Helium Isotopes in Nature - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444421807, 9781483289809

Helium Isotopes in Nature, Volume 3

1st Edition

Editors: W.S. Fyfe
Authors: B.A. Mamyrin I.N. Tolstikhin
eBook ISBN: 9781483289809
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st January 1984
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Table of Contents


Part I

Chapter 1 - Collection and Preparation of Natural Helium

1.1. Vessels for Collecting and Long Storage of Natural Helium Samples

1.2. Collecting of Gaseous and Fluid Samples

1.3. Helium Extraction from Fluid Microinclusions in Minerals

1.4. Helium Extraction from Solids

1.5. Purification of Helium from Accompanying Gases

1.6. A Modern All-Metal System for Extraction and Purification of Helium

Chapter 2 - Measurements of Helium Contents in Sample; Helium Standards with a Given Isotopes Ratio

2.1. Measurement of Helium Contents in Terrestrial Gases

2.2. Preparation of Standard Mixtures of 3He and 4He

2.3. Helium Isotope Composition in the Lower Atmosphere

2.4. Universal Mass-Spectrometer Leak-In System for Helium Isotope Studies

Chapter 3 - Peculiar Features of Mass-Spectrometric Isotopes Analysis of Terrestrial Helium

3.1. Resolution of a Mass Spectrometer

3.2. Background of 4He Scattered Ions and Its Suppression in the Measurements of Very Low 3He/4He Ratios

3.3. Background of Scattered HD+ and H+3 Ions

3.4. "Memory" and Other Factors Affecting the Measurements of 3He and 4He Abundance in Terrestrial Samples

3.5. Two-Beam Mode of Operation and Static Mode of Pumping a Mass Spectrometer

3.6. Requirements for a Mass Spectrometer Used for Natural Helium Isotope Measurements

Chapter 4 - Isotopic Analysis of Natural Helium by a Static Magnetic Mass Spectrometer

4.1. One-Stage Magnetic Static Mass Spectrometer

4.2. Multi-Stage Static Mass Spectrometers

4.3. Results Obtained by Means of Magnetic Static Mass Spectrometers

Chapter 5 - Magnetic Resonance Mass Spectrometer (MRMS)

5.1. Design and Operating Principles of the MRMS

5.2. Ways to Ensure the Analytical Parameters

5.3. A Laboratory Mass Spectrometer

5.4. Industrial Magnetic Resonance Mass Spectrometer MI 9302

5.5. Solution of the Most Difficult Problems of Helium Isotope Studies Achieved with the MRMS

Part II

Chapter 6 - Light Noble Gas Isotopes in Meteorites

6.1. Meteorites and the Earth

6.2. Primordial Noble Gases in Meteorites

6.3. Isotopes of Light noble Gases in Meteorites

6.4. Noble Gases in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

Chapter 7 - Helium Isotopes in the Earth's Mantle

7.1. Abundance of 4He and 3He in Radiogenic Helium

7.2. Helium Isotopes in Mantle Materials

7.3. On the Nature of 3He Excess in the Earth's Mantle

7.4. 3He/4He Ratio and 20Ne Excess in Terrestrial Samples

7.5. Helium/Argon Isotope Relationship

Chapter 8 - Helium Isotopes in Rocks, Waters and Gases of the Earth's Crust

8.1. Distribution of 3He and 4He in Rocks of the Earth's Crust

8.2. The Distribution of 3He and 4He in Mineral Fractions

8.3. Helium Isotopes in Some Minerals

8.4. Distribution and Origin of Helium and Argon Isotopes in Gas—Liquid Microinclusions in Minerals

8.5. Distribution of Helium Isotopes in Terrestrial Gases; Relationships with Geotectonics and Heat Flow

8.6. The 3H—3He Method; Its Application in Physical Hydrology and Limnology

Chapter 9 -Helium Isotopes in Seawater

9.1. Origin of Helium Isotopes in Seawater

9.2. Distribution of Helium Isotopes in oceanic Waters

Chapter 10 - Helium Isotopes in the Earth's Atmosphere

10.1. Distribution of Helium Isotopes in the Atmosphere

10.2. Helium Isotopes in a "Nondissipated" Atmosphere

10.3. The Problem of Helium Escape

10.4. Recent Investigations of Helium Escape

Chapter 11 - Outgassing of the Mantle and Crust; The Evolution of Noble Gases in the Atmosphere

11.1. The Problem of the Earth Degassing

11.2. A Model of the Earth Degassing and Differentiation; Description, Assumptions, Observations and Parameters

11.3. A Model of the Earth Degassing and Differentiation: Evaluation of Solutions



Subject Index


Developments in Geochemistry, Volume 3: Helium Isotopes in Nature presents the isotopic investigations of noble gases. This book describes the origin, the history, and the contemporary distribution of isotopes of helium. Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of mass-spectrometric methods and measurements of the helium isotope abundance. This text then discusses the methods of collecting various terrestrial samples as well as the apparatus for helium extraction, volumetric measurements, and purification. Other chapters consider the isotope composition of primordial, radiogenic, and spallogenic light noble gases. This book discusses as well the origin and distribution of helium isotopes in meteorites, in the Earth's mantle, the crust and ocean, and in the atmosphere. The final chapter deals with the scientific and applied problems that can be resolved to the progress in helium isotope geochemistry. This book is a valuable resource for scientists. Research workers and students interested in the geochemistry of helium will also find this book useful.


© Elsevier Science 1984
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:


"In this handsomely bound book, one finds many important conclusions on oceanography, tectonics, geothermometry, mantle evolution and other subjects derived from the observations of He isotopic composition. I believe that the book is useful not only to noble gas geochemists, but also to other earth scientists, especially those working in geothermometry, tectonophysics, and petrology who may find many useful applications of the He isotopic data presented in this book in their own research." --Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

About the Editors

W.S. Fyfe Editor

About the Authors

B.A. Mamyrin Author

I.N. Tolstikhin Author