Guide for Authors

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The Veterinary Journal (established 1875) is an international journal of veterinary research that publishes original papers and reviews on all aspects of veterinary science. Contributions reporting investigative work in the scientific disciplines involving veterinary species are particularly welcome where they make a significant contribution to the field. The Editors will be pleased to consider suggestions for Special Issues on subjects of topical importance. The journal also publishes Guest Editorials and occasionally Personal Views by invitation, but does not have a Letters section. Book Reviews are published on-line. Articles of purely regional significance and studies of non-domestic species are considered only if they clearly have broader scientific importance. Manuscripts that report novel studies with substantial importance to the profession are preferred, including analytical studies that are relevant to practising veterinarians.

Types of paper

Manuscripts may describe original work in a Full Paper (Original Article) or a Short Communication, or may form a Review of the existing state of knowledge on a particular aspect of veterinary science. Reviews should, in general, be written in support of original investigations. Case Reports are not published.

Model Article Examples

Model article formats (in WORD) are available (click to follow link below as appropriate):

Reporting Standards

The Editors and reviewers use several published guidelines for reporting standards (see Appendix below). Conforming to these reporting standards allows the Editors and reviewers to assess the quality and originality of submissions and offers readers sufficient information to judge the relevance of the work in an appropriate context. Omission of requirements specified in the relevant guidelines for reporting standards may lead to rejection of a manuscript. For further information, please see The Veterinary Journal (2010) 184, 249-250 (view article).

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Animal welfare

Where animals have been used in a study, the institutional ethical or animal welfare Authority under which the work was conducted must be stated, along with the specific authorisation reference number and the date of approval. Such studies must meet Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines (view article).

Studies published in The Veterinary Journal must adhere to the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) humane endpoints in animal experimentation. Please see their website for further information:

For manuscripts reporting experimental models that induce disease, please provide full details of rescue protocols, welfare/pain/health monitoring protocols, and animal welfare end points set a priori for withdrawal from the study. Additionally, please provide evidence that these protocols were approved before the study commenced. Also, provide full details of the fate of each animal in the study, including those that were withdrawn because they reached animal welfare endpoints set a priori. If you are unable to provide this information, including all specific details, your manuscript will be rejected.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double anonymized) or the manuscript file (if single anonymized). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

If the work has been published previously (as a published lecture, academic thesis or electronic preprint), the authors must declare this information on initial submission.

Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (British usage is preferred, North American authors may use American English). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Please note that there are a number of commercial organisations that will assist non-English speaking Authors in preparing their manuscripts for publication in international peer-reviewed journals. Further advice is available from Elsevier at . Some such services only offer help to improve the use of English and it remains the Authors responsibility to ensure that TVJ's layout and formatting requirements are also met.

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g. Word) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Options will be given for Authors to select a set of classifications for their papers, as well as a category designation (Original Article, Review, Short Communication etc.), from a given list.

Authors must submit articles in WORD format and not as PDF files. PDF proofs will be automatically generated from uploaded files and these are used for subsequent reviewing. For queries concerning the submission process or journal procedures please visit the Elsevier Support Center.

The Corresponding Author, who is normally the Author submitting the paper, will be asked to confirm that the article is original and is not being considered for peer-reviewed publication elsewhere. Submission also implies that all of the Authors have approved the paper for release and are in agreement with its content. Upon acceptance of the article by The Veterinary Journal, the Author(s) will be asked to transfer the copyright of the article to the Publisher. This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information.

The Corresponding Author will also be required to confirm that all Authors have made substantial contributions to (1) the conception and design of the study or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. Contributors who do not meet these criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a Departmental Chair who gave general support.

Authors are free to recommend 3-5 potential reviewers (although there is no guarantee they will be used for peer review).

Submit your article
Please submit your article via https://

Peer review

This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

If possible authors are asked to refrain from sending email chasers to the journal asking about the status of their paper under review. The Editors aim to review your paper as efficiently as possible and the enquiry is unlikely to speed up the process.

Use of Word Processing Software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, please use a table grid, (however use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row). The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Authors submitting papers that are suitable for consideration but do not comply fully with this Guide will be asked to amend the text and re-submit. Model article formats in WORD are available in the introduction section of this guide, above(click to follow the links as appropriate).

Original Articles should be no longer than 3,000 words in length, excluding the Title page, Abstract, Acknowledgements, Tables, Figures and References. Reviews should be about 4,000 words in length and Short Communications up to 1,000 words.


Original Articles (word limit 3,000 words) should be arranged as follows: (1) Title page; (2) an Abstract of up to 250 words (with no sub-headings), which should emphasise objectives, the experimental procedure, results and conclusions; up to five alphabetically arranged Keywords in Sentence case should be supplied below the Abstract; (3) the main text must be sub-divided into Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions; (4) Conflict of interest statement; (5) Acknowledgements; (6) Appendix: Supplementary material (where this is provided; see below); (7) References; (8) Tables; (9) Figure legends; (10) Figures (uploaded as separate files); (11) Highlights (uploaded as a separate file). The sections should not be numbered. Please see the model article provided in the introduction section above.

Please note:

  • Insert a page break only after the Title page, after the Abstract with Keywords, after the References section, between each Table, and before the Legends to figures.
  • The Results and Discussion sections must be distinct and not combined.
  • Avoid sub-headings in the Discussion section.
  • References must not be included within the Conclusions section.
  • The first person (I, we, our) must be avoided in the Abstract, but may be used elsewhere in the paper.

Tables should be included within the article and placed sequentially after the References, but before the Figure legend(s), with one Table per page.

Figure legends should be included in the main manuscript file after any Tables. Each figure should be uploaded as a separate file (Fig. 1, Fig. 2 etc.).

Short Communications should follow the requirements for full manuscripts, but the text must not exceed 1,000 words and the paper should not be divided into conventional sections. Headings for the Abstract, Keywords, Acknowledgements, Conflict of interest statement and References should be included, but there should be no other headings or subheadings in the main text. An Abstract is required and up to five alphabetically arranged Keywords in Sentence case should be supplied below it. Please see the model article provided in the introduction section above.

Review Articles - may be commissioned or proposed. Authors wishing to submit a Review Article to The Veterinary Journal are advised to contact in advance. Review Articles may cover any relevant aspect of veterinary science or comparative medicine, but must have sufficient scope and depth to be able to make an important contribution to the field. Review Articles should be written in support of original investigations, which means that the authors will have made an important contribution to the field, will have published within the field and should be able to cite some of their own relevant work. Review Articles should be written as balanced, critical appraisals of published evidence, with appropriate reference to the work of published authors on the topic. They should be about 4,000 words in length and should follow the layout for Original Articles, but with the main text subdivided as appropriate to the subject matter, starting with an Abstract and Introduction, and incorporating a Conclusions section and a Conflict of interest statement. Sections should not be numbered. Please see the model Review Article provided in the introduction section above.

Guest Editorials are commissioned by the Editors; unsolicited Guest Editorials will not be accepted. Commissioned Guest Editorials usually have 500-1000 words of text and must follow the layout of the model article provided in the introduction section above. They usually include references (up to a maximum of 10), but should not be divided into sections and no Acknowledgements or Conflict of interest statement are required. Where a Guest Editorial is commissioned to accompany another article, it must refer to that article in the text and the reference should be provided at the end of the Editorial.

Personal Views are commissioned by the Editors; unsolicited Personal Views must not be submitted without the agreement of the Editors. Authors must follow the format of the model article provided in the intrduction section above. It is at the Editors' discretion whether a Personal View should be sent to reviewers or whether or not it will be published in The Veterinary Journal. The length of the Personal View must be agreed with the Editors in advance of submission.

Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


Highlights consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Highlights should be uploaded as a separate Word file and written in Times New Roman 12 point font. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (MAXIMUM 85 characters, INCLUDING SPACES, per bullet point). All abbreviations should be explained on first use in the Highlights and each Highlight should be written in past tense. Please see example Highlights. Abstract

A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Graphical abstract
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Prior presentation of data

Prior presentation of results, in the form of abstracts, posters or oral presentations at conferences, must be mentioned clearly in the Acknowledgements, with wording along the lines of: "Preliminary results were presented as an Abstract at the 9th International Congress of Veterinary Virology, Madrid, 4-7 September 2012."

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Nomenclature and Units

Units. Metric units must be used. If other units need to be given, they must be placed in brackets after the Metric equivalent. Units, symbols and abbreviations of units should conform to the International System of Units as defined in Baron, D.N., McKenzie-Clarke, H., 2008, Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: A Guide for Authors and Editors in Medicine and Related Sciences, 6th Ed., The Royal Society of Medicine, London (available here). All other abbreviations should be unambiguous and should be clearly explained where they are first mentioned in the Abstract and text. Do not list abbreviations separately.

Note that litre is abbreviated to 'L', millilitre 'mL', (also mmol/L etc.); probability is given as P (upper case italics), as in P<0.05; also note 'Student's t test' and Mann-Whitney U test; correlation coefficient r as in r = 0.92, coefficient of determination, r2 as in r2 = 0.72; standard deviation and standard error should be abbreviated to SD and SE, respectively, but defined when first used; hour, minute and second are abbreviated to h, min and s; day, week and year are given in full. For drug dose frequency use e.g. 'three times daily' or '8-hourly' rather than Latin terms such as t.i.d. or q 8 h. Where centrifugation has been performed, use g values not rpm. Other common abbreviations include 'IV' for intravenous or intravenously, 'IM' for intramuscular or intramuscularly, 'SC' for subcutaneous and subcutaneously, 'PO' for per os or orally; 'vs.' can be used for 'versus'. Use the abbreviation G for gauge of needle. The symbol for degrees Celsius should be written in the format '°C', with the value separated from the unit by a space, e.g. '37 °C'. Use the WORD symbols for ±, Greek letters etc. Percentages should be referred to as, for example, '15%' or 'Fifteen per cent' when starting a sentence. Note also 'post-mortem' and 'ante-mortem'.

When a number is followed by a unit use the digits as in '10 mL' unless starting a sentence in which case write in full 'Ten microlitres'. When the number describes a quantity of items write the number in full up to nine as 'four sheep' or 'nine tubes' then in digital form thereafter as '24 horses' or '200 blood samples'. Avoid the symbol # or abbreviation 'No.' for 'number'.

Single ('...') quotation marks should be used for specific extracts, as in: "A PubMed search utilising the search terms 'canine castration local anaesthesia' returned three publications." Where a reference is cited or a quote given, use single quotation marks and place the text in italic font as: "However, in the 'Recommended Guideline for the Conduct and Evaluation of Prognostic Studies in Veterinary Oncology' developed recently by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists ..." Double ("...") quotation marks should be avoided.

Anatomical terminology. Terminology should comply with the World Association of Veterinary Anatomists Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (2005) and terms should be given in English where possible, unless the paper is a specialist anatomy paper

Currencies. A footnote should be inserted at first use if a currency is given in the text, as in 'UK£5001' and conversion rates provided using the following three currencies US$, UK£ and Euros (€). The footnote should read as appropriate, for example: '£1 = approx. US$1.60, €1.24 at 2 December 2012.' Rates can be updated by the Author at proof stage if necessary. An easy to use currency converter is available here:

Manufacturer/supplier details - Manufacturers and suppliers should be indicated in the Materials and methods, after the name of the product. For example: 'diazepam (Valium, Roche)' or 'using an infusion pump (Medfusion 2010, Medex)'. Trade names are provided once only in the manuscript file, in the Materials and methods; elsewhere they are referred to either by their generic name or as Product/Drug/Vaccine A, Product/Drug/Vaccine B etc., as appropriate. Manufacturer/supplier location and URLs are not provided. Symbols such as ©, ®, and ™ are not allowed. Note: proprietary names must not appear in the title, Abstract, or Highlights. Please see Model Original Article for guidance.

Nucleotide sequences

-Submission of a manuscript implies that primary nucleotleotide sequence data will be deposited with an internationally available repository. Sequence reference numbers should be provided, where appropriate, in the main text, Tables, Figures or as an e-only supplementary file.

Controls for immunohistochemistry/immunocytochemistry - Please confirm that proper negative controls are used - See: The Histochemical Society's standards:


Figures. The quality of all Figures submitted must be high. The Editors will reject Figures of an unacceptable standard or ask the Authors to replace them. Figures should be referred to sequentially in the text as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Figs. 3a,b and 4, etc. A Legend must be provided for each Figure and placed after any Tables in the main manuscript file. Do not write legends on the figures themselves. Scale bars must be provided on all photomicrographs and electron micrographs.

In preparing figures, Authors should note the following:

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
  • Save text in figures as ''graphics'' or enclose the font.
  • Only use the following fonts in your figures: Times New Roman, Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Symbol.
  • Number the figures according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Provide all figures as separate files.
  • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
  • Ensure that all units and wording in the figures conform to TVJ style (see Units above).

Please note that each figure must be uploaded to the journal website separately and not included in the main manuscript.

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.


Each Table should be typed on a separate page, numbered (1, 2 etc.) and a brief title given directly above each table. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by a, b etc. and typed at the bottom of the relevant table. Information in tables should not be duplicated in figures and vice versa.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Review articles should be cited only to support generally acknowledged principles, and at the discretion of the Handling Editor. Conference proceedings and textbook references are only acceptable where other peer-reviewed sources do not exist, and only at the Handling Editor's discretion. Statements citing such sources should make it clear that the citation has not been peer-reviewed.

If a website is used to reference any document in a manuscript, it should be set out as a footnote on the page where it first appears; it should not appear in the References at the end of the manuscript. If an individual web reference is cited more than once in the manuscript, the footnote number used is as for the first time the website was cited. The footnote number should be inserted manually in the text where the website is cited for the second or subsequent time. At the foot of the page, provide the link as follows: '1See: Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. 19 April 2018).' It is the Authors' responsibility to check that all URLs are active and live at proof stage and if not then the text must be amended accordingly.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference style
References should be checked carefully for accuracy and corrected manually to ensure the format matches exactly the TVJ style described below.

Only essential references should be included. Text citations can be in either of two ways: (a) with date in parentheses, e.g. as demonstrated by Mills (2011); or (b) with names and dates in parentheses, e.g. according to recent findings (Mills, 2011). If a citation has more than two Authors the first Author should be given followed by et al. in standard text format (not italicised), e.g. Jones et al. (2007) or (Jones et al., 2007). Where lists of references are cited in the text, they should be placed first chronologically and then alphabetically, e.g. (Philbey et al., 2003; Cassidy and Mills, 2005; Litster, 2010). If two or more references by the same Author(s) published in the same year are cited, they should be distinguished from each other by placing a, b, etc. after the year, e.g., (Laven, 2011a, b; Laven and Smith, 2010a, b). Personal communications should be designated as '(E.A. Blomme, personal communication)'.

Papers that are in press may be cited using the year of acceptance where the digital object identifier (doi number) has been allocated. This can be updated to the year of print publication at the proof stage if the cited paper has been published. In the Reference list, quote the doi number where details of the journal volume and page numbers are yet not known.

Where a paper in press is cited in the manuscript, the Authors may be asked to make a copy of the proofs available to the editors and reviewers.

The Reference list at the end of the paper should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. References should be single spaced and a line break should be inserted between each reference. All Authors should be included up to 10, after which you should write 'et al.'; Please note that, in all cases Journal titles must be given in full. Volume numbers and full page numbers should be provided, but issue numbers should be omitted. Where a Supplement is cited, give the Supplement number e.g. 'Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement 37' or 'Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 54 (Suppl. 1), 115-126'. Where selected pages only have been consulted, such as in a book, this is given by 'pp. 237-240' or 'p. 456' (see below).

References should be set out as follows:

Journal reference - Yang, Y., Dahly-Vernon, A.J., Blomme, E.A.G., Lai-Zhang, J., Kempf, D.J., Marsh, K.C., Harrington, Y.A., Nye, S.H., Evans, D.L., Roman, R.J. et al., 2010. Liver transcriptomic changes associated with ritonavir-induced hyperlipidemia in sensitive and resistant strains of rats. The Veterinary Journal 185, 75-82.

Book reference - Cunningham, J.C., Klein, B.G., 2007. Endocrinology. In: Textbook of Veterinary Physiology, Fourth Edn. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO, USA, pp. 439-448.

Proceedings - Elbers, A.R., Mintiens, K., Staubach, C., Gerbier, G., Meiswinkel, R., Hendrinckx, G., Backx, A., Conraths, F.J., Meroc, E., Ducheyne, E., et al., 2007. Bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in North-western Europe in 2006: Preliminary findings. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Dipoli, Finland, 28th-30th March 2007 pp. 231-245.

Theses - Duz, M. 2009. Assessment of a methodology for determination of H2O2 concentration and pH in exhaled breath condensate in horses with and without lower airway inflammation. Thesis, Master of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Web addresses - FAOSTAT, 2008. Food and Agricultural Organization Statistical Database: Live Animals. (accessed 15 July 2010).

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Where Supplementary data are provided (see further information below), use the following wording in the main text after the Acknowledgements:

Appendix: Supplementary material

Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at'

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.


Reporting Guidelines

Reporting guidelines are available for a broad range of study designs and allow research to be critically evaluated. These guidelines have been designed by international scientific teams to promote the quality of research reporting and to ensure there is a transparent, accurate and complete account of the research. The guidelines are freely available and include the following:

1. Standards for the reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD)
2. Standards for the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE)
3. Outbreak investigation reports and intervention studies of nosocomial infection (ORION)
4. Consolidated standards for reporting randomised clinical trials (CONSORT)
5. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA)
6. Randomised control trials for livestock and food safety (REFLECT)
7. Enhancing the quality and transparency of health research (including good publication practice for pharmaceutical companies), economic evaluations and qualitative research (EQUATOR)

For further information see The Veterinary Journal (2010) 184, 249-250 (view article).