Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Download Guide for Authors in PDF

World Neurosurgery has an open access companion journal, World Neurosurgery: X.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
Please note that it is our journal policy to only permit one author to be listed as the corresponding author for an article. Please avoid listing multiple corresponding authors on your title page or manuscript.

Please ensure that the following items are present.

Required files to be uploaded:
• Cover Letter
• Title Page (see 'Essential title page information' section for further details) containing: title, all authors' complete names, all authors' highest academic degree and affiliations, corresponding author name and contact details, key words (3 to 7) and short/running title
• Manuscript
• Disclosure-Conflict of Interest
• Abbreviation List
• Figures, if applicable
• Tables, if applicable.

Further considerations:
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Research Council's Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double anonymized) or the manuscript file (if single anonymized). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

You must ensure that you list all authors who contributed to your manuscript both on your title page and on the Add/Edit/Remove authors page in Editorial Manager. If on checking your submission we find that all authors have not been listed consistently in these places, your manuscript will be returned to you for editing and this will delay the peer review process.

CRediT Authorship Statement
For transparency, authors are required to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example
This item is now mandatory for all article types except Perspectives (of any type), Book Reviews, Letters to the Editor, In Reply to the Letter to the Editor, and Obituaries.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Open access
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.

Informed consent and patient details

Please ensure that you have obtained written consent from any patients that are identifiable from the images or videos in your manuscript before you submit your manuscript. Indicate in your manuscript text that you have obtained written consent for any patient(s) that are identifiable from the images or videos. Formal consents are not required for the use of entirely anonymised images from which the individual cannot be identified - for example, x-rays, ultrasound images, pathology slides or laparoscopic images, provided that these do not contain any identifying marks and are not accompanied by text that might identify the individual concerned. For identifiable images, if consent has not been obtained, it is generally not sufficient to anonymise a photograph simply by using eye bars or blurring the face of the individual concerned. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Manuscript types

• Original Article (available in full online only, but will be listed in the contents list of the printed journal and fully citable)
• Doing More with Less (see specific submission instructions below)
• Clinical Images (see specific submission instructions below)
• Video Articles (see specific submission instructions below)
• Women in Neurosurgery (see specific submission instructions below)
• Great Hospitals (see specific submission instructions below)
• Neurosurgery Nursing (see specific submission instructions below)
• Case Report (See information below)
• Letter to the Editor (see specific submission instructions below)
• Historical Vignette
• Technical Note
• Literature Reviews
• Early Career Forum (see specific submission instructions below)
• Neurosurgery and the Arts (see specific submission instructions below)
• Book Review (invited)
• Perspective (invited)
• News (invited)
• From the Annals of... (invited)

• Obituary (see specific submission instructions below)
•Perspective - Global Neurosurgery (invited)

• The Development of Neurosurgery (see specific submission instructions below)

Case Reports:WORLD NEUROSURGERY and WORLD NEUROSURGERY X will no longer be accepting Case Reports for peer-review. Any Case Report that does come through our system will be automatically transferred to INAT. If you would like to learn more about INAT, please visit their website

The Development of Neurosurgery: As a complement to the "Great Hospitals" section, articles on "The Development of Neurosurgery" describe the evolution of neurosurgery at the country, regional, or continental level rather than the hospital level. Of particular interest are the factors that either facilitated or impeded the development of neurosurgery at the country, regional, or continental level - and what methods led to progress. The goal is to share ideas regarding the development of neurosurgery at the "macro" level so that other countries, regions, or continents can learn from the experience of others. Collaboration on authorship with, e.g. ministries of health and/or international organizations such as WHO, is obviously desirable. Please arrange this submission as an Original Article with an abstract, body, references, etc) and choose the article type "The Development of Neurosurgery" when submitting your article.

Clinical Images: Progress in neurosurgery has paralleled advances in lesion localization and imaging technologies. World Neurosurgery recently launched this new section to convey the nuances of our specialty through imagery. This is also a conduit by which neurosurgeons worldwide may communicate exciting discovery and experience through a common language, i.e., captivating clinical images. We thus encourage the submission of images or videos from cases that portray interesting, engaging and somewhat rare depiction of neurosurgical disease.
Required submission criteria:
• Text: A short description of 350 words or less
• Abstract: 50-150 word unstructured abstract (no headings)
• Title: The title should be clear and concise
• Authors: No more than three authors, with name, highest academic degree, affiliations, address and email for each
• Figure Legend: The legend should contain no more than 150 words, and include relevant patient history/physical examination, clinical course and response to treatment and if applicable, condition at follow-up.

Video Articles: Video Articles focus on important surgical procedures in the common interest of practicing neurosurgeons. A brief case presentation in the abstract should be followed by 2D or 3D (preferred) operative video. Demonstration of interesting and innovative approaches should accompany illustrations of relevant operative anatomy. Judicious labelling of important anatomical structures are encouraged for better orientation of surgical field. Video files should be of high quality and not exceed 150 MB. Additional information on file formatting can be found here.
Required submission criteria:
• Title: Should not exceed 100 characters, including spaces
• Abstract: Up to 250 word unstructured abstract with discussion. Please include the abstract in the 'Manuscript' file in Editorial Manager, along with a short caption for your video.
• Patient information must be omitted from the video
• Authors are responsible to obtain consent from signed from any patients who could be identified from the videos. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to declare in the cover letter that he has obtained relevant consent form, signed by the patient.

Doing More with Less: The Doing More with Less section of World Neurosurgery focuses on the particular needs of the lower-resource neurosurgery world, which includes most of the world. The Section solicits submissions of news articles, commentaries, and scientific and technical papers that relate to issues surrounding optimal patient care in resource-challenged environments. In particular, this call for scientific and technical papers focuses on methods for accomplishing neurosurgical goals with low-cost solutions that are practical to implement in neurosurgical operating theaters and care environments where minimal or basic tools and materials are available.
During your submission process, please choose 'Doing More with Less' as your article type.

Great Hospitals: World Neurosurgery has recently reintroduced the topic of 'Great Hospitals.' We are seeking articles from institutions world-wide who have a rich history and a message to share. Such prior publications have provided an insight into their unique characteristics, attributes and strategies/modus operandi. If any of you have a message to share regarding your institution, please template a submission article after those already published in World Neurosurgery1-2 and submit such for review as a 'Great Hospitals' article type.
1. Powell MP. The History of Neurosurgery at the National Hospital, Queen Square, London, with Some Personal Recollections from 1948 Onwards: The Early Years. World Neurosurgery (2017) 103: 634-646
2. Du J, Li H, Fan Y, Zhang J, Xu Y, Liu T, Hao D. Great Hospitals of Asia: Neurosurgery and Spine Surgery at Xi'an Jiaotong University-Affiliated Honghui Hospital. World Neurosurgery (2018) 116: 370-377

Neurosurgery Nursing: World Neurosurgery solicits Neurosurgery Nursing submissions of news articles, commentaries, technical and scientific papers that relate to neurosurgery nursing's role in interrelated and interprofessional neurosurgery patient care. This call for submissions includes historical perspectives, such as the evolution of neurosurgery nursing in a specific country/region; current state and future directions of neurosurgery nursing in your country/region; care coordination; care collaboration; impact on issues of concern to the World Health Organization such as obesity, falls with head and/or spine injury, infectious diseases; care or health challenges; problem-solving care challenges; dissemination of neurosurgery nursing research.
During the submission process, please choose 'Neurosurgery Nursing' as your article and classification type.

Women in Neurosurgery: World Neurosurgery is accepting papers written by neurosurgeons, male or female, addressing the issues that women face in neurosurgery. Disseminating true facts via publications and educational efforts can aid in establishing equality in the world-wide neurosurgery community. This can only come from neurosurgeons themselves. World Neurosurgery encourages the submission of articles addressing these issues.
When submitting your manuscript, please select 'Women in Neurosurgery' as your article type.

Letter to the Editor: When discussing a prior World Neurosurgery manuscript, please cite the specific article in the main body of your letter and add it to the Reference List at the end of your manuscript.
We request that you use a unique title for your Letter to the Editor:
• Letter is in response to a published manuscript, please begin your title as follows: ?Letter to the Editor Regarding (insert particular article title here)?
• If you have been invited to respond to a Letter to the Editor, please start your title with: ?In Reply to the Letter to the Editor Regarding (insert particular article title here)?

Early Career Forum:To be comprised of submissions from neurosurgeons in early career stages including residents, fellows, and recent graduates. This column will provide a forum to explore important issues specific to those in training and in the early years of practice.
There are unique challenges for neurosurgeons in these career stages that are under-discussed and could be the focus of meaningful and beneficial discussion. The intent is for this column to appeal to young neurosurgeons who may or may not have the interest or time to engage in scholarly activity, yet still are passionate about relevant career issues which may have broad appeal. Potential topics may include but are not limited to mentorship, work-life balance, neurosurgical education, and career-challenges, as well as, emerging research questions and opportunities. Submissions may also address controversial topics, which may not yet have sufficient data or an adequate venue for discussion.
Articles are meant to be thoughtful, inquisitive, and scholarly in nature with references where appropriate. While research discussions are invited, the intent is not to primarily showcase research data. Articles do not need to follow scientific format but traditional scientific and evidence-based submissions are welcome.
Required submission criteria:
• Author limit is three, and all authors must be either residents, fellows, or within 5 years of graduation
• Word-limit for submissions is 1,500
• Figures and tables will be limited to a total of two per submission
• Papers and proposals should be submitted directly to
For submissions and review, we aim to facilitate clear and easy communication prior to the submission of an article to this column. We will generate a periodic call for papers on specific topics but we also welcome authors to submit proposals at any time for topics of exploration prior to the preparation of a full manuscript. We encourage prospective authors to complete a thorough review of the literature prior to submission to this column to avoid duplication of previously discussed topics. Any proposals submitted should be directly applicable to neurosurgical residents, fellows, or those in the early post-graduate career stages.

Proposals to the Editor-in-ChiefSpecial Focus Sections on specific subspecialties: For further details on this section, please email

Neurosurgery and the Arts: World Neurosurgery's Neurosurgery and the Arts section seeks art for its monthly journal cover and composite page. The submissions involve the display of art by neurosurgeons. Hence, we are seeking art, in any visual form, for this endeavor on an ongoing basis. Such art might naturally include photography, photographs of sculptures or paintings, prose or poetry, etc. We ask neurosurgeons to submit high resolution images, in a portrait setting, of such art. If a landscape image is submitted and selected please note that it will be cropped. These images will be considered for future World Neurosurgery journal covers and for display on our composite page. When submitting your images, please include a brief description. These can be submitted directly to

News: For further details on this section, please email

From the Annals of...: For further details on this section and/or including your institution in this quarterly offering, please email

Obituary: This section is to notify the World Neurosurgery readership regarding the recent passing of colleagues in our world-wide neurosurgical community. Please provide text (limit up to 250 words) and a photo (if desired) for inclusion. Please submit under the article type of "Obituary".


When submitting your manuscript please select the appropriate classification(s) that pertains to your submission. You will be able to choose from the following Classification Listing:

Brainstem, Cranial Base, Critical Care, Doing More with Less, Education, Endocrine and Pituitary, Endovascular, Epilepsy, History and Culture, Hydrocephalus and CSF Pathway Pathologies, Infection, Instrumentation Non-Spine, Molecular Biology, Neuropathology, Neuroradiology/Imaging, Neurosurgery Nursing, Pain, Pediatrics, Peripheral Nerve, Politics Socioeconomics and Legal, Quality Improvement and Patient Safety, Radiosurgery, Special Topics, Spine, Sports, Stereotactic/Functional, Trauma, Tumor, Vascular, Videos, Women in Neurosurgery

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Cover Letter

Cover Letter Info to include the following: The author(s) should provide a cover letter with each submission, ensuring they include the following: A statement of non-duplication, with the following statements: "I, (corresponding author's name), certify that this manuscript is a unique submission and is not being considered for publication, in part or in full, with any other source in any medium."

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of three independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. When preparing your submission please double space the entire document with 1" margins. Each page should be numbered, with the first author's last name in the upper right hand corner. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

Results should be clear and concise.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Highest academic degrees for all authors. Degrees are not listed in the author line but are necessary for other purposes.
Departmental and institutional affiliations for all authors. When providing author names and affiliations, be sure to include department/division information and not only the institution.
Key words (3 to 7). Provide an alphabetized list of 3 to 7 key words which will appear in print and used for indexing purposes.
Short title. Short titles are required for all article types except for Letters to the Editor, Technical Notes and invited articles. The short title should be 40 characters or less, including spaces.

Abbreviations list

Provide an alphabetized list of all abbreviations used in the article, with each abbreviation/acronym followed by its complete spell out.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Abstracts should be 250 words, maximum.
Original Articles, Doing More With Less, Women in Neurosurgery, Great Hospitals, Neurosurgery Nursing and Technical Notes require a structured abstract with the following headings: Objective (or Background), Methods, Results, Conclusions.
Historical Vignettes and Literature Reviews require an abstract, but it can be unstructured (no headings).
Clinical Images require a 50-150 word unstructured abstract (no headings).
Video Articles require a 250 word unstructured abstract.

Graphical abstract
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.

Graphical Abstracts are optional for the following article types: Original Articles, Doing More With Less, Women in Neurosurgery, Great Hospitals, Neurosurgery Nursing, Technical Notes, Historical Vignettes, Literature Reviews, Clinical Images, Video Articles.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Each table requires its own title. All tables should be placed in their own file, separate from the manuscript file. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with the following symbols in the following order:
• * (asterisk)
• † (dagger)
• ‡ (double dagger)
• § (section mark)
• II (parallel mark)
• ¶ (paragraph symbol)
• # (number sign)
• ** (etc.)
• *** (etc.)
All studies listed in a table must be cited in the table and included in the complete reference list, just as if the study in question were discussed and cited in the text of the article.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, 11th Edition.
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
2. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205.
Reference to a book:
3. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
4. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281–304.
Reference to a website:
5. Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK. Accessed 13 March 2003.; 2003. .
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] 6. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.
Reference to software:
7. Coon E, Berndt M, Jan A, Svyatsky D, Atchley A, Kikinzon E, Harp D, Manzini G, Shelef E, Lipnikov K, Garimella R, Xu C, Moulton D, Karra S, Painter S, Jafarov E, Molins S. Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) v0.88 (Version 0.88). Zenodo; 2020, March 25.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Data visualization

Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.