2008 Nobel Prize Physics Articles

Professor Yoichiro Nambu


Nobel Prize in Physics for 2008 was awarded to Yoichiro Nambu, Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa.

Elsevier would like to congratulate the winners with their impressive achievements.

Yoichiro Nambu (1921) is a Japan-born physicist, currently a professor at the University of Chicago. Known for his contributions to theoretical physics, he was one of the 2008 nobel laureates in physics, awarded to him "for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics".

He was involved in the study of gauge invariance in the BCS theory of superconductivity and in the early study of spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics. His famous research on the "color charge" of quarks led to the establishment of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as the standard theory of the strong interactions. He was involved in discovering that the dual resonance model could be explained as a quantum mechanical theory of strings, and he is credited with being one of the founders of string theory.

Most Cited Articles Professor Nambu has published with Elsevier

String-like configurations in the Weinberg-Salam theory
Nuclear Physics B, Volume 130, Issue 3, 21 November 1977, Pages 505-515
Y. Nambu

III. Magnetic and electric confinement of quarks
Physics Reports, Volume 23, Issue 3, February 1976, Pages 250-253
Y. Nambu

QCD and the string model
Physics Letters B, Volume 80, Issues 4-5, 15 January 1979, Pages 372-376
Yoichiro Nambu

Hamilton—Jacobi formalism for strings
Physics Letters B, Volume 92, Issues 3-4, 19 May 1980, Pages 327-330
Y. Nambu

Fermion-Boson relations in BCS-type theories
Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, Volume 15, Issues 1-2, February 1985, Pages 147-151
Y. Nambu

Annals of Physics, Volume 191, Issue 1, April 1989, Pages 143-162
Madhusree Mukerjee, Yoichiro Nambu

Effective abelian gauge fields
Physics Letters B, Volume 102, Issues 2-3, 11 June 1981, Pages 149-153
Y. Nambu

S - matrix in semiclassical approximation
Physics Letters B, Volume 26, Issue 10, 15 April 1968, Pages 626-629
Y. Nambu

BCS mechanism and the interacting boson model
Physics Letters B, Volume 209, Issue 1, 28 July 1988, Pages 1-5
Y. Nambu, M. Mukerjee

Superconductivity and particle physics
Physica B+C, Volume 126, Issues 1-3, November 1984, Pages 328-334
Y. Nambu


Makoto Kobayashi (1944) and Toshihide Maskawa (1940) are both Japanese physicists, who are best known for their work on CP-violation. Kobayashi and Maskawa are two of the three 2008 nobel laureates in physics "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature."
They wrote the article "CP Violation in the Renormalizable Theory of Weak Interaction" (1973), this article is the third most cited high energy physics paper of all time. The Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, which defines the mixing parameters between quarks was the result of this work.

Most Cited Articles Professor Kobayashi and Professor Maskawa have published with Elsevier

Structure of non-linear realization in supersymmetric theories
Physics Letters B, Volume 138, Issues 1-3, 12 April 1984, Pages 94-98
M. Bando, T. Kuramoto, T. Maskawa, S. Uehara

Does Faddeev's anomaly exist in Gauss law constraints?
Physics Letters B, Volume 159, Issues 4-6, 26 September 1985, Pages 315-320
Makoto Kobayashi, Akio Sugamoto

Commutator anomaly for the Gauss law constraint operator
Nuclear Physics B, Volume 273, Issues 3-4, 1 September 1986, Pages 607-628
Makoto Kobayashi, Koichi Seo, Akio Sugamoto