@from:From the Preface The objective of this book is to review the basic knowledge and methodology of feeding grazing ruminants in tropical and semitropical countries. It is hoped this information will be of use to farmers, research specialists, teachers, students, extension specialists, feed manufacturers, and others throughout the world concerned with the nutrition of grazing ruminants. A unique feature is the identification of nutritional limitations of grazing ruminants in the tropics, which will be beneficial for increasing animal production efficiency through the application of improved nutrition. A large number of photographs illustrate nutritional deficiencies and conditions in tropical countries. This book contains 18 chapters concerned with the nutrition of grazing ruminants. The first chapter deals with the contributions, locations, and various types of ruminants and their importance to human welfare in the tropics and subtropics. Chapters 2 - 4 progress through nutrient requirements of grazing ruminants in warm climates, the effects of tropical heat on these requirements, and water requirements for ruminant species. Chapters 5 - 7 discuss grass and legume forage species suitable for tropical regions, pasture management procedures, and energy-protein supplementation programs needed during the extensive dry periods. The importance of tropical forages and soils toward meeting mineral requirements is discussed in Chapter 8. Chapters 9 -14 contain concise, up-to-date summaries of minerals emphasizing mineral status, incidence of mineral deficiencies and excesses in tropical regions, and benefits and methods of mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants are discussed in Chapters 15 - 17. Chapter 18 reviews vitamin nutrition considerations for ruminants consuming tropical forages.

Table of Contents




1 The Role of Ruminants in Warm Climates

1. Introduction

II. What Are the Ruminants?

III. Contributions of Domestic Ruminants to Human Welfare

IV. Improving the Efficiency of Tropical Ruminants


2 Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants

I. General Requirements

II. Energy-Protein Requirements

III. Factors Influencing Mineral Requirements

IV. Nutritional Relationships to Diseases and Parasites

V. Environment and Stress

VI. Nonnutrient Factors Affecting Requirements


3 Water Requirements for Grazing Ruminants and Water as a Source of Minerals

I. Introduction

11. Water Turnover in Ruminants

III. Voluntary Intake of Water

IV. Effect of Dry Matter Intake on Water Consumption

V. Effect of Water Deprivation on Feed Intake and Utilization

VI. Effect of Temperature on Water Intake and Digestibility of Nutrients

VII. Effect of Salinity on Water Consumption

VIII. Water and Electrolyte Metabolism

IX. Nutrient Elements in Water

X. Toxic Elements and Substances in Drinking Water

XI. Summary


4 Thermal Stress as a Factor Associated with Nutrient Requirements and Interrelationships

I. Introduction

II. Physiological Responses of Ruminants to Thermal Stress

III. Metabolic and Hormonal Responses to Thermal Stress

IV. Effects of Thermal Stress on Nutrient Requirements


5 Forages for Grazing Systems in Warm Climates

I. Introduction

II. Selected Warm-Climate Perennial Grass Types

III. Selected Warm-Climate Perennial Le


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© 1985
Academic Press
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