Water Research has an open access mirror journal Water Research X, sharing the same aims and scope, editorial team, submission system and rigorous peer review.Water Research publishes refereed, original research papers on all aspects of the science and technology of the anthropogenic water cycle, water quality, and its management worldwide. A broad outline of the journal's scope includes:
•Treatment processes for water and wastewaters (municipal, agricultural, industrial, and on-site treatment), including resource recovery and residuals management;
•Urban hydrology including sewer systems, stormwater management, and green infrastructure;
•Drinking water treatment and distribution;
•Potable and non-potable water reuse;
•Sanitation, public health, and risk assessment;
•Anaerobic digestion, solid and hazardous waste management, including source characterization and the effects and control of leachates and gaseous emissions;
•Contaminants (chemical, microbial, anthropogenic particles such as nanoparticles or microplastics) and related water quality sensing, monitoring, fate, and assessment;
•Inland, tidal, coastal and urban waters, including surface and ground waters, and point and non-point sources of pollution;
•Environmental restoration, including soil, linked to groundwater and groundwater remediation;
•Analysis of the interfaces between sediments and water, and between water and atmosphere;
•Mathematical modelling, systems analysis, machine learning, and beneficial use of big data related to the anthropogenic water cycle;
•Socio-economic, policy, and regulations studies.
Water Research is an interdisciplinary journal with an applied edge. This means that papers that go into too many details of one of the supporting disciplines (such as chemistry, toxicology, microbiology, material sciences, etc.) without making a good link with water research in general may be rejected up-front. More information on types of manuscripts that are not suitable for Water Research are discussed in an editorial available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.01.038.
Audience: Biologists, chemical engineers, chemists, civil engineers, environmental engineers, limnologists, and microbiologists.Elsevier and IWA have also jointly launched two specialist titles which authors are welcome to submit to:
- The open access Water Resources and Industry focuses on the role that industry plays in the exploitation, management and treatment of water resources.
- Water Resources and Economics addresses the financial and economic dimensions associated with water resources use and governance.
Benefits to authors
We also provide many author benefits, including a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services.
Water Research has an open access mirror journal, Water Research X.
Types of paper
Papers are published either as a Research Paper, Making Waves Communication or a Review Paper. Comments on these papers are also welcome.
(a) A RESEARCH PAPER is a contribution describing original research, including theoretical exposition, extensive data and in-depth critical evaluation, and is peer reviewed. Water Research does not accept case studies, unless it is a study that has a wide impact on the industry. The total length of the manuscript including references must not exceed 8000 words. Please note that figures and tables must be added to the manuscript only if they are really useful for the presentation.(b) REVIEW PAPERS are encouraged. Only critical review papers will be considered that provide a novel perspective and critical evaluation. Manuscripts simply summarizing the current state of knowledge are not suitable. The format and length of review papers are more flexible than for a full paper. Typical reviews are less than 12,000 words including references. Review papers are peer reviewed. In a cover letter submitted with a critical review, authors must briefly comment on their expertise in the subject matter and provide a list of their own related publications on this topic. Authors must also comment on related reviews published on the topic and how their manuscript provides relevant new insights and perspective beyond the available reviews.
(c) COMMENTS on papers already published are welcome, subject to the criteria of interest, originality and the approval of the appropriate Editor. Comments can include extensions to, or criticisms of, those papers. They must provide arguments that are reasoned, and not presented in a confrontational fashion. They will be sent to the author of the original paper for reply, the outcome of which may be publication in a future issue. Comments and Authors' Replies should not exceed 1200 words each and will be received until 4 months after publication. They will be accepted or rejected without corrections.Comment or Reply papers should be submitted under the article type "Discussion" and should have an article title in the below format.
Comment on "TITLE of previously published article by AUTHORS [Water Research VOLUME YEAR PAGE-RANGE]".Reply for Comment on "Title of previously published article by AUTHORS [Water Research VOLUME YEAR PAGE-RANGE]"
(d) MAKING WAVES is a new type of communication. Its aims and features are to identify emerging topics and approaches, provide opinions and perspectives, discuss a visionary way forward in a particular field, and present solutions for research bottlenecks. Submissions are usually limited to 3000 words accompanied by no more than two illustrations (figures or tables), plus a short abstract and up to three highlights. Please include "Making Waves: " in your title and use topical section headings to structure your writing, instead of the customary breakdown into Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion. This article type is not intended for short communications of preliminary research. Use bullet points in Conclusions. Supplementary Information is not admissible.
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
Ensure that the following items are present:One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
For further information, visit our Support Center.
Declaration of competing interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should complete the declaration of competing interest statement using this template and upload to the submission system at the Attach/Upload Files step. Note: Please do not convert the .docx template to another file type. Author signatures are not required. If there are no interests to declare, please choose the first option in the template. This statement will be published within the article if accepted. More information.
Note that conference proceedings are a form of publication.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.
Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.
Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.
Manuscripts should be written in English. Authors who are unsure of correct English usage should have their manuscript checked by someone proficient in the language. Manuscripts in which the English is difficult to understand can be rejected.
Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission please visit https://www.elsevier.com/languagepolishing or our customer support site at service.elsevier.com for more information. Please note Elsevier neither endorses nor takes responsibility for any products, goods or services offered by outside vendors through our services or in any advertising. For more information please refer to our Terms & Conditions: https://www.elsevier.com/termsandconditions.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online. Use the following guidelines to prepare your article. Via the homepage of this journal (https://www.editorialmanager.com/wr/default.aspx) you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. The system automatically converts source files to a single Adobe Acrobat PDF version of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail and via the author's homepage, removing the need for a hard-copy paper trail.
Please submit your article via https://www.editorialmanager.com/wr/default.aspx.
You are required to submit, with the manuscript, the names and addresses of 4 potential referees that can give an independent review.
Multi-part papers are not to be considered. Papers that are requested by the editors to be revised must be returned within 4 weeks or they will be regarded as withdrawn.
Water Research has no page charges.
This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
Use line numbering throughout your paper.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. It should integrate your findings in a comprehensive picture and place them in the context of the existing literature. A combined Results and Discussion section can be appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
For reviews the organisation of the paper can be different. It is however important that a review is more then a summary of the literature, an in-depth critical discussion is essential for acceptance of a review paper.
Conclusions section is mandatory for this journal. Conclusions contain essentially the 'take-home' message of a paper. Conclusions are not an extension of the discussion or a summary of the results. Authors are advised to list important implications of their work in form of a bulleted list. Conclusions must not contain references to the cited literature.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
It is also possible to add supplementary information on-line (see below).
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal as they help increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major message. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list. Also, abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. Use keywords that make your paper easy detectable for interested readers in literature databases. Repeating terms in the title is usually not needed.
Nomenclature must be listed at the beginning of the paper and must conform to the system of standard SI units. Acronyms and abbreviations must be spelled out in full at their first occurrence in the text. Authors should consult - "Notation for Use in the Description of Wastewater Treatment Processes", Water Res.1987;(21)2:135-9. In general, minimise the use of abbreviations so the paper remains easily understood by the general reader.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
• Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Ensure that the figures can be understood without reading the text. Minimise use of abbreviations.
• Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
• For initial submission, figures can either be submitted next to the relevant text in the article or each figure can be submitted as a separate file. However, for revision, please ensure that you submit each figure as a separate file so that it can be used for production purpose if the manuscript gets accepted.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
DOC, XLS, PDF or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is".
Please do not:
• Supply embedded graphics in your wordprocessor (spreadsheet, presentation) document;
• Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Submit each caption directly below each figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. The figure caption should be understandable independent of the text and abbreviations should be avoided.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
Minimise the use of symbols and abbreviations in the tables.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Only cite the original papers and those relevant for the work, no need to give a full literature review in the introduction/discussion. A large fraction of self-citations is in general an indication that the authors didn't place their work well in the literature context.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Free Reference Style
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following example:
[dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T., 2015. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
References to published literature must be cited in the text as follows:
References must be listed together at the end of each paper and must not be given as footnotes. For other than review papers authors should aim to give no more than 20-30 recent, relevant references. They must be listed alphabetically starting with the surname of the first author, year followed by the title of the referenced paper and the full name of the periodical, as follows:
Li, G., Gregory, J., 2006. Flocculation and sedimentation of high-turbidity waters. Water Research 25 (9), 1137-1143.It is particularly requested that (i) authors' initials, (ii) the title of the paper, and (iii) the volume, part number and first and last page numbers are given for each reference.
References to books, reports and theses must be cited in the narrative. They must include the author(s), date of publication, title of book, editor(s) name(s) if applicable, page numbers, name of publisher, and place of publication. The abbreviation et al. may be used in the text. However, the names of all authors must be given in the list of references. Personal communications and other unpublished works must be included in the reference list, giving full contact details (name and address of communicator).Personal communications must be cited in the text as, for example, Champney (2006).
References in languages other than English must be referred to by an English translation (with the original language indicated in parentheses).Citing and listing of web references. As a minimum, the full URL should be given. Any further information, if known (author names, dates, references to a source publication etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
This journal requires authors to deposit their research data in a relevant data repository and to cite and link to this dataset in their article. If this is not possible, authors are required to make a statement explaining why sharing their research data is not possible. For more information, visit the Data Statement page
Requirements for specific types of research dataSequence data. Raw DNA sequence data should be made available through Genbank, European Nucleotide Archive, or DNA data bank of Japan. Processed data that is hosted by these repositories (e.g., metagenomic/metatranscriptomic assembly, metagenome assembled genomes, etc) should also be deposited and linked to the raw sequence data using BioProject/Experiment Numbers. Protein sequence data should be submitted to Protein Identification Resource, European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) or Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics.
Microarray data. Microarray data must follow the Minimum Information about Microarray Experiment (MIAME) guidelines and data should be submitted to Gene Expression Ominbus maintained by NCBI or ArrayExpress Archive maintained by EBI.Proteomics data. Standards established by the Journal of Proteome Research should be followed with respect to submission of mass spectrometric data as well as documentation of procedures involved in peptide and protein identification.
For sequence and microarray data, accession numbers should be provided in the manuscript on submission. Where raw sequencing/microarray data are concerned, a supplemental table should be provided identifying samples and their accession numbers.Other data. Maximum effort should be made to allow reader access to data collected on process parameters, water quality and/or microbiological measurements that do not fall within the above listed data types. For instance, process monitoring and water quality data associated with samples should be made available through an UTF-8 encoded, tab- or comma-separated plain-text file. This data, along with data used to generate figures, should be deposited in a general data repository such as Zenodo, Figshare, Dryad or an institutional repository. The associated persistent identifier (e.g. a DOI) should be provided in the manuscript. The software used to generate the figures should be clearly identified in the manuscript.
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Mendeley Data. This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online. For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.
MethodsX. You have the option of converting relevant protocols and methods into one or multiple MethodsX articles, a new kind of article that describes the details of customized research methods. Many researchers spend a significant amount of time on developing methods to fit their specific needs or setting, but often without getting credit for this part of their work. MethodsX, an open access journal, now publishes this information in order to make it searchable, peer reviewed, citable and reproducible. Authors are encouraged to submit their MethodsX article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your methods article will automatically be transferred over to MethodsX where it will be editorially reviewed. Please note an open access fee is payable for publication in MethodsX. Full details can be found on the MethodsX website. Please use this template to prepare your MethodsX article.
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