Advanced Software Applications in Japan book cover

Advanced Software Applications in Japan

Advanced Software Applications in Japan


Published: January 1995

Imprint: William Andrew

ISBN: 978-0-8155-1360-5


  • Part I Knowledge-Based Systems in Japan

    Executive Summary

    1. Introduction

    Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence

    The Applications of Expert Systems

    Benefits to End Users

    The Expert Systems Business

    Advanced Research in Knowledge-Based Systems: Inventing the Next Generation

    Design of the JTEC Study Group on Knowledge-Based Systems and the Selection of Japanese Sites

    2. Applications of Knowledge-Based Systems in Japan

    Trends in AI Applications in Japan

    Case Studies of High-Impact Systems

    Types of Applications

    Company-Specific Applications

    Observations and Conclusions

    3. Tools and Infrastructure for Knowledge-Based Systems


    Expert Systems Building Tools: Definitions

    Profile of a Tool: ES/KERNEL2

    Profile of a Tool Vendor: Hitachi

    Infrastructure: Industrial Research and Technology Transfer

    Observations and Conclusions

    4. Advanced Knowledge-Based Systems Research

    University Research

    Industrial Research

    5. National AI Research Projects


    Electronic Dictionary Research (EDR) Project


    Fuzzy Logic Research and Life

    Real World Computing (RWC) Project

    6. Integration of ES with Conventional Data Processing Systems


    Integration with Physical Systems

    Integration of Problem-Solving Techniques

    Future Visions


    7. Business Perspective

    History and Trends

    Business Advantages of KBS Technology

    Business Impact on the Japanese Computer Manufacturers (JCMs)

    Business Impact on Non-JCM Companies

    Comparison with Conventional Data Processing

    Problems with Current Generation KBS Technology

    Are Knowledge-Based Systems a Business?


    8. Conclusions

    Business Sector Applications of Expert Systems in Japan

    Knowledge-Based Systems Research in Japan

    ICOT Research Program Progress

    EDR Program Progress


    Appendix A: Professional Experience of Panel Members

    Appendix B: Professional Experience of Other Team Members

    Appendix C: Questionnaire

    Appendix D: Sites Visited by JTEC Team

    Appendix E: Site Reports

    Appendix F: Bibliography

    Appendix G: Glossary

    Part II Database Use and Technology in Japan

    Executive Summary

    1. Introduction

    1.1 Coverage

    1.2 Motivation

    1.3 Overview

    2. Database Research Infrastructure

    2.1 Role of the Japanese Government in Database Activities

    2.2 Funding Sources

    2.3 International Collaboration

    2.4 U.S. Influence and Faddism

    2.5 Conclusions

    3. Technology Topics

    3.1 Object Databases

    3.2 Knowledge Bases

    3.3 Multimedia Database Systems

    3.4 Interoperable Databases

    3.5 Database Hardware

    3.6 Security

    3.7 Database Tools

    3.8 Database Management Systems (DBMSs)

    3.9 Summary

    4. DBMS Product Infrastructure

    4.1 DBMS Technology Channels

    4.2 DBMS Market Drivers

    4.3 Japanese Positioning

    4.4 The Japanese Response to the Global Database Market

    4.5 Observations

    5. Database Use Industry

    5.1 Database Search Services

    5.2 Databases as Export Products

    5.3 Database Technology

    5.4 Summary Assessment

    6. Summary

    6.1 Multimedia Databases

    6.2 Government and Database Research and Development


    Participants' Biographies

    Sites Visited and Contacts

    Trip Reports


    Part III Machine Translation in Japan

    Executive Summary

    1. Introduction: Machine Translation in Japan and the U.S.

    1.1 The State of the Art in Machine Translation

    1.2 The Role of Machine Translation

    1.3 An Historical Sketch of Machine Translation

    1.4 The Japanese View of Machine Translation

    1.5 A Comparative Analysis of Japanese and U.S. Machine Translation

    1.6 Paradigms for Machine Translation

    1.7 Structure of the Report

    2. Technical Infrastructure

    2.1 Overview of the Translation Process

    2.2 Translation Stages of the Linguistic Processor

    2.3 Analysis

    2.4 Transfer

    2.5 Generation

    3. Languages and Application Domains

    3.1 Current Range of Source and Target Languages

    3.2 Addition of New Source and Target Languages

    3.3 Application Domains, Domain Adaptability

    4. Knowledge Sources for Machine Translation

    4.1 Overview of Knowledge Sources

    4.2 Use of Knowledge Sources in Specific Japanese MT Systems

    4.3 Knowledge Sources and Linguistic Theory

    4.4 Lexicon Samples

    5. Life Cycle of Machine Translation Systems

    5.1 Research Prototype

    5.2 Operational Prototype

    5.3 Practical System (Special-Purpose)

    5.4 Commercial System (General-Purpose)

    5.5 Ongoing Use

    6. The Uses of Machine Translation in Japan

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 User Sites Visited

    6.3 MT Users: The Vendor Perspective

    6.4 The Broader Outlook

    7. Acceptance of MT: Quality and Productivity

    7.1 Productivity and Cost

    7.2 Translation Quality

    7.3 Throughput

    7.4 Customization

    7.5 Integration

    7.6 Open Systems and Software Portability

    8. MT Contrasts Between the U.S. and Europe

    8.1 Major MT Centers and Systems in the U.S.

    8.2 Influences Among MT Groups

    8.3 Current European Systems

    9. Research and Development

    9.1 Interlingua-Based Translation

    9.2 Example-Based Translation

    9.3 Transfer-Driven Translation

    9.4 Grammars

    9.5 Generation

    9.6 Dictionaries

    9.7 Discourse-Level Issues

    9.8 Better Tools for Users

    9.9 Extension to Other Languages

    9.10 Speech-to-Speech Translation

    9.11 Embedded MT Systems

    9.12 Massively Parallel Hardware

    9.13 The Future

    10. Future Directions in Machine Translation

    11. References

    Appendix I: Japanese Sites in Part III Report

    Appendix II: Biographies of Panel Members

    Appendix III: Abbreviations Used in Part III

    Part IV Advanced Computing in Japan

    1. Executive Summary

    The Technical Bottom Line

    2. Computing in Japan

    2.1 Organization

    2.2 Preview of the Report

    2.3 Science and Technology

    2.4 Advice for Future Panels

    2.5 Acknowledgements

    3. Electronic Components, Chips and Packaging

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Discussion

    3.3 Summary

    3.4 Projections for the Future

    4. Data Storage

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Disk Drive Technology

    4.3 Recording in Japan

    4.4 Overview

    5. Computer Architecture

    5.1 Overview

    5.2 Response to Questions

    5.3 Interactions Between Japanese and Foreign Researchers

    5.4 Computing Environment in Japan

    5.5 Detailed Observations

    5.6 Observations, Impressions, and Scenarios

    5.7 A Survey of Computer Architectures

    6. Progress in Software and Software Engineering

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 The Computer Business

    6.3 The Life of a Software Professional

    6.4 Tools

    6.5 Methodology

    6.6 Measured Performance

    6.7 Speculations

    6.8 Operating Systems

    6.9 Programming Languages

    6.10 General Attitudes

    6.11 Recommended Further Studies

    7. Multimedia and Human Interfaces

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Japanese Industrial Work

    7.3 Japanese Government Projects

    7.4 Conclusions

    8. TRON

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 TRON and Trade Friction

    8.3 Summary

    9. Advanced Scientific Computing in Japan

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Overview of Academic Supercomputer Centers

    9.3 Networking in Japan

    9.4 Institute for Molecular Sciences

    9.5 University of Tokyo Computing Center

    9.6 Protein Engineering Research Institute

    9.7 Institute of Computational Fluid Dynamics

    9.8 Comparisons Between U.S. and Japan

    Appendix A: Personnel and Agendas

    A.1 Biographical Sketches

    A.2 Itinerary of JTEC Panel in Japan

    A.3 Agenda of Kickoff Meeting, July 11, 1989

    A.4 Agenda of Oral Report Meeting, December 8, 1989

    Appendix B: Trip Report

    B.1 Introduction

    B.2 Monday, November 6

    B.3 Tuesday, November 7

    B.4 Wednesday, November 8

    B.5 Thursday, November 9

    B.6 Friday, November 10

    B.7 A Computer Architecture Survey



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