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Allegations of image duplication or manipulation

Our policy, based on that developed by the Journal of Cell Biology is that no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable provided they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Manipulating images for improved clarity is accepted, but manipulation for other purposes could be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. Image duplication or re-use necessitates the original source and reason for re-use to be specified, and any required licenses and permissions to be in place.

Duplication and manipulation of images may be a form of research misconduct (falsification or fabrication) especially when the image is a crucial part of the findings.

(Sources: Rossner and Yamada, 2004. The Journal of Cell Biology, 166, 11-15.opens in new tab/windowOSF | Recommendations for handling image integrity issues V1-0.pdfopens in new tab/window - A1: Image integrity principles for researchers.)