The Human Hypothalamus

The Human Hypothalamus

Neuropsychiatric Disorders

1st Edition - July 7, 2021

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  • Editors: Dick Swaab, Ruud Buijs, Felix Kreier, Paul J. Lucassen, Ahmad Salehi
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128199749
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128199732

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Description

The Human Hypothalamus: Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Volume 181 in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, provides comprehensive summaries of recent research on the brain and nervous system as they relate to clinical neurology. This volume identifies the neurobiology and neurophysiology of disorders relating to the hypothalamus and provides treatment information for these disorders. Disorders covered include neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative, periodic, and autoimmune disorders. Coverage includes Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, epilepsy, sleep, pain, depression, anxiety, OCD, PTSD, schizophrenia, autism, aggressions, addiction, and more.

Key Features

  • Summarizes research on how the hypothalamus relates to neurological disorders
  • Contains neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative, periodic and autonomic disorders
  • Includes the neurobiology of, and treatment for, each disorder
  • Covers depression, anxiety, OCD, PTSD, schizophrenia, autism, aggression, addiction, and more
  • Provides coverage of sleep and pain

Readership

Clinical neurologists, researchers in neurology

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • The HCN volumes on the Human Hypothalamus
  • Contributors
  • Contents of related volumes
  • Chapter 1: Introduction: The human hypothalamus and neuropsychiatric disorders
  • Section 21: Trauma and Iatrogenic Disorders
  • Section 22: Neurobehavioral Disorders
  • Section 23: Epilepsy
  • Section 24: Neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Section 25: Olfactory System
  • Section 26: Autonomic and Sleep Disorders
  • Section 27: Addiction and Pain
  • Section 28: Critical Care and Brain Death
  • Section 21: Trauma and iatrogenic disorders
  • Chapter 2: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the nucleus basalis of Meynert
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pathologic Features of CTE
  • CTE Tau Pathological Staging
  • Nucleus Basalis of Meynert in CTE
  • Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Subfields
  • Cholinergic nbM Dysfunction in CTE
  • Tau NFT Pathology Within the nbM in CTE
  • Amyloid Pathology in the nbM in CTE
  • nbM Cortical Cholinergic Disconnection in CTE
  • White Matter Disruption of nbM Axons in CTE
  • Transcript Expression in CTE
  • Cholinergic Transcript Dysregulation in Tau-Containing nbM Neurons in CTE
  • Clinical Consequences of nbM Pathobiology in CTE
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Section 22: Neurobehavioral disorders
  • Chapter 3: Hypothalamic stress systems in mood disorders
  • Abstract
  • Stress System Dysfunction in Mood Disorders
  • Translation of Neuropeptide Pharmacology Into Novel Medicines
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 4: Light therapy for mood disorders
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology of (Peripartum) Mood Disorders
  • Working Mechanisms of Light Therapy
  • Clinical Studies of Light Therapy
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 5: Neurobiology of peripartum mental illness
  • Abstract
  • Introduction to the Parental Brain
  • Peripartum Mental Illness Occurs in One in Seven Women
  • Neurobiology of Peripartum Mental Illness
  • Other Factors Influencing Peripartum Mental Illness
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 6: The hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system in burnout
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Hypothalamo–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis in Burnout
  • Autonomic System in Burnout
  • Methodologic Aspects
  • Summary
  • Chapter 7: Posterior hypothalamus as a target in the treatment of aggression: From lesioning to deep brain stimulation
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Clinical Correlates of Aggression
  • Laboratory Experiences: Roots of Surgical Approach for Aggressive Disorders
  • At the Dawn of Surgery for Aggressive Disorders: The Lesional Era
  • A Step Into Brain Stimulation: The DBS Era
  • From the Target to the Circuit
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 8: The implications of hypothalamic abnormalities for schizophrenia
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Hypothalamic Gross Anatomic Pathology in Schizophrenia
  • Hypothalamic Cell Pathology in Schizophrenia
  • Concentrations of Classical Neurotransmitters and Their Metabolites
  • Changes in Hypothalamic Neurosecretory Neurons
  • Alterations of Hypothalamic-Releasing and Inhibiting Factors Which Regulate Hormonal Axes
  • Alteration of Peptide Hormones Regulating Food Intake, Appetite, and Satiety
  • Alteration of Hypothalamic Opioid Peptides: POMC, Endorphins, and Enkephalins
  • Alterations in the Expression of Susceptibility Genes for Schizophrenia
  • Role of the Hypothalamus in Sleep Disturbances in Schizophrenia
  • Disease-Related Neuroinflammatory and Neuroimmune Disturbances and the Impact of the Hypothalamus
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 9: The promiscuity of the oxytocin–vasopressin systems and their involvement in autism spectrum disorder
  • Abstract
  • Introduction: Oxytocin and Vasopressin Synthesis, Gene Structure, and Function
  • Evolutionary History of Oxytocin and Vasopressin Ligands and Receptors
  • Oxytocin and Vasopressin Ligand and Receptor Distribution in the Human and Mouse Brain
  • Oxytocin and Vasopressin Regulate Social Behaviors
  • Oxytocinergic and Vasopressinergic Systems Are Impaired in ASD and Related Animal Models
  • Treatments for ASD Targeting the Oxytocinergic and Vasopressinergic Systems
  • Conclusion
  • Section 23: Epilepsy
  • Chapter 10: Gelastic seizures and the hypothalamic hamartoma syndrome: Epileptogenesis beyond the lesion?
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • MRI-Based Classification of HH With Regard to Clinical Phenotypes
  • Seizure Semiology in Epilepsy With HH
  • Epilepsy with HH as a Model of Secondary Epileptogenesis
  • Secondary Epileptogenesis and the Concept of Epileptogenic Networks
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 11: The interactions between reproductive hormones and epilepsy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The Effects of Hormones on Epilepsy
  • The Effects of Epilepsy on Reproductive Endocrine Function
  • Antiepileptic Drug-Related Mechanisms
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Section 24: Neurodegenerative disorders
  • Chapter 12: Alternative splicing in aging and Alzheimer's disease: Highlighting the role of tau and estrogen receptor α isoforms in the hypothalamus
  • Abstract
  • Alternative Splicing
  • Alternative Splicing in the Brain
  • Alternative Splicing Regulators in the Brain
  • Alternative Splicing in the Human Brain in Aging
  • Alternative Splicing in the Human Brain in Neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Tau Splicing in AD and Other Neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Tau Gene Alternative Splicing Regulation in AD and Other Neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Alternative Splicing Changes in Other AD-Related Genes
  • Relationship Between Estrogens, Estrogen Receptor α, and Alzheimer's Disease
  • ERα in the Human Brain in Aging and in AD
  • ERα Alternative Splicing Regulation
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 13: Cholinergic neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease mouse models
  • Abstract
  • The Cholinergic System: Contributions of the Hypothalamus
  • The Cholinergic System in Alzheimer's Disease
  • The Amyloid Cascade and Animal Models of AD
  • Early APP Models
  • Presenilin-1 and Double Transgenic Models: The 5xFAD Mouse
  • APP and Down Syndrome: The Ts65Dn Mouse
  • Tau Pathology in AD Mouse Models
  • Future Directions: The APP Knock-In Mouse and Other Alternatives
  • Conclusions
  • Declarations of interest
  • Chapter 14: Autonomic disorders in Parkinson disease: Disrupted hypothalamic connectivity as revealed from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Autonomic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease
  • Lewy Bodies and Neurodegeneration in the Hypothalamus
  • Alterations in Neurotransmitter Systems in the Hypothalamus Demonstrated In Vivo
  • Hypothalamic Connectivity and Autonomic Dysfunction in PD
  • Micro- and Macrostructural Alterations in the Hypothalamus in PD
  • The Role of the Hypothalamus in Atypical Parkinsonism Disorders
  • Hypothalamic Neuroimaging as a Tool in Clinical Trials
  • Future Research Directions
  • Chapter 15: Hypothalamic α-synuclein and its relation to autonomic symptoms and neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson disease
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Nonmotor Symptoms and Hypothalamic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease
  • Clinico-Pathologic Correlations in Parkinson's Disease and Hypothalamic Neuropathologic Involvement by Lewy Pathology
  • Future Directions
  • Chapter 16: Lewy bodies in the olfactory system and the hypothalamus
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The Olfactory System
  • Hypothalamus
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 17: Hypothalamic pathology in Huntington disease
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Clinical Evidence of Hypothalamic Involvement in HD Patients
  • Rodent Models of HD Used to Study Hypothalamic Pathology and Their Comparison to HD Patients
  • The Hypothalamic Effects of Mutant Huntingtin
  • Hypothalamic Pathology in Huntington's Disease
  • Other Hypothalamic Nuclei
  • Therapeutic Opportunities
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 18: Endocrine dysfunction in adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction and Historical Perspective
  • Pathology of Adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Biochemistry and Genetics of Adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Diagnosing Adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Clinical Features of Adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Treatment of ALD
  • Prognosis of ALD
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 19: Hypothalamic symptoms of frontotemporal dementia disorders
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • FTD Pathology
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis—Frontotemporal Dementia Overlap
  • Acknowledgments
  • Section 25: Olfactory system
  • Chapter 20: The vomeronasal organ: History, development, morphology, and functional neuroanatomy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Gross Morphology
  • Histology
  • Electron Microscopy
  • Neuroanatomy and Connections to the Hypothalamus
  • Function
  • Role in Social Behavior
  • Role in Some Pathological Processes
  • Malignancies
  • Future Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 21: Pheromone effects on the human hypothalamus in relation to sexual orientation and gender
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Neural Coding of Mammalian Pheromones
  • Human Chemosensory Communication
  • Neural Responses to Human Chemosignals
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 22: Kallmann syndrome and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: The role of semaphorin signaling on GnRH neurons
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The Role of Semaphorins and their Receptors/Coreceptors in GnRH Neuronal Ontogeny and Mammalian Reproduction
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 23: Olfaction as an early marker of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Testing of Olfaction
  • Pathology in the Olfactory System in PD
  • Pathology in the Olfactory System in AD
  • Neurotransmitter Changes Associated with Olfactory Dysfunction in PD and AD
  • Vulnerability of the Olfactory System in PD and AD
  • Olfaction in the Differential Diagnosis of PD
  • Olfaction in the Differential Diagnosis of AD
  • Olfaction in the Premotor Diagnosis of PD
  • Olfaction as an Early Predictor of AD
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Section 26: Autonomic and sleep disorders
  • Chapter 24: The hypothalamus and its role in hypertension
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Hypothalamic Alteration in Hypertension
  • Clinical Relevance
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 25: The heart is lost without the hypothalamus
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The PVN—Reflex Circuitry
  • Excitatory–Inhibitory Neurotransmitter Interaction
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Neuronal Nitric Oxide—Nitric Oxide Bioavailability
  • NMDA—Hypoxia
  • Summary
  • Chapter 26: Sleep disorders and the hypothalamus
  • Abstract
  • General Introduction
  • Narcolepsy
  • Symptomatic Narcolepsy
  • Kleine–Levin Syndrome
  • Hypothalamic Syndromes With Prominent Sleep Involvement
  • Sleep in Endocrine Disorders
  • Section 27: Addiction and pain
  • Chapter 27: Molecular genetics of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved in Internet use disorders including first insights on a potential role of hypothalamus’ oxytocin hormone
  • Abstract
  • Internet Use Disorders
  • Neurotransmitters, Neuropeptides, and Internet Use Disorders
  • Twin Studies—Are Internet Use Disorders Heritable?
  • Initial Molecular Genetic Findings in the Light of Internet Use Disorders
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 28: The neurobiology of cluster headache
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Genetics
  • Clinical Aspects
  • The Pain and the Trigeminal Nerve
  • The Hypothalamus
  • Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Cluster Headache
  • Section 28: Critical care and brain-death
  • Chapter 29: Endocrine interventions in the intensive care unit
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The Hypothalamic–Pituitary Cross-Talk, the Orchestrator of the Hormonal Stress Responses to Critical Illness
  • Alterations Within the Five Main Neuroendocrine Axes in Response to Critical Illness
  • Clinical Relevance and Implications
  • Chapter 30: Hypothalamic function in patients diagnosed as brain dead and its practical consequences
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Basic Pathophysiology of Brain Death and Diagnostic Testing
  • Hypothalamic Function in Patients Diagnosed as Brain Dead
  • Discussion and Implications
  • Conclusion
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 516
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: July 7, 2021
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128199749
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128199732

About the Editors

Dick Swaab

Dick Swaab (1944) earned his medical and doctoral degrees at the University of Amsterdam, where he became involved in brain research during his third year of medical school. He was Director of the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research from 1978 to 2005. Since 1979 he is Professor of Neurobiology at the Medical Faculty, University of Amsterdam.

In 1985, Dr. Swaab founded the Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB) to serve as a source of clinically and neuropathologically well-documented research tissue. Since its founding, the Brain Bank has provided samples from more than 4,000 autopsies to 500 research groups in 25 countries. He was director of the NBB until 2005.

He is Leader Research team Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Neth. Inst for Neuroscience, an institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). Swaab is also appointed for 2011-2017 Chao Kuang Piu Chair of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, P.R. China.

His major research interests focus on, sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation, aging of the brain, Alzheimer’s disease, the neurobiological basis of depression, suicide and eating disorders. He has published over 540 papers in SCI journals, authored more than 200 chapters in books, and edited more than 60 books. Swaab mentored 84 PhD students from which 16 are now full professor. He is “Companion in the Order of the Dutch Lion”, bestowed by her Royal Majesty Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands. In 2008 Swaab obtained the Academy medal for his role in national and international neuroscience.

Dick Swaab is author of the 2 volume monograph The Human Hypothalamus that appeared in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1000 pp) and the Dutch best seller We are our Brains (450.000 copies sold), that is translated in 14 languages. A children's version of the book (You are your brains) has also appeared in Dutch in 2013 and Russian (2014). Swaab's H-factor is 76.

Affiliations and Expertise

Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Ruud Buijs

Dr. Ruud M. Buijs is head of the Physiology department of the I.I.Biomedicas at the UNAM university and leader of the group Hypothalamic Integration Mechanisms. In that group, the scientists study how the brain and body interact with each other, and hereby the attention is focussed on autonomic and hormonal regulation of body functions under the influence of the biological clock of the brain.

Affiliations and Expertise

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D.F.

Felix Kreier

Felix Kreier is a pediatrician and affiliated with OLVG Hospitals in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Affiliations and Expertise

OLVG Hospitals, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Paul J. Lucassen

Paul J. Lucassen did his PhD in 1995 on Alzheimer’s Disease at the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research in Amsterdam. After a.o. a postdoc in Leiden, he became Full Professor of Brain Plasticity in 2011 at the Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences (SILS) of the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. His group studies molecular, nutritional, pharmacological and environmental regulation of brain plasticity. They combine molecular tools, in vitro/vivo model systems, human brain tissue, cohort studies and brain imaging. A major focus is on adult neurogenesis and cognition in relation to; (early life) stress, exercise, enrichment, depression, brain insults and dementia.

Affiliations and Expertise

Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences (SILS) - Center for Neuroscience, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Ahmad Salehi

Ahmad Salehi is affiliated with Stanford Medical School, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, in Palo Alto, CA, United States.

Affiliations and Expertise

Stanford Medical School, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA, United States

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