Afferent Control of Posture and Locomotion

Edited by

  • J.H.J. Allum
  • M. Hulliger

How are the functions of control, integration and generation of motor commands performed by the brain? A view of the motor systems of the brain as hierarchically organized structures, where neurone populations and simple reflex pathways form elementary building blocks, answers this question. There are contradictory forecasts of how major advances in our understanding of posture and locomotion will develop. Some believe that the key to understanding lies in a detailed knowledge of the cortical and subcortical structures, while others regard a thorough grasp of spinal and brainstem neuronal circuitry as crucial. Yet another approach is to study human or animal postural and locomotive behaviour, looking for influences that act to select one of several potential motor patterns or strategies under a given set of circumstances.

While each of these viewpoints has its strengths - and weaknesses - real progress can only be achieved through a constructive exchange of ideas, criticism and information. To make this possible, a group of scientists gathered in Switzerland in September 1988 to present and discuss their research. This book represents the scientific outcome of that meeting. Its subject matter reflects closely the different approaches of the participants: current research on sensory transduction, spinal integration, and higher order neuronal and behavioural control. Using a technique of overview and critique of each group of papers we hope that the non-specialist reader can also grasp the issues involved and the directions for further research in motor control.

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Book information

  • Published: February 1990
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-81225-4

Table of Contents

List of Contributors. Preface. In Memoriam - Ian Alexander Boyd (23.5.27-14.9.87) (P.B.C. Matthews). Section I - Control and Actions of Proprioceptive Feedback. Overview and Critique of Papers 1-5 (Gladden, Ellaway, Taylor, Bessou, Dutia) (P.B.C. Matthews). 1. Fusimotor mechanisms determining the afferent output of muscle spindles (M. Dickson et al.). 2. Segmental influence of slowly-adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptors on gamma motoneurones revealed by cross-correlation of unit discharges in the cat (N.J. Davey and P.H. Ellaway). 3. Central mechanisms of selective fusimotor control (A. Taylor and R. Donga). 4. Discharge patterns of gamma motoneurone populations of extensor and flexor hindlimb muscles during walking in the thalamic cat (P. Bessou et al.). 5. Physiological properties of tandem muscle spindles in neck and hind-limb muscles (R.F. Price and M.B. Dutia). Overview and Critique of Papers 6-10 (Prochazka, Hoffer, Hulliger, Matthews, J.-P. Roll) (P.H. Ellaway). 6. Ensemble proprioceptive activity in the cat step cycle: towards a representative look-up chart (A. Prochazka et al.). 7. Roles of muscle activity and load on the relationship between muscle spindle length and whole muscle length in the freely walking cat (J.A. Hoffer et al.). 8. Flexible fusimotor control of muscle spindle feedback during a variety of natural movements (M. Hulliger). 9. Analysis of human long-latency reflexes by cooling the peripheral conduction pathway: which afferents are involved? (P.B.C. Matthews). 10. Eye, head and skeletal muscle spindle feedback in the elaboration of body references (J.-P. Roll, J.-P. Vedel and R. Roll). Section II - Control and Actions of Vestibular and Visual Inputs. Overview and Critique of Papers 11-14 (Hudspeth, Shinoda, Graf, Grantyn) (V. Henn). 11. Mechanoelectrical transduction by hair cells of the bullfrog's sacculus (A.J. Hudspeth). 12. Comparison of the branching patterns of lateral and medial vestibulospinal tract axons in the cervical spinal cord (Y. Shinoda et al.). 13. Afferents and efferents of the vestibular nuclei: the necessity of context specific interpretation (W. Graf and V.J. Wilson). 14. How visual inputs to the ponto-bulbar reticular formation are used in the synthesis of premotor signals during orienting (A. Grantyn). Overview and Critique of Papers 15-17 (Hoffmann, Grüsser, Collewijn) (J.I. Simpson). 15. Control of the optokinetic reflex by the nucleus of the optic tract in primates (K.P. Hoffmann). 16. Open-loop and closed-loop optokinetic nystagmus in Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and in man (F. Behrens, O.-J. Grüsser and P. Roggenkämper). 17. The vestibulo-ocular reflex: an outdated concept? (H. Collewijn). Overview and Critique of Papers 18-19 (Simpson, Waespe) (K.P. Hoffmann). 18. Representations of ocular rotations in the cerebellar flocculus of the rabbit (J.I. Simpson et al.). 19. Oculomotor functions of the flocculus and the vestibular nuclei after bilateral vestibular neurectomy (W. Waespe, U. Schwarz and M. Wolfsberger). Section III - Spinal Integration. Overview and Critique of Papers 20-21 (Rosenberg, Hultborn) (A. Taylor). 20. A framework for the analysis of neuronal networks (A.M. Amjad et al.). 21. Possible functions of transmitter-controlled plateau potentials in motoneurons (T. Eken, H. Hultborn and O. Kiehn). Overview and Critique of Papers 22-23 (Illert, Windhorst) (H. Hultborn). 22. Distribution of recurrent inhibition in the cat forelimb (M. Illert and D. Wietelmann). 23. Do Renshaw cells tell spinal neurones how to interpret muscle spindle signals? (U. Windhorst). Overview and Critique of Papers 24-25 (Jankowska, Pierrot-Deseilligny) (E.E. Fetz). 24. A neuronal system of movement control via muscle spindle secondaries (E. Jankowska). 25. Peripheral and descending control of neurones mediating non-monosynaptic Ia excitation to motoneurones: a presumed propriospinal system in man (E. Pierrot-Desilligny). Overview and Critique of Papers 26-27 (Wallén, Pompeiano) (U. Windhorst). 26. Mechanisms underlying the serotonergic modulation of the spinal circuitry for locomotion in lamprey (P. Wallén et al.). 27. Relationship of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurones to vestibulospinal reflexes (O. Pompeiano). Section IV - Interaction of Visual, Vestibular and Proprioceptive Inputs. Overview and Critique of Papers 28-29 (Roucoux, Peterson) (F.J.R. Richmond). 28. Neck muscle activity in eye-head coordinated movements (A. Roucoux, M. Crommelinck and M.F. Decostre). 29. Comparison of neck muscle activation patterns during head stabilization and voluntary movements (B.W. Peterson, E.A. Keshner and J. Banovetz). Overview and Critique of Papers 30-31 (Berthoz, Lacour) (H. Collewijn). 30. Head kinematic during various motor tasks in humans (T. Pozzo, A. Berthoz and L. Lefort). 31. Functional coupling of the stabilizing gaze reflexes during vertical linear motion in the alert cat (M. Lacour and L. Borel). Overview and Critique of Papers 32-34 (Allum, Nashner, Dietz) (B.W. Peterson). 32. The role of stretch and vestibulo-spinal reflexes in the generation of human equilibriating reactions (J.H.J. Allum, F. Honegger and C.R. Pfaltz). 33. Organization of posture controls: an analysis of sensory and mechanical constraints (L.M. Nashner et al.). 34. Significance of proprioceptive mechanisms in the regulation of stance (V. Dietz, G.A. Horstmann and W. Berger). Section V - Higher Order Control of Posture and Locomotion. Overview and Critique of Papers 35-37 (Hyland, Fetz, Hepp-Reymond) (J.A. Hoffer). 35. What is the role of the supplementary motor area in movement initiation? (B. Hyland et al.). 36. Control of forelimb muscle activity by populations of corticomotoneuronal and rubromotoneuronal cells (E.E. Fetz et al.). 37. Sensorimotor cortical control of isometric force in the monkey (M.C. Hepp-Reymond et al.). Overview and Critique of Papers 38-39 (Rothwell, Schultz) (H.-C. Diener). 38. Interruption of motor programmes by electrical or magnetic brain stimulation in man (J.C. Rothwell et al.). 39. Somatosensory input to dopamine neurons of the monkey midbrain: responses to pain pinch under anesthesia and to active touch in behavioral context (R. Romo and W. Schultz). Overview and Critique of Papers 40-41 (Diener, Mauritz) (J.C. Rothwell). 40. Disturbances of motor preparation in basal ganglia and cerebellar disorders (H.-C. Diener et al.). 41. Control mechanisms for restoring posture and movements in paraplegics (J. Quintern, P. Minwegen and K.H. Mauritz). Subject Index.