Assessment of Safety and Risk with a Microscopic Model of Detonation


  • C.-O. Leiber, Rheinbach, Germany

This unique book is a store of less well-known explosion anddetonation phenomena, including also data and experiences related tosafety risks. It highlights the shortcomings of the currentengineering codes based on a classical plane wave model of thephenomenon, and why these tools must fail. For the first time all the explosion phenomena are described in termsof proper assemblages of hot spots, which emit pressure waves andassociated near field terms in flow. Not all of the approaches arenew. Some even date back to the 19th century or earlier.. What is newis the application of these approaches to explosion phenomena. Inorder to make these tools easily available to the current detonationphysicist, basic acoustics is therefore also addressed. Whereas the current plane wave, homogeneous flow detonation physicsis an excellent engineering tool for numerical predictions undergiven conditions, the multi-hot-spot-model is an additional tool foranalyzing phenomena that cannot be explained by classicalcalculations. The real benefit comes from being able to understand,without any artificial assumptions, the whole phenomenology ofdetonations and explosions. By specifying pressure generatingmechanisms, one is able to see that the current treatment of thedetonics of energetic materials is only a very special - but powerful- case of explosion events and hazards. It becomes clear thatphysical explosions must be taken into account in any safetyconsiderations. In these terms it is easy to understand why evenliquid carbon dioxide and inert silo materials can explode. A unique collection of unexpected events, which might surprise evenspecialists, has resulted from the evaluation of the model. Thereforethis book is valuable for each explosion and safety scientist for theunderstanding and forecasting of unwanted events. The text mainlyaddresses the next generation of explosion and detonation scientists,with the goal of promoting the science of detonation on a newphysical basis. For this reason gaps in current knowledge are alsoaddressed. The science of explosions is not fully mature, but isstill in its beginning - and the tools necessary for furthering theunderstanding of these phenomena have been with us for centuries.
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Book information

  • Published: April 2003
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-51332-8

Table of Contents

Prologue. I. Shortcomings in the macroscopic plane-wave model of detonation. II. Impedance mirror photography of H. Dean Mallory. III. Pressure generating mechanis. IV. Equations. V. Pressure sources for modeling. VI. Rayleigh's bubble model. VII. Losses by volume variations. VIII. Variety of initiation modes by bubbles. IX. Various approaches to describe bubble dynamic phenomena. X. Sensitivity testing. XI. Low- (LVD) and slow-velocity detonation (SVD) of liquid explosives. XII. Low velocity detonation of solid explosives. XIII. Case histories. XIV. Dipole scattering. XV. Finite shock rise. XVI. Void precursors. XVII. Alterations of hugoniots by bubble flow. XVIII. Critical dimensions. XIX. Critical diameter(s) of nitromethane (NM). XX. Smooth and rough pressure fronts, dark waves and DDT. XXI. Shock tubes. XXII. Detonation phenomena in charges with an axial cavity. XXIII. Microscopic and macroscopic properties of solids. XXIV. Fracture dynamics of initiation. Subject index.