterior peri-third ventricular input to magnocellular oxytocin neurones. 8. Endogenous opioids regulate intracerebral oxytocin release during parturition in a region-specific manner. 9. Evidence against participation of V2 receptors in the increase of cerebral blood flow during hypoxemia in the rat. 10. ANF-induced modulation of ADH-release in the rabbit and pekin duck. 11. Vasopressin involvement in central control of blood pressure. 12. Neuropeptides within the nucleus tractus solitarii modulate the central cardiovascular control process. 13. Disturbances of volume regulation in chronic alcoholics: a correlation with the excitability of the central nervous system. 14. Chromatographically identified oxytocin in human peripheral nervous system. 15. Central effects of tricyclic compounds on the endocrine system - an in vitro system. Section II - Barriers within the brain: transport - exchange. 16. Intracerebral grafting of solid tissues and cell suspensions: the blood-brain barrier and host immune response. 17. Blood-brain barrier: a molecular approach to its structural and functional characterization. 18. Development of an in vitro cell culture system to mimic the blood-brain barrier. 19. The development of ion regulation at the blood-brain barrier. 20. An approach to study of transport of trace metals at the blood-brain barrier. 21. Bidirectional passage of peptides across the blood-brain barrier. 22. Localization patterns for immunoglobulins and albumins in the brain suggest diverse mechanisms for their transport across the blood-brain barrier. 23. Peptide receptors of the blood-brain barrier and substrate transport into the brain. 24. The interaction of some centrally active drugs with the blood-brain barrier and circumventricular organs. 25. Experimental models of altering the blood-brain barrier. 26. Regulation of transendothelial transport in the cerebral microvessels: the role of second messenger's-generating system. 27. Age-related pathophysiology of the blood-brain barrier in heat stress. 28. Endogenous release of neurochemicals may increase vascular permeability, induce edema and influence on cell changes in trauma to the spinal cord. 29. Tracer upstake by circumventricular organs - A relative measure of blood supply to the brain. 30. Density of perfused capillaries in living brain during functional activation. Section III - Circumventricular organs: receptors and effectors. 31. Circumventricular organ capillaries. 32. Signals indicative of metabolic change in circumventricular organs. 33. Somatostatin-binding sites on structures of circumventricular organs. 34. Atrial natriuretic factor in the subfornical organ and the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis. 35. Neurotransmitters and receptors in the subfornical organ. Immunohistochemical and electrophysiological evidence. 36. Steroid hormones and circumventricular organs. 37. Choroid plexus, ependyma and arachnoidea express receptors for vitamin D: differences between "seasonal" and "non-seasonal" breeders. 38. Receptor and effector mechanisms in the pineal organ. 39. Cytochemistry of CSF-contacting neurons and pinealocytes. 40. Comparative ultrastructure and opsin immunocytochemistry of the retina and pineal organ in fish. 41. Circadian rhythm and pharmacologic regulation of the monodeiodination of 3,3',5,5'-tetraidothyronine in the pineal gland. 42. Response of CFU-GM (colony forming units for granulocytes and macrophages) from intact and pinealectomized rat bone marrow to murine recombinant interleukin-3 (rII-3), recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rGM-CSF) and human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO). 43. Immunocytochemical demonstration of serotonin-immunoreactive cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons in the paraventricular organ of pigeons and domestic chickens. 44. The bovine subcommissural organ: cytochemical and immunochemical characterization of the secretory process. 45. Developmental neuron-glia interactions: role of the serotonin innervation upon the differentiation of the ependymocytes of the rat subcommissural organ. 46. Development of the median eminence during ontogenesis (morphofunctional aspects). 47. Neuro-hemal and neuro-glial specificities in the neural lobe of the pituitary gland. 48. Non-vasopressinergic, non-oxytocinergic neuropeptides in the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract. Experimental immunohistochemical studies. 49. Drug metabolizing enzymes in the rat pituitary gland. Section IV - Circumventricular organs and brain fluids: systemic and behavioral aspects. 50. Integrative mechanisms and the maintenance of cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis: the central processing of sensory input derived from the circumventricular organs of the lamina terminalis. 51. Efferent neural pathways of the lamina terminalis subserving osmoregulation. 52. The role of OVLT in fever and antipyresis. 53. Role of the OVLT in the febrile response to circulatin pyrogens. 54. Neurophysiological analysis of mechanisms for subfornical organ and area postrema involvement in autonomic control. 55. Functional hypothalamic angiotensin II and catecholamine receptor systems inside and outside the blood-brain-barrier. 56. Progressive increases of protein synthesis in the circumventricular organs during chronic dehydratation in rats. 57. Aspects of normal cerbrospinal fluid circulation and circumventricular organs. 58. Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on choroid plexus blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid production. 59. Effect of arginine vasopressin on blood vessels of the perfused choroid plexus of the sheep. 60. Neuropeptides in the cerebrospinal fluid and regulation of behaviour. 61. Neurohypophyseal hormone receptors: relation to behavior. 62. The human hypothalamus in development, sexual differentiation, aging and Alzheimer's disease. Subject index.