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Glucose Intake and Utilization in Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128000939, 9780128005798

Glucose Intake and Utilization in Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes

1st Edition

Implications for Cardiovascular Disease

Editors: Ronald Watson Betsy Dokken
eBook ISBN: 9780128005798
Paperback ISBN: 9780128103326
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000939
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 22nd November 2014
Page Count: 442
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This important reference, edited by Ronald Ross Watson and Betsy Dokken, collects the research needed to make the distinct connection between pre-diabetes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Glucose Intake and Utilization in Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease explains the mechanisms of progression from pre-diabetes to diabetes to cardiovascular disease. Since pre-diabetes and diabetes are important cardiovascular disease risk factors, and impaired glucose metabolism among cardiac patients is extremely prevalent, the importance of reviewing pre-diabetes and its involvement in CVD complications is vital as one applies food and glycemic control to slow progress to diabetes and heart disease. The book further focuses on glucose intake and utilization in diabetes, including coverage of diabetes in the development and pathology of cardiovascular disease, risks and epidemiology of cardiovascular problems promoted by diabetes, macrovascular effects and their safety in therapy of diabetics, beta cell biology and therapy of diabetes, and nutrition to modulate diabetes.

Key Features

  • Offers a complete review of cardiac health problems occurring with significant frequency in patients relative to their ability to regulate glucose
  • Presents coverage of the role of glucose utilization, development of pre-diabetes and the ultimate development of various cardiovascular diseases
  • Provides thorough dietary, nutrition, complementary and alternative botanical therapies for pre-diabetes and diabetes to halt the progression to cardiovascular disease


Cardiology and Endocrine researchers, clinicians and scientists from industry, academia and practice.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
    • Part I: Pre-Diabetes in Health and Disease: Prevention and Treatment
    • Part II: Diabetes
  • About the Editors
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part I: Pre-Diabetes in Health and Disease: Prevention and Treatment
    • Section 1: Modulation of Pre-Diabetes and Altered Glucose Metabolism: Pathophysiology, Drugs, Genetics, Epigenetics, and Nutrition
      • Section 1A: Background on pre-diabetes and its management
        • Chapter 1. Early Origins of Health and Disease
          • Introduction
          • Developmental Programming of MS (CVD): Human Data
          • Developmental Programming of MS (CVD): Animal Models
          • Mechanisms
          • Conclusion
          • References
        • Chapter 2. Diabetes and Obesity: The Impact of Their Coincidence on Health and Life
          • Introduction
          • Pathophysiology
          • Complications of Obesity and DM: Impact on Health and Life
          • Ways to Prevent/Reduce the Risks
          • Medical Interventions
          • Summary
          • References
        • Chapter 3. Diabetes: A New Horizon and Approach to Management
          • Introduction
          • Multidisciplinary Approach to Management
          • Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Glycemic Control
          • Pharmacological Intervention for Diabetes Control
          • Monotherapy Versus Combination Therapy
          • Classification of Pharmacological Agents
          • New Therapeutic Modalities in Diabetes Management
          • Key Recommendations to Achieve Optimum Diabetes Control
          • Conclusion
          • References
        • Chapter 4. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Diabetes Self-Management
          • Psychosocial Factors Associated with Diabetes Self-Management
          • Self-Management Expectations and Adherence
          • Psychological Factors Associated with Diabetes Self-Management
          • Social Factors Associated with Diabetes Self-Management
          • Implications for Practice
          • Conclusion
          • References
        • Chapter 5. The Relationship Between the Organization of Services for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes and the Risk of Long-Term Complications
          • Introduction
          • Analysis of Current Organizational Systems
          • The Role of the Diabetes Center
          • Integrated Management with PCPs
          • Integrated Management with PCPs and the Use of Telemedicine
          • Future Perspectives
          • References
        • Chapter 6. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Comorbid Conditions Associated with Morbid Obesity
          • Introduction
          • Current Surgical Therapies for Morbid Obesity
          • Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Weight Loss and Operative Mortality
          • Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Obesity-Related Comorbidities
          • Summary: Effect of Bariatric Surgery
          • References
        • Chapter 7. Dietary Management of Pre-Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes
          • Introduction
          • References
      • Section 1B: Physiological modulators of pre-diabetes and cardiovascular disease development
        • Chapter 8. Insulin Resistance and Inflammation: Links Between Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease
          • Introduction
          • Free Fatty Acids
          • ER Stress
          • Hyperinsulinemia
          • Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and CVD
          • References
        • Chapter 9. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Pre-Diabetes: A Hypothesis
          • Introduction
          • Background to Hypothesis
          • The Problems
          • The Hypotheses: Alternative Model of Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Pre-diabetes and UDM Plus Strategy for Early/Improved Identification of Pre-diabetes
          • Discussion: Significance of Hypothesis
          • Conclusion
          • Acknowledgment
          • References
        • Chapter 10. Pre-Diabetes, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Arterial Stiffness—ADMA: Mechanisms of Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes: Modulation of Cardiac Tissues
          • Introduction
          • Hyperglycemia and Atherosclerosis
          • Atherosclerosis and Arterial Stiffness
          • Molecular Mechanisms of Arterial Stiffness
          • Cellular Component of Arterial Stiffening
          • ADMA, Pre-Diabetes, and CVD
          • Conclusion
          • References
    • Section 2: Nutrition and Food to Modulate Pre-Diabetes and Resulting Cardiac Disease
      • Section 2A: Mechanisms of pre-diabetes and diabetes modulation of cardiac tissues
        • Chapter 11. Effect of Fiber and Low Glycemic Load Diet on Blood Glucose Profile and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Diabetes and Poorly Controlled Diabetic Subjects
          • Introduction
          • Effect of Fiber on Postprandial Blood Glucose and Diabetes
          • Effect of Low GI, GL, and Fiber in Diet on Glucose Control in GDM
          • Effect of Low GL Diet on HBA1C in Poorly Controlled Diabetes Patients
          • Effect of Low GL Diet on Changes in Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Poorly Controlled Diabetic Patients
          • References
        • Chapter 12. Glucose Uptake and Its Consequence on Cardiomyocyte Function
          • Introduction
          • Cardiac Metabolism Under Physiological Conditions
          • Modification of Metabolism in the Diabetic Heart
          • Modification of Cardiac Function in the Diabetic Heart
          • Targeting Glucose Utilization and Insulin Response in the Diabetic Cardiomyocyte
          • Glucotoxicity: The Dark Side of Glucose
          • Conclusion
          • Funding
          • References
        • Chapter 13. Hypertension and Dyslipidemia in Patients with Pre-Diabetes: Dietary and Other Therapies
          • Introduction
          • Dyslipidemia in Pre-Diabetes: Mechanisms and Clinical Characteristics
          • Clinical Significance of Dyslipidemia in Pre-Diabetes
          • Targets of Lipid-Lowering Interventions in Pre-Diabetic Subjects
          • Therapeutic Options
          • The Role of RAAS in BP and Glucose Metabolism
          • Angiotensin II
          • Aldosterone
          • Effects of Antihypertensive Drugs Other Than Those Acting on RAAS on Glucose Metabolism
          • Development of New-Onset T2DM with Different Antihypertensive Drug Classes
          • New-Onset T2DM and Cardiovascular Outcomes
          • Antihypertensive Treatment in Patients with Pre-Diabetes
          • ARBs with Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Properties
          • Conclusions
          • References
        • Chapter 14. Animal Models of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
          • Introduction
          • Models of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
          • The Streptozotocin Model
          • OVE26 Mouse Model
          • Zucker Fatty Rat and Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat Models
          • Models of Lipotoxicity
          • Model of Fibrosis
          • Models of Insulin Resistance and Obesity
          • Some Additional Genetic Models with Defective Insulin Signaling
          • Cardiomyocyte GLUT4-KO
          • UCP-DTA Mouse
          • Goto-Kakizaki Rat
          • Additional Models of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
          • Conclusion
          • References
      • Section 2B: Dietary supplements in prevention of pre-diabetes and diabetes and thus related cardiac dysfunction
        • Chapter 15. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: A Potential Antidiabetic Agent from Trigonella foenum-graecum
          • Introduction
          • 4-Hydroxyisoleucine
          • Antidiabetic Activity of 4-OH-Ile
          • Mechanism of Action at the Molecular Level
          • Metabolism of 4-OH-Ile
          • Conclusion
          • References
        • Chapter 16. mHealth Technologies in Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes Care
          • Introduction
          • Types of Diabetes-Related Technologies
          • Challenges Associated with Adoption of mHealth Diabetes Care Solutions
          • Conclusion
          • References
        • Chapter 17. Fruit and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes
          • Fruit and Glycemic Control
          • Acute Studies: Postprandial Blood Glucose
          • Potential Problems Using GI Studies
          • Long-Term Studies: HBA1C
          • How Many Pieces of Fruit at a Time?
          • How Much Fruit a Day?
          • Mechanisms Involved in the Effects of Fruit on Glycemic Control
          • Potential Negative Effects of Fruit and Fructose
          • Beneficial Effects of Fruit on Diseases
          • Conclusions
          • References
        • Chapter 18. Antihyperglycemic Activity of Bioactive Compounds from Soybeans
          • Introduction
          • Botanical Description
          • Antihyperglycemic Bioactive Compounds from Soya
          • Summary Points
          • References
        • Chapter 19. Myoinositol Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in Gestational Diabetes
          • Myoinositol
          • Insulin Resistance and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
          • Myoinositol in Clinical Practice
          • References
        • Chapter 20. The Tibetan Herbal Preparation Padma 28 (Padma Basic) in the Treatment and Prevention of Diabetic Complications and Atherosclerosis
          • Network Etiology of Complex Diseases: The Example of Diabetes-Associated Diseases
          • Padma 28 in Atherogenesis as an Example of the Multi-target Mode of Action
          • Pathogenesis of Diabetes-Associated Diseases
          • Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Mechanisms of Padma 28
          • Advanced Glycation End-products
          • Chronic Low-Level Inflammation and Anti-inflammatory Mechanisms of Padma 28
          • Outlook and Conclusions
          • References
  • Part II: Diabetes
    • Section 3: Diabetes in Development and Pathology of Cardiovascular Disease
      • Section 3A: Role of foods in cardiovascular problems promoted by diabetes
        • Chapter 21. Cardiovascular Biomarker Assessment Across Glycemic Status
          • A Review of Macrovascular Results in Past Major Clinical Trials Involving Glucose Control
          • Overview of Current Clinical Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk
          • Myeloperoxidase
          • Cardiac Troponins
          • B-Type Natriuretic Peptide
          • Albuminuria
          • Perspectives on Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk
          • Conclusion
          • References
        • Chapter 22. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: From Concept to Implementation
          • Nutritional Medicine and Comprehensive Diabetes Care
          • White Papers on Nutrition and T2D
          • Clinical Algorithms as Practice Management Tools
          • The Transculturalization Process
          • The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm Concept and Development
          • Translating the tDNA Development Process into Results
          • tDNA Content Validation
          • tDNA Clinical Validation Plans
          • Conclusions
          • References
        • Chapter 23. Microcirculation: A Key Effector in Insulin Resistance
          • Introduction
          • Background
          • How to Measure Microcirculation
          • Microcirculation: Structural and Functional Specificities
          • Insulin as a Vasoactive Hormone
          • Limitations and Technical Biases
          • Microcirculation in Pre-Diabetes
          • Conclusion
          • References
        • Chapter 24. Glucose Intake and Utilization in Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes: Tomato and Diabetes
          • Introduction
          • Conclusion
          • References
        • Chapter 25. Optimal Carbohydrate and Nutrient Intake for Japanese Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
          • Introduction
          • Diabetes in Older Adults
          • Characteristics of Asian Diabetic Patients
          • MNT in Diabetes Management
          • Dietary Intake in Japanese Elderly Diabetic Patients
          • Obesity and Dietary Intake in Japanese Elderly Diabetic Patients
          • Optimal Carbohydrate Intake in Japanese Elderly Diabetic Patients
          • The Relationship Between Vegetable Intake and Diabetes Control
          • References
        • Chapter 26. Mediterranean Diet for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes
          • Introduction
          • The Med Diet
          • Measuring Adherence to a Med Diet: The Med Diet Score
          • Epidemiologic Studies
          • Intervention Studies
          • The Protective Effect of Individual Med Diet Food Components
          • Conclusion
          • References
        • Chapter 27. The Role of Nutrition and Supplementation in Dialysis Patient Health: Specific Nutritional Recommendations and Evidence of the Functional Effects of Food and Supplements in the Health of Chronic Kidney-Disease Patients on Dialysis
          • Chronic Kidney Disease and Dialysis Treatment
          • Dietary Recommendations for Dialysis Patients
          • Supplements in Dialysis Patients
          • References
        • Chapter 28. Bioactive Compounds Increase Incretins with Beneficial Effects on Diabetes
          • Introduction
          • Mode of Action
          • Incretin Mimetic and Incretin Enhancer
          • Sitagliptin
          • Vildagliptin
          • Berberine
          • Lupeol
          • Conclusion
          • References
      • Section 3B: Exercise diabetes and cardiovascular disease
        • Chapter 29. Exercise and Diet Improve Cardiometabolic Risk in Overweight and Obese Individuals Without Weight Loss
          • Introduction
          • Reduction in T2D Risk
          • Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Action
          • Blood Pressure
          • Lipids and Lipoproteins
          • Endothelial Function
          • Inflammation
          • Skeletal Muscle Adaptations with Exercise Training
          • Summary and Conclusions
          • References
      • Section 3C: Nutrition and food to modulate diabetes: Heart and vascular health
        • Chapter 30. Protein in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
          • Introduction
          • HP Diets and Weight Loss
          • HP Diets and Blood Lipids
          • HP Diets and Glycemic Control in T2DM
          • HP Diets and Blood Pressure
          • Protein and Satiety
          • Protein and Energy Expenditure
          • Effect of Protein on Glycemic Response
          • Potential Risks of HP Diet
          • Summary
          • References
        • Chapter 31. Nutritional Support in Hospitalized Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
          • List of Abbreviations
          • Introduction
          • General Nutrition in Diabetes
          • Nutrition in Hospitalized Patients
          • EN in Diabetic Patients
          • Diabetes Medication Administration with EN
          • PN in Diabetes
          • PN Macronutrient Effect on Hyperglycemia
          • Micronutrient Adjunct Therapy in PN
          • Conclusion
          • References
        • Chapter 32. Amino Acids Supplementation as Nutritional Therapy Strategy in Diabetes Mellitus
          • Amino Acids Supplementation as a Rational Approach to Treatment of Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes
          • β-Cell Nutrient Metabolism Is Central to the Insulin Secretion
          • Concluding Remarks on Secretagogue Effects of Amino Acids
          • Amino Acids Supplementation to Maintain Muscle Mass in T2DM
          • Exercise-Induced Improvement of the Positive Effects of Amino Acids in Pre-Diabetes and T2DM: An Open Issue
          • Clusters of Amino Acids and Risk of Diabetes: An Intriguing Issue
          • Amino Acids and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Diabetes
          • Concluding Remarks
          • References
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2014
22nd November 2014
Academic Press
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About the Editors

Ronald Watson

Ronald Watson

Ronald Ross Watson, PhD, is Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Dr. Watson began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a Fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United States which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring as a Lt. Colonel. He is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Dr. Watson’s career has involved studying many lifestyle aspects for their uses in health promotion. He has edited over 100 biomedical reference books and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research focuses on alcohol, tobacco, and drugs of abuse in heart function and disease in mouse models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Betsy Dokken

Dr. Betsy Dokken has training and degrees in nursing. Her Ph.D. is in experimental diabetes in rats working on insulin resistance. Her postdoctoral fellowship was at the applied Cardiovascular Physiology Laboratories in the University of Arizona Sarver Heart Center. She studied ischemia-reperfusion injury in diabetic hearts. Betsy is a certified diabetic educator and registered nurse. Dr. Dokken is an adjunct clinical assistant professor of nursing. Her principal appointment is in the section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension with 20% of her time spent on clinical practice (diabetes, obesity, and related disorders). She has published 7 review chapters, 13 peer reviewed chapters and 10 journal articles relating to CVD and diabetes. Her grants and research focus on diabetic heart disease. Betsy has been extensively involved in nursing and diabetes societies in Arizona and nationally.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, USA


"...a unique resource...a fresh look at preventive cardiology. It is useful for its evidence-based insights into many standard as well as less well-known dietary therapies. Score: 84 = 3 Stars" --Doody's

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