Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

INTRODUCTION
• Aims and Scope
• Types of paper
• Contact details for submission
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Changes to Authorship
• Copyright
• Open Access
• Submission
PREPARATION
• Peer review
• Article structure
• Abstract & Keyword
• Abbreviations
• Acknowledgements
• Tables
• References
• Submission Checklist
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Online proof correction
AUTHOR INQUIRIES
• FORMS

Aims and Scope

Urological Science (Urol Sci) is the official peer-reviewed and open access publication of the Taiwan Urological Association (TUA), which has a mission to promote studies of urological medicine and prevention of urological disorders in order to raise teaching and treatment standards. TUA also dedicates itself to improving friendship and encouraging the exchange of study results among members, and to subsidize further education in the urological field. UROLS is an important vehicle through which TUA can achieve its mission. The Journal is published quarterly, in March, June, September and December, by Elsevier. It is indexed in CAS, EmBase, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), EBSCO host EBSCO host, OhioLINK and SwetsWise Online Content and ProQuest.

Major urological disorders such as urological cancers, prostate diseases and urinary incontinence occur predominantly in the elderly. Asians comprise more than half (60%) of the global population and there is a rapid increase in the size of the elderly population of many Asian countries, including China, Japan and Taiwan. Asia will soon have the largest population of the aged, and hence the largest population of urological patients, in the world. Urological diseases are expected to become an enormous economic and healthcare burden in Asia. Thus, urological research that is focused on patients of Asian ethnicity will become important not only -for clinicians and scientists in Asia-Pacific but also for those from around the world.

A unique feature of UROLS is its educational articles in clinical urology: Practical Uroradiology, Practical Uropathology and Practical Urodynamics. This 'Practical' series describes commonly encountered clinical issues that have confusing concepts. The series provides clarification and updates on the latest concepts, which is of great value to medical students, residents, clinicians and practitioners.

In addition to the Practical series, UROLS publishes Review Articles, Original Articles, Short Communications, Correspondence and Letters to the Editor.

The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE); current URMs are available at External link http://www.icmje.org.

The Guide for Authors are revised periodically by the Editors as needed. Authors should consult a recent issue of the Journal or visit External link http://www.urol-sci.com for the latest version of these instructions. Any manuscript not prepared according to these instructions will be returned immediately to the author(s) without review.

Types of paper

Editorials
Editorials are invited articles or comments concerning a specific paper in the Journal or a topical issue in the field. Although editorials are normally invited or written by an Editor, unsolicited editorials may be submitted..

Format guide
• Word limit: 1200 words
• References: 10 or less

Review Articles

These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced, concise overview of an important and topical subject in the field, and should be systematic and critical assessments of literature and data sources. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion and critically evaluated. Articles in this category are usually by invitation only. The format for mini reviews will be jointly decided by the Editors and the contributing author.

Format guide
• Word limit: 4000 words
• References: 50-100

Original Articles

These articles typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.

Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of interest (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.

The Materials and methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, or data sources and how these were selected for the study, patient samples or animal specimens used, explain the laboratory methods followed), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.

The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in the tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, and the main results.

The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

Format guide
• Word limit: 3500 words
• References: 10-30

Practical Uroradiology

Articles in this category should follow the general guidelines for Original Articles, except that an abstract is not required. (Keywords however are still required).

Practical Uropathology

Articles in this category should follow the general guidelines for Original Articles, except that an abstract is not required. (Keywords however are still required).

Practical Urodynamics

Articles in this category should follow the general guidelines for Original Articles, except that an abstract is not required. (Keywords however are still required).

Short Communications

These reports should be concise presentations of clinical or preliminary experimental results. The Editors reserve the right to decide what constitutes a Short Communication. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of interest (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

Format guide
• Word limit: 1200 words
• References: 10

Letters to the Editor

Letters are welcome in response to previously published articles, and may also include interesting cases that do not meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, and other communications of general interest. Letters should have a title and include appropriate references, and include the author's mailing and e-mail addresses. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review, at the discretion of the Editors. Letters are selected based on clarity, significance, and space.

Format guide
• Word limit: 500 words
• References: 5

Correspondence

Brief constructive comments in response to previously published UROLS articles or relating to a topical subject in the field, as well as other communications of general interest are welcome. They are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of UROLS Editors.

Contact details for submission

Editorial Office
Taiwan Urological Association
6F-1, No. 432, Section 1, Keelung Road
Xinyi District, Taipei 11051, Taiwan
Tel: +886-2-27290819
Fax: +886-2-27290864
E-mail: urological.science@gmail.com

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriateinstitutional review board or ethics committee approval is required,and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do nothave formal ethics review committees, the principles outlinedin the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at:http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html).

For investigation of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consentwas obtained from all participating adult subjects and fromparents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults,together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).

For work involving experimental animals, the guidelinesfor their care and use should be in accordance with European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments(available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm); this should be stated in themethods section of the manuscript.

A conflict of interest occurs when an individual's objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. UROLS Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it can be difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest.

Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers' bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.

Please ensure that the name of each author listed in your manuscript appears in the Conflicts of Interest Statement form, together with information on whether or not that author has a conflicts of interest. The form must also be signed by all the authors listed in the manuscript.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Changes to Authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts. Before the accepted manuscript is published online, requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (i) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged; and (ii) an updated Authorship Statement with signatures from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of author names, this must include confirmation from the author(s) being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedures as described above.

Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) online publication of the accepted manuscript is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

After the accepted manuscript is published online, any requests to add, remove, or rearrange author names in an article will follow the same policies as detailed above and result in a corrigendum.

Reporting clinical trials
Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

The UROLS is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Taiwan Urological Association. When the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of copyright to the Taiwan Urological Association. Published manuscripts become the permanent property of the Taiwan Urological Association. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Taiwan Urological Association.

Open Access

This is a subsidized open access journal where the Taiwan Urological Association (TUA) pays for the publishing costs incurred by the journal. Authors will only be charged for the excess of pages and the color pages, if required, in the print edition according to the instruction in the Guide for Authors, "Publication Charges and Reprints" section. All articles will be available Open Access on ScienceDirect. Permitted (re)use is that outlined by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND) license, which states that for non-commercial purposes, others may distribute and copy the article, and include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 0 months.

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all subjects (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the subjects themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable.

Submission

Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) must be submitted online to UROLS through the Elsevier Editorial System (EES) at http://ees.elsevier.com/urols/. If assistance is required, please refer to the tutorials for authors and/or customer support that are available on the EES website; you may also contact the Editorial Office. Please do not post, fax or e-mail your manuscripts to the Editorial Office.

Editorial Office
Taiwan Urological Association
6F-1, No. 432, Section 1, Keelung Road
Xinyi District, Taipei 11051, Taiwan
Tel: +886-2-27290819
Fax: +886-2-27290864
E-mail: urological.science@gmail.com

Submit your article
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/urols/.

Peer review

This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Manuscript Preparation

Text should be typed double-spaced on one side of white A4 (210 x 297 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. The manuscript should include a title page, abstract, main text, conflicts of interest statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), references, and figures and tables as appropriate. American English spelling should be used.

Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page. Title Page

The title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to the bottom of the page):
• category of paper
• article title
• IMPORTANT: please do NOT include any author names and affiliations or corresponding author information on the title page (this information should be listed in your cover letter instead) because UROLS follows a double-blind peer review process

Main Text

The text for Original Articles should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page.

Abbreviations
Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract). Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary and ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. Ensure that an abbreviation so defined does actually appear later in the text (excluding in figures/tables), otherwise, it should be deleted.

Numbers
Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.

Units
System Interrnational (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

Names of drugs, devices and other products
Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text.

For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) should be provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example, ""IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 was used (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)"". Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.

Statistical requirements
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers. Use correct nomenclature for statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.

All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001 since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.

Personal communications and unpublished data
These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

Abstract & Keyword

An abstract (of no more than 300 words) and 3-5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Mini Review, Original Article and Short Communication.

Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings: Objective, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for Mini Reviews and Short Communications should also be unstructured.

No abstract or keywords are required for the following article categories: Editorial, Practical Uroradiology, Practical Uropathology, Practical Urodynamics, and Letter to the Editor.

Abbreviations

Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract). Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary and ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. Ensure that an abbreviation so defined does actually appear later in the text (excluding in figures/tables), otherwise, it should be deleted.

Acknowledgements

General acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analyses should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties. UROLS follows a double-blind peer-review process, so if your acknowledgments mention the names of people involved in the work or institutions where the work was carried out, you may wish to consider removing the acknowledgments from your manuscript when you first submit your paper to ensure that a strictly double-blind peer review is followed. The acknowledgments may be re-inserted if your paper is accepted for publication and you are required to submit a revised and final version of your manuscript via EES. If you forget to do so at this stage, you may re-insert your acknowledgments when you are asked to check the PDF proofs of your paper.

Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Tables

Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Information requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.

References

1 In the main text, tables and figure legends
• References should be identified using superscripted numbers, and numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text; the numbers should be placed after punctuation.
• References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
• Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") as references (also see Section 8.3.5.)
• Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.

2 In the references list
• References should be limited to those cited in the text and listed in the order in which they appear in the text.
• References should include, in order, authors' surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 6 authors only followed by "et al".
Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
• If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
• Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation.

Examples are given below.

Standard journal article
Bisdas T, Pichlmaier M, Wilhelmi M, Bisdas S, Haverich A, Teebken O. Effects of the ABO-mismatch between donor and recipient of cryopreserved arterial homografts. Int Angiol 2011;30:247-55.

Journal supplement
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78-80.

Journal article not in English but with English abstract
Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, Hanyu N, Sawada M, Kobayashi N, Mutou T, et al. Elderly patient with cerebellar malignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka 2008;36: 799-805. [In Japanese, English abstract]

Book with edition
Bradley EL. Medical and Surgical Management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982, p. 72-95.

Book with editors
Letheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual education: teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger; 1980.

Book chapter in book with editor and edition
Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, ed. General and systematic pathology, 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2004:615-72.

Bulletin
World Health Organization. World health report 2002: reducing risk, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

Electronic publications
Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158(2). Available from: http://archpedi.ama-assn. org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 12, 2004.

Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002(2):CD001054. Doi:10.1002/14651858. CD1001054.

Item presented at a meeting but not yet published
Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM. Isotretinoin effects on head and neck cancer recurrence and second primary

Item presented at a meeting and published
Cionni RJ. Color perception in patients with UV- or bluelight-filtering IOLs. In: Symposium on cataract, IOL, and refractive surgery. San Diego, CA: American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery; 2004. Abstract 337.

Thesis
Ayers AJ. Retention of resin restorations by means of enamel etching and by pins [MSD thesis]. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University; 1971.

Website
American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Wisdom teeth. AAOMS Website. http://www.aaoms.org/wisdom_teeth.php. Published 2008. Accessed September 25, 2010.

Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet
Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog No. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak, 1977, p. 2-3.

Citation in Text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Additional Information:
•References should be identified using superscripted numbers, and numbered consecutively in order of appearance
•The superscripted numbers should be placed outside periods and commas, and placed inside colons and semicolons.
•Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
•Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., “unpublished observation”, “personal communication”) as references. These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data. "

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Submission Checklist

(1) Cover Letter. This must include the following information:
• title of the manuscript
• names (spelled out in full) of all the authors*, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letter after the author's name and in front of the matching affiliation (*the name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g., Wan-Lin Chang)
• corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
• a statement that the material contained in the manuscript has not been previously published and is not being concurrently submitted elsewhere
• persons who do not fulfill the requirements to be listed as authors but who nevertheless contributed to the manuscript (such as those who provided writing assistance, for example) should be disclosed

(2) Authorship Statement. You may use the form that follows these author instructions. ALL the authors' signatures must be included.
(3) Conflicts of Interest Agreement. You may use the form that follows these author instructions. Also see Section 2 below.
(4)Copyright Transfer Statement. You may use the form that follows these author instructions.
(5) Ethics Statement. Articles covering human or animal experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities. Also see Section 3 below.
(6) Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. Also see Section 4 below.
(7) Where material has been reproduced or adapted from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to use the copyrighted sources must be supplied.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.



Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.

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