Journal News

Metal replacement market to reach US€159.82 billion by 2021
http://www.materialstoday.com/composite-industry/news/metal-replacement-market-to-reach-/

The metal replacement market, including composites, is projected to reach US$159.82 billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 9.2% from 2016 to 2021, according to a new report published by Research and Markets. The increasing consumption of metal-replacing materials in the automotive and construction industries is one of the most significant factors driving the growth of this market, while the high cost of materials is expected to restrict the market's growth, the report suggests.

Currently, composites are the most prominent metal replacing materials, due to their performance. Composites offer several advantages, such as superior weight to strength ratio, superior thermal resistance, good corrosion resistance, and high impact resistance.

The Asia-Pacific metal replacement market is anticipated to grow at the highest CAGR between 2016 and 2021. Growth in this market is driven by the increasing demand for metal replacing materials from China and India. 

This story is reprinted from material from Research and Markets, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

IHEA’s online learning course set for spring 2017
http://www.materialstoday.com/metal-processing/news/iheas-online-learning-course-set-for-spring-2017/

The Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA)’s Fundamentals of Industrial Process Heating Online Learning Course is scheduled to begin on 13 March 2017. The six week online course is suitable for students who wish to take the course at home or work in a flexible web-based distance-learning format.

This class provides an overview of the fundamentals of heat transfer, fuels and combustion, energy use, furnace design, refractories, automatic control, and atmospheres as applied to industrial process heating.  Students will gain a basic understanding of heat transfer principles, fuels and combustion equipment, electric heating, and instrumentation and control for efficient operation of furnaces and ovens in process heating.  Students will also earn PDH’s for passing the course.  This course is led by industry expert, Max Hoetzl, retired Vice President of Surface Combustion.  

To register, go to the IHEA website.

This story is reprinted from material from IHEA, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

 

GKN and EOS to join forces
http://www.materialstoday.com/amorphous/news/gkn-and-eos-to-join-forces/

Dr Hans J. Langer, founder and CEO of EOS (left) and Dr Peter Oberparleiter, CEO GKN Powder Metallurgy (right).
Dr Hans J. Langer, founder and CEO of EOS (left) and Dr Peter Oberparleiter, CEO GKN Powder Metallurgy (right).

Metal 3D printing giants GKN Powder Metallurgy and EOS plan to collaborate to scale up industrial additive manufacturing (AM) primarily for the automotive industry.

‘Metal AM has huge potential to shape the future of industrial manufacturing and its products, and elevating this to a new level,’ said Dr Peter Oberparleiter, CEO of GKN Powder Metallurgy. ‘EOS and GKN will take on this challenge together. We want to ensure that more and more companies recognize and use the potential of this innovative technology. At the same time, we want to considerably expand the areas of application with new materials by testing and ultimately using them in series production.’

‘The collaboration between GKN and EOS is another important step towards integrating industrial 3D printing into existing and future production lines and to leverage the benefits of AM technology for series production,’ said Dr Hans J. Langer, founder and CEO of EOS. ‘With GKN we have the right partner who offers a high degree of experience with its global presence and its high-performance production for the automotive industry.’

The companies now plan to run eight additional ‘AM Experience Days’ in Europe and North America in 2017 to show potential customers the potential of metal additive manufacturing.

This story is reprinted from material from EOS and GKN, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

 

New approach for studying defects could lead to enhanced materials
http://www.materialstoday.com/characterization/news/studying-defects-could-lead-to-enhanced-materials/

Argonne researchers used the diffraction patterns of X-rays to map defects in palladium at the nanoscale. Image: Mark Lopez/Argonne National Laboratory.
Argonne researchers used the diffraction patterns of X-rays to map defects in palladium at the nanoscale. Image: Mark Lopez/Argonne National Laboratory.

From blacksmiths forging iron to artisans blowing glass, humans have for centuries been changing the properties of materials to build better tools – from iron horseshoes and swords to glass jars and medicine vials. In the modern world, a whole range of new materials are continually being created for many different applications, such as stronger steel for skyscrapers and more reliable semiconductors for cell phones.

Now, researchers at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have discovered a new approach for investigating these material changes at the atomic scale and in near-real time, an important step that could assist in engineering better and stronger new materials.

In a study published in Nature Materials, researchers at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source, a DOE Office of Science User Facility, reveal that they have captured – for the first time ever – images of the creation of structural defects in palladium when the metal is exposed to hydrogen.

This imaging capability will help researchers validate models that predict the behavior of materials and how they form defects. Defect engineering is the practice of intentionally creating defects within a material in order to change the material's properties. This knowledge is key to engineering better, stronger and more reliable materials for buildings, semiconductors, batteries, technological devices, and many other items and tools.

"Defect engineering is based on the idea that you can take something you already know the properties of and, by putting in defects or imperfections, engineer things with improved properties," said Argonne researcher Andrew Ulvestad, one of the authors of the study. "The practice applies not only to metals but any material that has a crystal structure, like those found in solar cells and battery cathodes."

Defect engineering is used to optimize material design across a variety of fields, but it is most commonly associated with the development of semiconductors. Semiconductor materials, like silicon, are used as electrical components; they form the foundation for most of our modern day electronics, including laptops and mobile phones. In a process known as ‘doping’, semiconductor manufacturers create defects in these materials by adding impurities in order to manipulate their electrical properties for various technological uses.

While manufacturers know they can change the properties of various materials to get the attributes they want, the processes that govern these changes are not always clear. To improve understanding of such processes, the Argonne researchers studied defects forming at the nanoscale. Defects, interfaces and fluctuations at this very small scale can provide critical insights into the functionalities of materials at a larger scale, including their thermal, electronic and mechanical properties.

To capture the formation of defects, the Argonne team took a nanostructured sample of palladium and injected, or infused, it with hydrogen at high-pressure. At the same time, they exposed the sample to powerful X-rays at the Advanced Photon Source.

Upon hitting the palladium crystal, the X-rays scattered, and their dispersion pattern was captured by a detector and used to calculate the changes in the positions of the atoms within the palladium structure. Essentially, this process enabled researchers to ‘see’ deformations within the material.

"In some ways, we got the one-in-a-million shot, because defects occurring within the crystal don't always happen due to the complex nature of the process," said Argonne physicist Ross Harder, another author of the study.

The changes shown in the scans exemplify the numerous ways in which defects can alter the properties of materials and how they respond to external stimuli. For instance, the defects altered the pressures at which palladium could store and release hydrogen, which is knowledge that could be useful for hydrogen storage, sensing and purification applications, the researchers said.

Defect engineering approaches are already being used to study other systems, including battery cathode nanoparticles. However, the study led by Ulvestad and Harder is the first to capture the formation of defects as they are happening. "What we've done is create a roadmap for other researchers. We've shown them a way to model this system and systems that have similar dynamics," Ulvestad said.

This story is adapted from material from the Argonne National Laboratory, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.

Understanding surface defects in catalysis
http://www.materialstoday.com/materials-chemistry/news/understanding-surface-defects-in-catalysis/

A team from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the US and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel has shown that structural defects and jagged surfaces at the edge of platinum and gold particles at the nanoscale are key hot spots for chemical reactivity. Using a broad spectrum of infrared light with an atomic force microscope, they confirmed that such defects at the periphery are central to catalyst function, a breakthrough that could lead to the customization of the structural properties of catalysts to make them more effective in producing chemical reactions.

We can now directly identify the important role of surface defects in activating industrially relevant catalytic processesF. Dean Toste

Catalysts can improve the rate of chemical reactions and allow them to be more efficient while staying unchanged in the process, and are involved in the manufacture of a range of industrial products, including fuel, fertilizers and plastics. This study, reported in Nature [Wu et al. Nature (2017) DOI: 10.1038/nature20795], used a new spectroscopic approach to detect chemical processes at a nanoscale resolution, increasing our knowledge of how the atomic structure of nanoparticles impacts their function as catalysts in chemical reactions. Being aware of the exact level of energy that's required to trigger chemical reactions is key to optimizing reactions – as co-leader Elad Gross states, “This technique has the ability to tell you not only where and when a reaction occurred, but also to determine the activation energy for the reaction at different sites”.

The technique showed that areas on metallic particles of about 100 nanometers are most active in chemical reactions, with different levels of chemical reactivity at the edges of single platinum and gold nanoparticles compared to their smooth, flat surfaces. Researchers coated the metallic particles with a layer of reactive molecules and focused the infrared light onto the tip of the atomic force microscope. The tip, when combined with the infrared light, acted as a very sensitive antenna to map the surface structure of individual nanoparticles while also showing their detailed surface chemistry. Co-leader F. Dean Toste said, “we can now directly identify the important role of surface defects in activating industrially relevant catalytic processes”.

This technique has the ability to tell you not only where and when a reaction occurred, but also to determine the activation energy for the reaction at different sitesElad Gross

The IR nano spectroscopy technique could prove an important tool for studying surface-related chemical processes at the nanoscale, and offer new awareness of chemical processes on the surface of batteries, coatings and fuel cells. Using the same technique, the team now hopes to explore active chemical processes that use controlled flows of gases or liquids to trigger reactions, and are looking to use a new infrared beamline to increase the capacity and capabilities for infrared-based 3D structural studies.

AM software allows for parameter changes
http://www.materialstoday.com/additive-manufacturing/news/am-software-allows-for-parameter-changes/

Increasing the choice of parameters can allow users to improve the 3D printing process.
Increasing the choice of parameters can allow users to improve the 3D printing process.

Concept Laser says that it now offers CL WRX Control software on its LaserCUSING machines with all configuration options available. The software now allows users to view and vary parameter options, improving results.  

Factors that can be fine-tuned now include laser power, scan speed, trace spacing, spot size and offset to original contour.

The software tool can be stored on a PC and can thus be edited directly at an office workstation. Training from the company is also available.

This story is reprinted from material from Concept Laser, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

 

ICC call for presentations
http://www.materialstoday.com/composite-industry/news/icc-call-for-presentations-/

Composites Germany has issued a call for papers for the 3rd International Composites Congress (ICC), which will take place in Stuttgart, Germany, from 18–19 September 2017. Presentations should provide information about innovations in fiber reinforced plastics/composites.

In particular, presentations are requested on the following themes under the guiding title ‘Composites – on the path to becoming a key industry?’

  • Efficient processes/Integrative production technology
  • Raw Material/Semi-finishes products
  • Cooperations (industry-research, industry-industry)
  • Market transparency/Data
  • Outstandingly qualified employees (training, professional development)
  • Responsible care (sustainability, recycling)
  • Standardization.

Presentations should be submitted to the Composites Germany office by no later than 24 March 2017. 

This story is reprinted from material from Composites Germany, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

 

New composite JV to focus on hydrogen
http://www.materialstoday.com/composite-industry/news/new-composite-jv-to-focus-on-hydrogen/

Hexagon Composites, Nel ASA and PowerCell Sweden AB have signed a Letter of Intent (LoI) to establish an equally owned joint venture to pursue hydrogen opportunities. The joint venture will initially focus on opportunities in the maritime and marine segments as well as projects to leverage renewable energy resources.

‘This is an important step in our commitment to develop clean energy alternatives,’ says Jon Erik Engeset, CEO of Hexagon Composites. ‘By creating a one-stop-shop for our customers, we will be able to integrate hydrogen technologies and support the customers' project management.’

This story is reprinted from material from Hexagon, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

 

Phillips-Medisize builds new facility
http://www.materialstoday.com/molding-and-pressing/news/phillipsmedisize-builds-new-facility-/

MIM specialist Phillips-Medisize Corporation announced plans to open a new 80,000 ft2 manufacturing facility on its Wisconsin, USA, campus. The facility manufactures high volume prefilled drug delivery systems, and is planned to be complete in 2017.

‘This expansion illustrates our continued commitment and investment in the design and manufacturing of drug delivery devices for biopharmaceutical companies, globally,’ said Matt Jennings, CEO and president of Phillips-Medisize, a Molex company. ‘Expanding in Menomonie adds to our manufacturing capacity to produce fully assembled and packaged drug delivery devices.’

This story is reprinted from material from Phillips-Medisize, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

Airbus to install new 3D printed parts
http://www.materialstoday.com/additive-manufacturing/news/airbus-to-install-new-3d-printed-parts/

Metal additive manufacturing (AM) specialist Arconic has entered into two agreements to supply 3D printed metal parts for Airbus’ commercial aircraft.

Arconic will supply 3D printed ducting components made from nickel superalloys, and 3D printed titanium airframe brackets. Arconic expects to deliver the first parts under both agreements in the second quarter of 2017.

‘We’re proud to deepen our partnership with Airbus through these agreements,’ said Klaus Kleinfeld, Chairman and CEO of Arconic.

These agreements follow Arconic’s April 2016 deal with Airbus for 3D printed titanium fuselage and engine pylon components. 

This story is reprinted from material from Arconic, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

Extension of fighter engines contract for GKN
http://www.materialstoday.com/metal-industry/news/extension-of-fighter-engines-contract-for-gkn/

A RM12 Engine engineer performing boroscope testing on the fan/compressor blades.
A RM12 Engine engineer performing boroscope testing on the fan/compressor blades.

GKN Aerospace has gained a USD$175 million three-year contract extension for the technical product support, maintenance and parts supply to the Swedish Armed forces for their Gripen RM12 fighter engines.

The Performance Based Logistics (PBL) agreement, with the Swedish Defense Materiel Administration (FMV) extends the company’s existing work on this program until 2020.

GKN Aerospace has been a supplier of fighter engines to the Swedish Armed forces since 1930. Since 2010 GKN Aerospace has committed to guarantee full availability of the RM12 engines and GKN Aerospace is the type certificate holder of the engine in Sweden.

‘GKN Aerospace is proud of our long-term support for Swedish Fighter aircraft and we appreciate that the FMV has extended the RM12 PBL-contract,’ said Mike McCann, CEO of GKN Aerospace Engine Systems. ‘GKN is looking forward to continuing to work together with the Swedish Armed Forces and the FMV and to further develop our relationship.’

This story is reprinted from material from GKN, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

Certification for resin supplier
http://www.materialstoday.com/composite-industry/news/certification-for-resin-supplier/

Elantas Europe, a supplier of epoxy resins and adhesives for the manufacturing of composite parts, has been awarded GL (German Lloyd) certification on three of its products, according to its UK supplier Cristex.

EC152 Epoxy Resin with W152.1HR Hardener and W152XLR Hardener, are now GL certified for boat laminating, or composite part laminating.

EC157.1 Epoxy Resin with W152.1HR Hardener and W152XLR Hardener, are GL certified for boat, windmill blade or composite part infusion.

AS90 Epoxy Structural Adhesive with AW91 Hardener and AW93 Hardener, are GL certificated for boat, windmill blade or composite part bonding.

Elantas Europe, a supplier of epoxy resins and adhesives for the manufacturing of composite parts, has been awarded GL (German Lloyd) certification on three of its products, according to its UK supplier Cristex.

  • EC152 Epoxy Resin with W152.1HR Hardener and W152XLR Hardener, are now GL certified for boat laminating, or composite part laminating.
  • EC157.1 Epoxy Resin with W152.1HR Hardener and W152XLR Hardener, are GL certified for boat, windmill blade or composite part infusion.
  • AS90 Epoxy Structural Adhesive with AW91 Hardener and AW93 Hardener, are GL certificated for boat, windmill blade or composite part bonding.

This story is reprinted from material from Cristex, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

Solvay sells formulated resins business
http://www.materialstoday.com/composite-industry/news/solvay-sells-formulated-resins-business-/

Solvay has agreed to sell its Formulated Resins business to polymer and resin supplier Elantas PDG Inc. Under the agreement, Solvay’s technology solutions business unit will divest the business line, which generated sales of US$20 million in 2015. The divestment includes the formulated resins product portfolio, the manufacturing and R&D facility based in Olean, New York, USA, and all associated technical, commercial and administrative staff. The portfolio mainly entails the CONAP brand epoxy resin and polyurethane product systems and serves electronics, electrical and specialty adhesives markets.

‘The divestment represents a strong strategic fit for both Solvay and Elantas,’ said Michael J. Radossich, president, Solvay Technology Solutions. ‘This transaction enables technology solutions to further extend our leadership position in our core polymer additives business.’

This story is reprinted from material from Solvay, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

 

Perovskite nanoparticles self-assemble to produce efficient LEDs
http://www.materialstoday.com/optical-materials/news/perovskite-nanoparticles-selfassemble-leds/

Researchers at Princeton University have made a new type of LED with crystalline substances known as perovskites. Photo: Sameer A. Khan/Fotobuddy.
Researchers at Princeton University have made a new type of LED with crystalline substances known as perovskites. Photo: Sameer A. Khan/Fotobuddy.

Just when lighting aficionados were in a dark place, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) came to the rescue. Over the past decade, LED technologies have swept the lighting industry by offering features such as durability, efficiency and long life.

Now, engineering researchers at Princeton University have illuminated another path forward for LED technologies by refining the manufacturing of light sources made with crystalline substances known as perovskites. These offer a more efficient and potentially lower-cost alternative to the materials currently used to produce LEDs.

The researchers have developed a technique in which nanoscale perovskite particles self-assemble to produce more efficient, stable and durable perovskite-based LEDs. This advance, reported in a paper in Nature Photonics, could speed the use of perovskite technologies in commercial applications such as lighting, lasers, and television and computer screens.

"The performance of perovskites in solar cells has really taken off in recent years, and they have properties that give them a lot of promise for LEDs, but the inability to create uniform and bright nanoparticle perovskite films has limited their potential," said Barry Rand, an assistant professor of electrical engineering in the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment at Princeton.

"Our new technique allows these nanoparticles to self-assemble to create ultra-fine grained films, an advance in fabrication that makes perovskite LEDs look more like a viable alternative to existing technologies," added Rand, who is the lead researcher on the paper.

LEDs emit light when a voltage is applied across the LED. The resultant electrical current forces electrons from the negative side of the diode to the positive side, releasing energy in the form of light. LEDs operate best when the current can be strictly controlled. In Rand's devices, the thin nanoparticle-based films allowed just that.

LEDs have many advantages over incandescent bulbs, including increased durability, longer life, smaller size, energy efficiency and low-heat. While they are still more expensive than fluorescent lights for room illumination, they are more energy efficient, light up faster and present fewer environmental concerns related to their disposal.

Rand's team and others researchers are exploring perovskites as a potential lower-cost alternative to gallium nitride (GaN) and other materials currently used in LED manufacturing. Lower-cost LEDs would speed the acceptance of the bulbs, reducing energy use and environmental impacts.

Perovskite is a mineral originally discovered in the mid-1800s in Russia and named in honor of the Russian mineralogist Lev Perovski. The term ‘perovskite’ extends to a class of compounds that share the crystalline structure of Perovski's mineral, a distinct combination of cuboid and diamond shapes.

Perovskites exhibit a number of intriguing properties – they can be super-conductive or semi-conductive, depending on their structure – that make them promising materials for use in electrical devices. In recent years, they have been touted as a potential replacement for the silicon in solar panels, as they are cheaper to manufacture while offering equal efficiency as some silicon-based solar cells.

Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite layers are fabricated by dissolving perovskite precursors in a solution containing a metal halide and an organic ammonium halide. It is a relatively cheap and simple process that could offer an inexpensive alternative to conventional LEDs. But while the resulting semiconductor films can emit light in vivid colors, the crystals forming the molecular structure of the films are too large, which makes them inefficient and unstable.

In their new paper, Rand and his team report that adding an additional type of organic ammonium halide –specifically, a long-chain ammonium halide – to the perovskite solution during production dramatically constrained the formation of crystals in the film. The resulting crystallites were much smaller (around 5–10nm across) than those generated with previous methods, and the halide perovskite films were far thinner and smoother.

This led to better external quantum efficiency, meaning the LEDs emitted more photons per number of electrons entering the device. The films were also more stable that those produced by other methods.

Russell Holmes, a professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Minnesota, said the Princeton research brings perovskite-based LEDs closer to commercialization. "Their ability to control the processing of the perovskite generated ultra-flat, nano-crystalline thin films suitable for high-efficiency devices," said Holmes, who was not involved in the research. "This elegant and general processing scheme will likely have broad application to other perovskite active materials and device platforms."

This story is adapted from material from Princeton University, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.

Down in the valley for 2D crystals
http://www.materialstoday.com/crystalline-materials/news/down-in-the-valley-for-2d-crystals/

This light micrograph shows two-dimensional crystals of the thin-film semiconductor molybdenum disulfide. Image: Hisato Yamaguchi (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA).
This light micrograph shows two-dimensional crystals of the thin-film semiconductor molybdenum disulfide. Image: Hisato Yamaguchi (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA).

Based on a study of the optical properties of novel ultrathin semiconductors, researchers at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich, Germany, have developed a method for the rapid and efficient characterization of these materials.

Chemical compounds based on elements that belong to the so-called transition metals can be processed to yield atomically-thin, two-dimensional crystals known as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), which are semiconductors with surprising optical properties. Using their novel optical characterization method, a team of LMU physicists led by Alexander Högele, in cooperation with colleagues in the US, has now explored the properties of thin-film semiconductors made from TMDs. The researchers report their findings in a paper in Nature Nanotechnology.

These semiconductors exhibit a remarkably strong interaction with light and therefore have great potential for applications in the field of opto-electronics. In particular, the electrons in these materials can be excited with polarized light.

"Circularly polarized light generates charge carriers that exhibit either left- or right-handed circular motion," explains Högele. "The associated angular momentum is quantized and described by the so-called valley index, which can be detected as valley polarization." Just like quantum mechanical spin, the valley index can be used to encode information, making it useful for for applications such as quantum computing.

However, recent studies of the valley index in TMD semiconductors have produced controversial results, with different groups worldwide reporting inconsistent values for the degree of valley polarization. With the aid of their newly-developed polarimetric method and using monolayers of the semiconducting TMD molybdenum disulfide as a model system, the LMU researchers have now clarified the reasons for these discrepancies.

"Response to polarized light turns out to be very sensitive to the quality of the crystals, and can thus vary significantly within the same crystal," says Högele. "The interplay between crystal quality and valley polarization will allow us to measure rapidly and efficiently those properties of the sample that are relevant for applications based on the valley quantum degree of freedom."

The new characterization method can be applied to other monolayer semiconductors and systems made up of several different materials. In the future, this will enable the functionalities of devices based on atomically-thin semiconductors – such as novel types of LEDs – to be characterized swiftly and economically.

This story is adapted from material from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.

LPW achieves AS 9120A
http://www.materialstoday.com/additive-manufacturing/news/lpw-achieves-as-9120a/

LPW Technology, which supplies metal powders for the additive manufacturing (AM) industry, reports that its US operation located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, has been awarded AS 9120A & ISO 9001:2008 certifications.

‘AS 9120A was developed for pass-through distributors of aerospace items and has been extended to include defence and space industries too,’ said John D Hunter, general manager of LPW Technology Inc. ‘Achieving AS 9120A for the procurement and supply of specialist powders for LASER and electron beam additive manufacturing processes assures our customers of product quality, traceability and the control and availability of records, reducing risk and elevating LPW Technology, Inc’s quality management system to the aerospace industry’s global standard (IAQG).’

This story is reprinted from material from LPW, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

3D printing boosts Renault engines
http://www.materialstoday.com/additive-manufacturing/news/3d-printing-boosts-renault-engines/

Renault has made a prototype DTI 5 4- cylinder Euro-6 step C engine using 3D printing.
Renault has made a prototype DTI 5 4- cylinder Euro-6 step C engine using 3D printing.

Renault Trucks reports that it is working on an additive manufacturing (AM) process to improve the performance of engines.

The Renault Trucks Lyon Powertrain Engineering department has made a prototype DTI 5 4- cylinder Euro-6 step C engine using 3D printing.

Although the complete engine was already designed virtually, rocker arms and camshaft bearing caps were manufactured by metal 3D printing and successfully bench-tested for 600 hours inside a Euro-6 engine.

‘The aim of this project is to demonstrate the positive impact of metal additive manufacturing on the size and weight of an engine,’ said Damien Lemasson, project manager at Renault Trucks. ‘This process has enabled us to reduce the weight of a 4-cylinder engine by 120 kg or 25%. The tests we have carried out prove the durability of engine components made using 3D printing.’

The number of components in the DTI 5 engine has been reduced by 25%, making a total of 200 fewer parts.

Following on from initial tests, Renault Trucks says that it will continue to develop manufacturing process to increase the performance and functionality of truck components.

This story is reprinted from material from Renault, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

Osirys Project delivers results
http://www.materialstoday.com/composite-applications/news/osirys-project-delivers-results-/

The Osirys Project consortium will be holding a project workshop to deliver its results to the construction industry at CompIC 2017, taking place at the end of January in Amsterdam.

The Osirys EU project has developed technology to improve indoor environmental quality and energy efficiency by evolving forest-based biocomposites and products for façades and interior partitions. These new technologies can then be applied in retrofitting and new building construction.

The workshop will look at drivers for the use of bicomposites in construction as well as factors affecting design and manufacturing. To register, go here.

This story is reprinted from material from the Osirys Project, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

Improving technology through the coffee ring effect
http://www.materialstoday.com/computation-theory/news/improve-technology-through-the-coffee-ring-theory/

A coffee stain. What could be more mundane than a brown ring left behind by a hot cup of Joe? Well, from the scientific perspective, there is so much more to the deposition, diffusion, and evaporation that occur when a droplet is deposited and begins to evaporate from a surface. Indeed, scientists have tried for decades to model and understand this seemingly simple and everyday phenomenon because the physical modeling of how colloidal droplets evaporate is important to everything from painting and printing to DNA sequencing and even nanoscale manufacturing.

Now, mechanical engineer Hassan Masoud of the University of Nevada, Reno, and colleagues there and at the University at Buffalo, New York, have demonstrated that there is a previously overlooked mechanism involved in the so-called "coffee ring" effect and can now more accurately model the dynamics of particle deposition in evaporating sessile droplets. They believe their new calculations will have ramifications across several technological fields.

We now understand particle deposition during evaporation of colloidal droplets much better than before, says Masoud. "Our discovery builds on a large body of work but we took an extra step, modeling the interaction of suspended particles with the free surface of the drop. We believe our findings are going to fundamentally change the common perception on the mechanism responsible for the so-called 'coffee-ring' phenomenon."

At its simplest, when a droplet dries on a surface, the particles suspended in it usually deposit in a ring-like pattern, leaving a stain or residue, called the "coffee-ring" effect; so this isn't really about the mess you leave if your skinny latte sloshes over the edge of your cup before you put it on your desk. Until now, the stain was thought to form as a result of the fluid flow within the drop. Masoud and his team have found that it is the exposed, free, surface of the droplet, the top layer, which is in contact with the air that plays the most important part in the deposition of the particles.

"When the drop evaporates, the free surface collapses and traps the suspended particles," Masoud explains. "Our theory shows that eventually all the particles are captured by the free surface and stay there for the rest of their trip towards the edge of the drop." This effect was demonstrated using the Toroidal Coordinate System, which allowed the team to collapse complicated 3D equations into a 1D form. "Our innovative approach - and using some ugly-long equations - distinguishes our work from previous research," Masoud adds. "No one else has used this coordinate system for this problem, and this allows us to track the motion of particles in the drop in a natural way."

The finding opens up the possibility of manipulating the movements of solute particles by altering the surface tension of the liquid-gas interface rather than trying to control the bulk flow within a droplet, which will have important implications for cleaning solar panels, for instance. [Masoud et al., Phys Rev E. (2017); DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.063104]

"The next step in this work is to develop a comprehensive computational framework, based on our theory, that accurately accounts for the shape of the suspended particles and their interactions with each other at high concentrations," Masoud told Materials Today.

David Bradley blogs at Sciencebase Science Blog and tweets @sciencebase, he is author of the popular science book "Deceived Wisdom".