Published: September 1993
- Section I. Organization of CNS Cholinergic Systems. 1. Cholinergic neurons identified by in situ hybridization histochemistry. 2. Ascending cholinergic pathways: functional organization and implications for disease models. 3. Catecholaminergic-cholinergic interaction in the basal forebrain. 4. Cholinergic systems: human diseases, animal models, and prospects for therapy. 5. The organization of central cholinergic systems and their functional importance in sleep-waking states. II.CNS Cholinergic Receptors. 6. CNS distribution of cholinergic receptors - some questions from a clinical neuroscientist. 7. Nicotinic receptors in the mammalian brain: localization and relation to cholinergic innervation. 8. Autoradiographic distribution of putative muscarinic receptor sub-types in the mammalian brain. 9. Advances and limitations of the molecular neuroanatomy of cholinergic receptors: The example of multiple muscarinic receptors. 10. Acetylcholine receptors: Drugs and molecular genetics. 11. Functional diversity of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. 12. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes: localization and structure/function. 13. Evolution and acetylcholine receptors. III. The Neurobiology of Acetylcholinesterase. 14. Molecular biology of cholinesterases. 15. Structure and functions of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. 16. Promoter elements and alternative splicing in the human AChE gene. 17. The cholinesterases: a discussion of some unanswered questions. IV. Synthesis, Storage and Release of Acetylcholine. 18. Regulation of the synthesis of acetylcholine. 19. Molecular genetic specification of cholinergic neurons. 20. Acetylcholine transporter-vesamicol receptor pharmacology and structure. 21. Storage and release of acetylcholine is a sympathetic ganglion. V. Turnover of Acetylcholine and Control of its Release. 22. Acetylcholine turnover and release: The influence of energy metabolism and systemic choline availability. 23. Choline, a precursor of acetylcholine and phospholipids in the brain. 24. D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and the regulation of striatal acetylcholine release in vivo. 25. The non-quantal release of acetylcholine from motor nerve terminals: comment on its likely size. VI. Molecular Aspects of Acetylcholine Release. 26. Molecular aspects of acetylcholine release. 27. Acetylcholine release, from molecules to function. 28. Molecular approaches to synaptic vesicle exocytosis. VII. Trophic Influences on CNS Cholinergic Neurons. 29. The neurotrophic hypothesis and the cholinergic basal forebrain projection. 30. Nerve growth factor affects the cholinergic neurochemistry and behaviour of aged rats. 31. Protective effect of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in adult rats with partial fimbrial transections. 32. Trophic responses of forebrain cholinergic neurons: a discussion. VIII. Electro-physiological Aspects of Central Cholinergic Mechanisms. Comments to session on electrophysiological aspects of cholinergic mechanisms. 34. Central cholinergic mechanisms and function. 35. Postsynaptic action of acetylcholine. 36. Actions of acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex and thalamus and implications for function. IX. Cell Signalling in Cholinergic Mechanisms. 37. The phosphoinositide signalling system. 38. Lithium selectively potentiates cholinergic activity in rat brain. 39. Characteristics of the changes in intracellular calcium concentration on the activation of muscarinic receptors in hippocampal neurons. 40. Muscarinic receptor subtype-specific coupling to second messengers in neuronal systems. X. Functional Correlates in CNS Cholinergic Transmission. 41. Modulation of information processing in thalamocortical systems. 42. Cholinergic blockage of network- and intrinsically generated slow oscillations promotes waking and REM-sleep activity patterns in thalamic and cortical neurons. 43. Cholinergic and glutamatergic effects on neocortical neurons may support rate as well as development of conditioning. 44. The cholinergic neuromodulatory system: an evaluation of its functional roles. XI. Involvement of Cholinergic Neurons in Sleep Mechanisms. 45. Cholinergic receptor subtypes and REM sleep in animals and normal controls. 46, 47. Acetylcholine as a brain state modulator: triggering and long-term regulation of REM sleep. 48. Behavioural aspects of cholinergic transmission: role of basal forebrain cholinergic system in learning and memory. XII. Clincal aspects of CNS Cholinergic Pharmacology. 49. Role of forebrain cholinergic systems in learning and memory: relevance to the cognitive deficits of aging and Alzheimer's dementia. 50. Clinical aspects of CNS cholinergic pharmacology. 51. Approaches to cholinergic therapy in Alzheimer's disease. 52. What have we learned from the THA trials to facilitate testing of new AChE inhibitors? 53. Brain selective inhibition of acetylcholinesterase: a novel approach to the therapy for Alzheimer's disease. 54. Subtype selective muscarinic agonists: potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease. 55. Pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer's disease: New drugs and novel strategies. XIII. Conclusion. 56. Overview of future directions of CNS cholinergic mechanisms. Subject index.