Helium Isotopes in Nature

Helium Isotopes in Nature

1st Edition - January 1, 1984

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  • Authors: B.A. Mamyrin, I.N. Tolstikhin
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289809

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Developments in Geochemistry, Volume 3: Helium Isotopes in Nature presents the isotopic investigations of noble gases. This book describes the origin, the history, and the contemporary distribution of isotopes of helium. Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of mass-spectrometric methods and measurements of the helium isotope abundance. This text then discusses the methods of collecting various terrestrial samples as well as the apparatus for helium extraction, volumetric measurements, and purification. Other chapters consider the isotope composition of primordial, radiogenic, and spallogenic light noble gases. This book discusses as well the origin and distribution of helium isotopes in meteorites, in the Earth's mantle, the crust and ocean, and in the atmosphere. The final chapter deals with the scientific and applied problems that can be resolved to the progress in helium isotope geochemistry. This book is a valuable resource for scientists. Research workers and students interested in the geochemistry of helium will also find this book useful.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Part I

    Chapter 1 - Collection and Preparation of Natural Helium

    1.1. Vessels for Collecting and Long Storage of Natural Helium Samples

    1.2. Collecting of Gaseous and Fluid Samples

    1.3. Helium Extraction from Fluid Microinclusions in Minerals

    1.4. Helium Extraction from Solids

    1.5. Purification of Helium from Accompanying Gases

    1.6. A Modern All-Metal System for Extraction and Purification of Helium

    Chapter 2 - Measurements of Helium Contents in Sample; Helium Standards with a Given Isotopes Ratio

    2.1. Measurement of Helium Contents in Terrestrial Gases

    2.2. Preparation of Standard Mixtures of 3He and 4He

    2.3. Helium Isotope Composition in the Lower Atmosphere

    2.4. Universal Mass-Spectrometer Leak-In System for Helium Isotope Studies

    Chapter 3 - Peculiar Features of Mass-Spectrometric Isotopes Analysis of Terrestrial Helium

    3.1. Resolution of a Mass Spectrometer

    3.2. Background of 4He Scattered Ions and Its Suppression in the Measurements of Very Low 3He/4He Ratios

    3.3. Background of Scattered HD+ and H+3 Ions

    3.4. "Memory" and Other Factors Affecting the Measurements of 3He and 4He Abundance in Terrestrial Samples

    3.5. Two-Beam Mode of Operation and Static Mode of Pumping a Mass Spectrometer

    3.6. Requirements for a Mass Spectrometer Used for Natural Helium Isotope Measurements

    Chapter 4 - Isotopic Analysis of Natural Helium by a Static Magnetic Mass Spectrometer

    4.1. One-Stage Magnetic Static Mass Spectrometer

    4.2. Multi-Stage Static Mass Spectrometers

    4.3. Results Obtained by Means of Magnetic Static Mass Spectrometers

    Chapter 5 - Magnetic Resonance Mass Spectrometer (MRMS)

    5.1. Design and Operating Principles of the MRMS

    5.2. Ways to Ensure the Analytical Parameters

    5.3. A Laboratory Mass Spectrometer

    5.4. Industrial Magnetic Resonance Mass Spectrometer MI 9302

    5.5. Solution of the Most Difficult Problems of Helium Isotope Studies Achieved with the MRMS

    Part II

    Chapter 6 - Light Noble Gas Isotopes in Meteorites

    6.1. Meteorites and the Earth

    6.2. Primordial Noble Gases in Meteorites

    6.3. Isotopes of Light noble Gases in Meteorites

    6.4. Noble Gases in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    Chapter 7 - Helium Isotopes in the Earth's Mantle

    7.1. Abundance of 4He and 3He in Radiogenic Helium

    7.2. Helium Isotopes in Mantle Materials

    7.3. On the Nature of 3He Excess in the Earth's Mantle

    7.4. 3He/4He Ratio and 20Ne Excess in Terrestrial Samples

    7.5. Helium/Argon Isotope Relationship

    Chapter 8 - Helium Isotopes in Rocks, Waters and Gases of the Earth's Crust

    8.1. Distribution of 3He and 4He in Rocks of the Earth's Crust

    8.2. The Distribution of 3He and 4He in Mineral Fractions

    8.3. Helium Isotopes in Some Minerals

    8.4. Distribution and Origin of Helium and Argon Isotopes in Gas—Liquid Microinclusions in Minerals

    8.5. Distribution of Helium Isotopes in Terrestrial Gases; Relationships with Geotectonics and Heat Flow

    8.6. The 3H—3He Method; Its Application in Physical Hydrology and Limnology

    Chapter 9 -Helium Isotopes in Seawater

    9.1. Origin of Helium Isotopes in Seawater

    9.2. Distribution of Helium Isotopes in oceanic Waters

    Chapter 10 - Helium Isotopes in the Earth's Atmosphere

    10.1. Distribution of Helium Isotopes in the Atmosphere

    10.2. Helium Isotopes in a "Nondissipated" Atmosphere

    10.3. The Problem of Helium Escape

    10.4. Recent Investigations of Helium Escape

    Chapter 11 - Outgassing of the Mantle and Crust; The Evolution of Noble Gases in the Atmosphere

    11.1. The Problem of the Earth Degassing

    11.2. A Model of the Earth Degassing and Differentiation; Description, Assumptions, Observations and Parameters

    11.3. A Model of the Earth Degassing and Differentiation: Evaluation of Solutions



    Subject Index

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1984
  • Published: January 1, 1984
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289809

About the Authors

B.A. Mamyrin

I.N. Tolstikhin

About the Editor

W.S. Fyfe

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