Nutrition of Grazing Ruminants in Warm Climates - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124833708, 9780323138871

Nutrition of Grazing Ruminants in Warm Climates

1st Edition

Series Volume Editors: Lee McDowell
Series Editors: Tony Cunha
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124833708
eBook ISBN: 9780323138871
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 14th November 1985
Page Count: 443
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Table of Contents




1 The Role of Ruminants in Warm Climates

1. Introduction

II. What Are the Ruminants?

III. Contributions of Domestic Ruminants to Human Welfare

IV. Improving the Efficiency of Tropical Ruminants


2 Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants

I. General Requirements

II. Energy-Protein Requirements

III. Factors Influencing Mineral Requirements

IV. Nutritional Relationships to Diseases and Parasites

V. Environment and Stress

VI. Nonnutrient Factors Affecting Requirements


3 Water Requirements for Grazing Ruminants and Water as a Source of Minerals

I. Introduction

11. Water Turnover in Ruminants

III. Voluntary Intake of Water

IV. Effect of Dry Matter Intake on Water Consumption

V. Effect of Water Deprivation on Feed Intake and Utilization

VI. Effect of Temperature on Water Intake and Digestibility of Nutrients

VII. Effect of Salinity on Water Consumption

VIII. Water and Electrolyte Metabolism

IX. Nutrient Elements in Water

X. Toxic Elements and Substances in Drinking Water

XI. Summary


4 Thermal Stress as a Factor Associated with Nutrient Requirements and Interrelationships

I. Introduction

II. Physiological Responses of Ruminants to Thermal Stress

III. Metabolic and Hormonal Responses to Thermal Stress

IV. Effects of Thermal Stress on Nutrient Requirements


5 Forages for Grazing Systems in Warm Climates

I. Introduction

II. Selected Warm-Climate Perennial Grass Types

III. Selected Warm-Climate Perennial Legumes


6 Pasture Management for Optimum Ruminant Production

I. Pasture Maintenance and Renovation

II. Pasture Type and Grazing Management

III. Grass-Legume Mixtures

IV. Grazing Management Systems

V. Herbage Quality

VI. Pasture Use for Animal Production


7 Providing Energy-Proteni Supplementatnio During the Dry Season

I. Development of the Production System

II. Improving Ruminant Production Potential of Dry-Season Forage

III. Sources of Supplemental Crude Protein or Energy

IV. Management for Forage Conservation and Efficient Dry-Season Feeding


8 Contribution of Tropical Forages and Soil Toward Meeting Mineral Requirement s of Grazing Ruminants

I. Introduction

II. Tropical Forages as Sources of Minerals

III. Soils as Sources of Minerals


9 Calcium, Phosphorous, and Fluorine

I. General

II. Calcium and Phosphorus

III. Fluorine


10 Common Salt (Sodium and Chlorine), Magnesium, and Potassium

I. General

II. Common Salt (Sodium and Chlorine)

III. Magnesium

IV. Potassium


11 Copper, Molybdenum, and Sulfur

I. Introduction

II. Metabolism of Copper and Molybdenum

III. Copper and Molybdenum Requirements

IV. Copper Deficiency

V. Prevention and Control of Copper Deficiency

VI. Toxicity of Copper and Molybdenum

VII. Sulfur


12 Cobalt, Iodine, and Selenium

I. General

II. Cobalt

III. Iodine

IV. Selenium


13 Iron, Manganese, and Zinc

I. General

II. Iron

III. Manganese

IV. Zinc


14 Newly Discovered and Toxic Elements

I. Introduction

II. Toxic Elements

III. Newly Discovered Trace Elements

IV. Significance of Newly Discovered and Toxic Elements for Grazing Livestock


15 Detection of Mineral Status of Grazing Ruminants

I. Introduction

II. Clinical and Pathological Evaluation

III. Analysis of Water, Soil, and Forage

IV. Examination of Tissues and Fluids

V. Response to Supplementation

VI. Analyses Most Indicative of Mineral Status

VII. A Mapping Technique for Determining Mineral Deficiencies and Toxicities


16 Incidence of Nutrient Deficiencies and Excesses in Tropical Regions and Beneficial Results of Mineral Supplementatnio

I. Introduction

II. Geographical Distribution of Nutritional Deficiencies and Toxicities

III. Energy-Protein Deficiencies in Ruminants

IV. Incidence of Mineral Deficiencies and Toxicities

V. Mineral Supplementation Results

VI. Disease Conditions Related to Minerals

VII. Seasonal Needs for Supplemental Minerals

VIII. Economic Benefits from Mineral Supplementation


17 Free-Choiec Mineral Supplementatino and Methods of Mineral Evaluation

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Providing Minerals to Grazing Livestock

III. Free-Choice Mineral Supplementation

IV. Factors Affecting Mineral Consumption

V. Selecting a Free-Choice Mineral Supplement

VI. Information Required for Mineral Supplement Formulation

VII. Calculations Required for Mineral Supplement Formulation

VIII. Mineral Supplement Evaluation


18 Vitamin Nutrition for Ruminants

I. Introduction

II. Vitamin A

III. Vitamin D

IV. Vitamin Ε

V. Vitamin Κ

VI. B-Complex Vitamins

VII. Providing Vitamin Supplements





@from:From the Preface The objective of this book is to review the basic knowledge and methodology of feeding grazing ruminants in tropical and semitropical countries. It is hoped this information will be of use to farmers, research specialists, teachers, students, extension specialists, feed manufacturers, and others throughout the world concerned with the nutrition of grazing ruminants. A unique feature is the identification of nutritional limitations of grazing ruminants in the tropics, which will be beneficial for increasing animal production efficiency through the application of improved nutrition. A large number of photographs illustrate nutritional deficiencies and conditions in tropical countries. This book contains 18 chapters concerned with the nutrition of grazing ruminants. The first chapter deals with the contributions, locations, and various types of ruminants and their importance to human welfare in the tropics and subtropics. Chapters 2 - 4 progress through nutrient requirements of grazing ruminants in warm climates, the effects of tropical heat on these requirements, and water requirements for ruminant species. Chapters 5 - 7 discuss grass and legume forage species suitable for tropical regions, pasture management procedures, and energy-protein supplementation programs needed during the extensive dry periods. The importance of tropical forages and soils toward meeting mineral requirements is discussed in Chapter 8. Chapters 9 -14 contain concise, up-to-date summaries of minerals emphasizing mineral status, incidence of mineral deficiencies and excesses in tropical regions, and benefits and methods of mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants are discussed in Chapters 15 - 17. Chapter 18 reviews vitamin nutrition considerations for ruminants consuming tropical forages.


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© Academic Press 1985
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Series Volume Editors

Lee McDowell Series Volume Editor

Dr. Lee R. McDowell is a distinguished scientist in animal nutrition. He is also editor on Nutrition of Grazing Ruminants in Warm Climates (Academic Press, 1985). For the past 23 years, he has been working on animal nutrition studies at the University of Florida and with numerous collaborating animal scientists in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and other areas. He has lectured throughout the world and has collected research data, photographs, and other materials of value for this book. Contact with many of the world’s leading nutrition scientists has greatly enriched his expertise.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Florida, Gainesville, U.S.A.

About the Series Editors

Tony Cunha Series Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A. and California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California, U.S.A.