Blood Substitutes


  • Robert Winslow, University of California, Department of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, U.S.A.

Blood substitutes are solutions designed for use in patients who need blood transfusions, but for whom whole blood is not available, or is not safe. This interest has intensified in the wake of the AIDS and hepatitis C epidemics. Blood Substitutes describes the rationale, current approaches, clinical efficacy, and design issues for all blood substitutes now in clinical trials. The many summary diagrams and tables help make the book accessible to readers such as surgeons and blood bankers, who have less technical expertise than the biochemists and hematologists who are designing and testing blood substitutes.
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Hematologists, blood bankers, biochemists, and biotechnologists working in the hemoglobin area, as well as surgeons working with blood


Book information

  • Published: October 2005
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-759760-7


"Robert Winslow's new book Blood Substitutes, is useful in many ways. It brings together well-written summaries of the work of many of the most important investigators of the last 2 decades in the broad group of interrelated fields. Moreover, it also has some excellent chapters of scientific and medical background that provide context for the work. It also gives a historical snapshot of the thinking and attitudes of workers in the field. As an introduction to the field, this book is outstanding." - John R. Hess MD, MPH, FACPa, University of Maryland Medical Center for TRANSFUSION MEDICINE REVIEWS (2006) "There aren't too many all in one books on this subject, let alone one written this clearly, concisely, and with perspective. If you are interested in this field, get this book." - Doody's 3 Star Review by Valerie L. Ng, PhD, MD, Alameda County Medical Center/Highland Hospital (2006) "This is a serious, comprehensive, authoritative and highly readable textbook on a most relevant and challenging topic – the search for blood substitutes. ...The Editor and publishers have clearly given considerable thought to the readability as well as the academic rigour of the 46 chapters and 548 pages. In this reviewer’s opinion, they have been most successful. The font and the page layouts are easy on the eye, the illustrations of good quality, and the references for each chapter are comprehensive and up to date. The potential readership for this book will undoubtedly be broadly based. This is a quality text book, and, although it is always difficult to define quality, we do recognise it when we come across it." - Professor Ken Taylor, British Heart Foundation Professor of Cardiac Surgery, University of London and Director of Cardiac Services, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK

Table of Contents

BACKGROUNDHistorical BackgroundTransfusion MedicineRegulatory Perspectives on Clinical Trials for Oxygen Therapeutics in Trauma and Transfusion PracticePHYSIOLOGICAL BASISClinical Physiology: Oxygen Transport and the Transfusion TriggerThe Role of Oxygen and Hemoglobin Diffusion in Oxygen Transport by Cell-Free HemoglobinsOxygen Transport Properties of Hemoglobin- Based Oxygen Carriers: Studies Using Artificial Capillaries and Mathematical Stimulation Mechanisms of O2 Transport in the Microcirculation: Effects of Cell-Free O2 CarriersShear Stress, Mechanotransduction and the Flow Properties of BloodLocal Regulation of Blood FlowCLINICAL APPLICATIONSClinical Indications for Blood Substitutes and Optimal PropertiesCrystalloid SolutionsHemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers as Resuscitative Solutions for Trauma and Combat Casualty CareSurgical HemorrhageClinical Trials in Cardiac SurgeryHemodilutionClinical HemodilutionPotential for Blood Substitutes in Tissue IschemiaTOXICITY AND SIDE EFFECTSRedox and Radical Reactions of Hemoglobin Solutions: Toxicities and Protective StrategiesPro-oxidant Activity of Hemoglobin and Endothelial CytotoxicityRenal ToxicityHemoglobin and NeurotoxicityThe Role of Inflammation in the Toxicity of Hemoglobin-based Oxygen CarriersHemoglobin-Induced Myocardial LesionsPERFLUOROCARBON-BASED OXYGEN CARRIERSFluorocarbon Emulsions As In Vivo Oxygen Delivery Systems: Background And Chemistry Fluosol: The First Commercial Injectable Perfluorocarbon Oxygen CarrierPerftoranRational Development of Oxyfluor™Oxygent™, a Perfluorochemical-Based Oxygen Therapeutic for Surgical PatientsHEMOGLOBIN-BASED OXYGEN CARRIERSThe Structural and Functional Properties of Hemoglobin and their Relevance for a Hemoglobin-based Blood SubstituteHemoglobin ModificationDesigning Recombinant Hemoglobin for Use as a Blood SubstituteDesign, Conformational, Functional, and Physiological Characterization of Recombinant Polymeric Heme-Proteinsáá-Crosslinked HbDCLHb and rHb1.1Studies with DCLHbHemopure® [Hboc-201, Hemoglobin Glutamer-250 (Bovine)]: Preclinical StudiesHboc-201, [Hemoglobin Glutamer-250 (Bovine), Hemopure®]: Clinical StudiesPolyhemoglobin-Enzymes as New Generation Blood Substitutes and Oxygen TherapeuticsSurface Decoration of Hemoglobin with Polyethylene GlycolHemospan™ (MP4), a Human Hemoglobin Modified with Maleimide-Polyethylene GlycolDextran-HemoglobinDevelopment of Non-extravasating, Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen CarriersLIPOSOMES AND RELATED PRODUCTSLiposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin: History, Preparation, and EvaluationHemoglobin-Vesicles as a Molecular Assembly:Characteristics of Preparation Process and Performances as Artificial Oxygen CarriersNanodimension Biodegradable Polymeric Membrane Artificial Red Blood CellsAlbumin-Heme: A Synthetic Heme-Based Oxygen CarrierGLOSSARYINDEX