2009 Nobel Prize Physics Articles

Charles KaoWillard BoyleGeorge Smith

This year the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for two scientific achievements that have lead to practical innovations in everyday life and have enhanced the means for scientific and technological exploration. Elsevier would like to congratulate the winners with their impressive achievements.

Charles K. Kao was awarded one half of the prize "for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication." His interest and enthousiasm inspired and innovated researchers to engage with the potential that was to be found in the field of fiber optics.

Williard S. Boyle and George E. Smith received the other half of the prize "for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit- the CCD sensor."

In recognition of the importance of their work,
we are pleased to make the laureates' key articles published by Elsevier freely available.

Charles K. Kao

Infra-Red Optical Communication Systems
Infrared Physics, 1968, Vol. 8, pp. 123-129, J. Lytollis, C. K. Kao and G.I. Turner.

Willard S. Boyle

Transition to the High Field Limit in the Zeeman Spectra of Germanium Donors 
J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1961). Vol. 19, Nos 3/4, pp. 181-188, Pergamon Press, W.S. Boyle and R. E. Howard.


George E. Smith

The Invention of the CCD
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A 471 (2001) 1-5.
George E. Smith

Note on Negative resistance of silicon p-n junctions at 4'2K
Solid-State Electronics, 1962. Vol. 5, pp. 177-178. Pergamon Press.