The Journal of Pediatrics is an international peer-reviewed journal that advances pediatric research and serves as a practical guide for pediatricians who manage health and diagnose and treat disorders in infants, children, and adolescents. The Journal publishes original work based on standards of excellence and expert review. The Journal seeks to publish high quality original articles that are immediately applicable to practice (basic science, translational research, evidence-based medicine), brief clinical and laboratory case reports, medical progress, expert commentary, grand rounds, insightful editorials, “classic” physical examinations, and novel insights into clinical and academic pediatric medicine related to every aspect of child health. Published monthly since 1932, The Journal of Pediatrics continues to promote the latest developments in pediatric medicine, child health, policy, and advocacy.
Topics covered in The Journal of Pediatrics include, but are not limited to:
- General Pediatrics
- Pediatric Subspecialties
- Adolescent Medicine
- Allergy and Immunology
- Critical Care Medicine
- Developmental-Behavioral Medicine
- Infectious Diseases
- Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
- Emergency Medicine
- Health Service Research
- Pediatric Hospitalist Medicine
The Journal of Pediatrics has an open access mirror journal The Journal of Pediatrics: X, sharing the same aims and scope, editorial team, submission system and rigorous peer review.Mission Statement:
Through a rigorous process of evaluation and peer review, The Journal of Pediatrics strives to publish pediatric research of the highest value for a diverse audience of pediatric healthcare professionals: academic general and subspecialty physicians and clinicians, researchers, educators, practicing and general pediatricians, nurse practitioners/physician assistants, hospitalists, residents, fellows, and others. The Journal seeks to inform immediate care decisions, deepen knowledge, and advance further scientific discovery to improve the quality of care and the health of infants, children, and adolescents.
Conflict of Interest/Disclosure Policy
Formatting of Funding Sources
Addition, Deletion, or Rearrangement of Author
Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID)
Ethical Approval of Studies
Clinical Trials Registration
Online Resources for Authors
Preparation of Manuscripts
General Manuscript Information
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Drugs, Devices, and Other Products
Examples of references
Reference Management Software
Figure Legends and Keys
Insights and Images
Rediscovering the Physical Exam
Letters to the Editor
Announcements and Upcoming Events
Other Article Types
Guidelines for Reviewers
Books for Review
Inquiries Regarding Decisions
Release to Media/Embargo Policy
Copyright and Authors' Rights
Open Access Policy
Retraction Guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)
Journals and Institutions on Research Integrity Cases from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)
Checklist for Manuscripts
EDITORWilliam F. Balistreri, MD
The Journal of Pediatrics
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 3021
Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039
EDITORIAL OFFICEMeghan McDevitt, Managing Editor
Becky W. Lindeman, Senior Editorial Assistant
Rebecca Hammer, Senior Editorial Assistant
Phone: 513-636-7140; Fax: 513-636-7141
1600 JFK Boulevard, Suite 1800
Philadelphia, PA 19103
Rachel Dalton, Journal Manager
Phone: (215) 239 3956
Editorial PoliciesGeneral Information
The Journal of Pediatrics has an open access mirror journal, The Journal of Pediatrics: X. The Journal of Pediatrics publishes the following peer-reviewed (single-blind) material: Original Research Articles, Brief Reports, reviews of Medical Progress in pediatrics and related fields, Grand Rounds (clinicopathologic conferences [CPC] or didactic discussions), Commentaries, Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs, Inc. (AMSPDC) commentaries, clinical pictures or images accompanied by a brief clinical description (Rediscovering the Physical Exam and Insights and Images), Letters to the Editor, Workshop/Symposium Summaries and Supplements. There is no charge to submit or publish in The Journal, unless an article contains color figures in the print version (See Figures). Authors choosing to publish articles as open access in The Journal of Pediatrics: X will pay an article publishing charge (APC), have a choice of license options, and retain copyright. The Journal does not publish animal studies or basic science articles without direct clinical relevance.Duplicate/Prior/Overlapping Publication or Submission
Manuscripts are accepted for review with the stipulation that they are submitted solely to The Journal of Pediatrics.Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see https://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder. Authors should disclose prior publication as an abstract or an electronic preprint in the Cover Letter.
If any part of a manuscript by the same author(s) contains any information that was previously published, is in press, or is under consideration by another publication, a reprint of the previous article or a copy of the other manuscript must be submitted to the Editor at the point of submission, with a justification or explanation by the authors of any potential overlap or duplication. It is not necessary to disclose submissions that were rejected by another journal.The Editors are disinclined to publish more than one paper arising from the study of the same patient population. Please combine papers from the same study whenever possible. If you are unable to combine the papers, a reprint of the other article(s) or a copy of the other manuscript(s) must be submitted to the Editor at the point of submission, with a justification or explanation by the authors as to why the papers could not be combined.
If the Editor is made aware of such overlapping or duplicate manuscripts that have not been disclosed by the authors, a written explanation will be requested. If, in the judgment of the Editor, the explanation is inadequate, the submission will be rejected. If there is no disclosure, an appropriate official of the primary author's academic institution will be notified.Conflict of Interest/Disclosure Policy
According to the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME):
"Conflict of interest (COI) exists when there is a divergence between an individual's private interests (competing interests) and his or her responsibilities to scientific and publishing activities such that a reasonable observer might wonder if the individual's behavior or judgment was motivated by considerations of his or her competing interests. COI in medical publishing affects everyone with a stake in research integrity including journals, research/academic institutions, funding agencies, the popular media, and the public. Journals are interested in COI as it relates to a specific manuscript."Everyone has COIs of some sort. Having a competing interest does not, in itself, imply wrongdoing. However, it constitutes a problem when competing interests could unduly influence (or be reasonably seen to do so) one's responsibilities in the publication process. If COI is not managed effectively, it can cause authors, reviewers, and editors to make decisions that, consciously or unconsciously, tend to serve their competing interests at the expense of their responsibilities in the publication process, thereby distorting the scientific enterprise. This consequence of COI is especially dangerous when it is not immediately apparent to others. In addition, the appearance of COI, even where none actually exists, can also erode trust in a journal by damaging its reputation and credibility."
Authors are required to disclose on the title page of the initial manuscript any potential, perceived, or real conflict of interest. Authors must describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in 1) study design; 2) the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; 3) the writing of the report; and 4) the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Authors should include statements even when the sponsor had no involvement in the above matters. Authors should also state who wrote the first draft of the manuscript and whether an honorarium, grant, or other form of payment was given to anyone to produce the manuscript. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the disclosure statements will be published.Editors who make decisions about manuscripts have no COI with the authors or their institutions, study group, research funders, overlapping (similar or competing) research, etc. A list of COI for all Editors and Editorial Board members is available at http://www.jpeds.com/content/ed_board_bios. If Editors or Editorial Board members have a COI for particular manuscripts, they must recuse themselves as the handling Editor, in which case the manuscript will be assigned to a new Editor. Editorial Board members will serve as Guest Editors when appropriate (e.g., the author is an Editor of The Journal of Pediatrics, the authors of a manuscript are at the Editor's institution, the Editor has recused him/herself for whatever reason). Editors and Editorial Board members are blinded to any submissions for which they are authors.
Reviewers are required to disclose any real or potential conflicts of interest, as outlined in the Guidelines for Reviewers.Additional information regarding conflicts of interest can be found at http://www.wame.org/conflict-of-interest-editorial#ref1, "Conflict of Interest in Peer-Reviewed Medical Journals: The World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) Position on a Challenging Problem." (This Editorial may appear in other medical and biomedical journals whose editors are members of WAME.)
Formatting of Funding Sources
List funding sources on the title page of the manuscript in a standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements. For example, Supported by the National Institutes of Health (<grant number xxx> [to <author's initials>]); the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA (<grant number yyy>]); and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (<grant number zzz> [to <author's initials>]).
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Each author's contributions must be detailed in the Authorship Agreement and Contribution form uploaded at initial submission. If there are questions or concerns about whether each person in the author list fulfills the criteria for authorship according to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' (ICMJE) "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals," we will request further information from the corresponding author and, if necessary, request additional details for each person's work. All individuals who fulfill ICMJE's conditions for authorship should be included in the author list. Individuals who have contributed to the study, but do not meet the requirements for authorship, should be included in the Acknowledgments section (e.g., Department Chair, "honorary author," anyone who provided technical or writing assistance). All authors of a submitted manuscript must sign the Authorship Agreement and Contribution form declaring that they meet ICMJE's Recommendations for authorship and agreeing to the publication of the article and must be included at the time of submission.
If the byline includes the name of a study group, a list of all members of the study group and their affiliations must be provided and would be published as an online Appendix.Addition, Deletion, or Rearrangement of Author Names
The authorship list and author order should be determined before submitting to The Journal of Pediatrics and authorship contributions should be detailed on the Authorship Agreement and Contribution form uploaded at initial submission.Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: In accordance with the policies of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), requests to add, remove, or rearrange author names must be e-mailed to the Editorial Office (firstname.lastname@example.org) from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged. Confirmation e-mails from each author that they agree with the addition, removal, or rearrangement is also required; in the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Editorial Office to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that the Journal Manager will inform the Editorial Office of any such requests, and online publication of the accepted manuscript will be suspended until authorship has been finalized.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and may result in an erratum.Acknowledgments Section
The names, degrees, and affiliations, along with any conflicts of interest, funding sources, and industry-relation, of persons who have contributed substantially to a study but do not fulfill the criteria for authorship as outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) are to be listed in the Acknowledgments section, which will be published in the print and/or online version of The Journal of Pediatrics. This section should include individuals who provided any writing, editorial, and/or statistical assistance, as well as Department Chairs, "honorary authors," etc. Authors should inform all individuals in the Acknowledgments section that they are being listed on the submission.
Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID)
"ORCID is an open, non-profit, community-driven effort to create and maintain a registry of unique researcher identifiers and a transparent method of linking research activities and outputs to these identifiers." Authors are encouraged to create an ORCID account, which provides a unique identification number that can be linked to manuscripts and publications for which they serve as authors. This can be helpful in distinguishing authors with common names. ORCIDs can be linked to EES user accounts, and also may be helpful when compiling a list of authored publications. Additional information about ORCID is available at http://orcid.org/content/initiative.
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee and/or independent review board (IRB) approval, which should be documented in the Methods section of the paper. If this study was not approved by the appropriate ethics committee or IRB, include a statement as to why it was exempt.
Manuscripts describing research involving human subjects should indicate that written informed consent was obtained from the parents or guardians of the children who served as subjects of the investigation and, when appropriate, assent from the subjects themselves. In the event that either the Editors or the reviewers question the propriety of the human investigation with respect to the risk to the subjects or to the means by which informed consent was obtained, The Journal of Pediatrics may request more detailed information about the safeguards employed and the procedures used to obtain informed consent. Copies of the minutes of the committees that reviewed and approved the research also may be requested. Authors should verify compliance with the Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act of 1996(HIPAA) prior to submission.Additionally, manuscripts describing research involving human subjects should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans (http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html); Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals (http://www.icmje.org).
Patients have a right to privacy. Therefore identifying information, including patients' images, names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be included in videos, recordings, written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and you have obtained written informed consent for publication in print and electronic form from the patient (or parent, guardian, or next of kin where applicable). If such consent is made subject to any conditions, Elsevier must be made aware of all such conditions. Written consents must be provided to Elsevier on request.Even where consent has been given, identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note. If such consent has not been obtained, personal details of patients included in any part of the paper and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
The Journal of Pediatrics endorses the use of an appropriate reporting guideline when writing any health research manuscript. You must submit a completed checklist and flow diagram for all randomized trials (CONSORT guidelines) and for all meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines) at the time of initial submission.
At minimum, your article should report the content addressed by each item of the identified checklist or state that the item was not considered in the study and, if relevant, the reason why not (for example, if you did not use blinding, your article should explain this). Meeting these basic reporting requirements will greatly improve the value of your manuscript, may facilitate/enhance the peer review process, and may enhance its chances for eventual publication.Checklists are not simply an administrative hurdle. We ask you to complete a checklist because this helps to ensure that you have included all of the important information in your article, and because it helps our editors and reviewers to complete the same check. If the checklist indicates an item that you have not addressed in your manuscript, please either explain in the manuscript text why this information is not relevant to your study or add the relevant information.
Table. Common types of studies and corresponding reporting guidelines. Some reporting guidelines are required at submission.
|Study type||Reporting guideline||The Journal of Pediatrics' Policy|
|Quality improvement studies||SQUIRE||Encouraged|
Clinical Trials Registration
The Journal of Pediatrics follows recommendations from the World Health Organization and the ICMJE pertaining to clinical trial registration and reporting. All manuscripts reporting results from clinical trials must be registered in an approved clinical trial registry prior to the enrollment of the first participant.
"For the purposes of registration, a clinical trial is any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes. Interventions include but are not restricted to drugs, cells and other biological products, surgical procedures, radiological procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, preventive care, etc."According to the ICMJE:
"The purpose of clinical trial registration is to prevent selective publication and selective reporting of research outcomes, to prevent unnecessary duplication of research effort, to help patients and the public know what trials are planned or ongoing into which they might want to enroll, and to help give ethics review boards considering approval of new studies a view of similar work and data relevant to the research they are considering."A list of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)-approved clinical trial registries and additional guidelines for registering RCTs are available at: http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/publishing-and-editorial-issues/clinical-trial-registration.html. If a trial was not registered prior to the enrollment of the first participant and/or it was registered in an unapproved registry, you must provide an explanation in the initial letter of submission, which will be assessed by the Editors on a case-by-case basis.
A completed CONSORT checklist and CONSORT flow diagram are required for clinical trials submitted to The Journal of Pediatrics. Please refer to the Reporting Guidelines section for additional information. You must include the site of the registry and the trial registration number at the end of the abstract, as well as the first time the trial name is used in the manuscript (usually the Methods section). Finally, the dates of patients' enrollment must be included in the Results section. This information will be collected at the time of submission.Negative Studies
The Journal of Pediatrics agrees with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) statement regarding the obligation to publish negative studies: "Editors should consider seriously for publication any carefully done study of an important question, relevant to their readers, whether the results for the primary or any additional outcome are statistically significant. Failure to submit or publish findings because of lack of statistical significance is an important cause of publication bias" (http://www.icmje.org/ ). The Journal seeks original work which then undergoes peer-reviewed scrutiny with editorial oversight. Over the years The Journal has accepted articles that clearly documented a lack of efficacy of therapeutic agents or procedures. The Journal believes that evidence-based medicine must be based on the best evidence, which may include negative studies.
The Journal of Pediatrics does not publish animal studies without direct clinical relevance. If you believe that an animal study has direct clinical relevance, it must be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, the EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and it must indicate clearly in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. All animal studies need to ensure they comply with the ARRIVE guidelines http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/page.asp?id=1357.Online Resources for Authors
A list of online resources, including reporting guidelines and resources for publication ethics, which may be beneficial to English speaking and non-native English speaking authors, is available at http://www.jpeds.com/content/resourcesforauthors.
Manuscripts are to be submitted via the Elsevier Editorial System (EES), the electronic submission website at https://ees.elsevier.com/jpeds. Aside from the required Medical Progress, Commentaries, Grand Rounds, and Workshop/Symposium Summary pre-submission proposals, the Editors will not assess proposals of other article types prior to submission. Authors should review carefully the Authors' Tutorial for the system at https://ees.elsevier.com/eeshelp/EES_Author_Tutorial.html.
After submission, the corresponding author can log onto EES to view the status of the manuscript. All accepted manuscripts are subject to editorial revision and shortening. Authors should avoid redundancy between sections of text and between illustrations and text. Due to page limitations, the Editors may decide that figures, appendices, tables, acknowledgments, and other material be published in the online version of The Journal and referenced in the print edition; however, important methods and results should not be separated and should be included in the body of the text.It is the policy of The Journal of Pediatrics to publish new and original work. Text copied from copyrighted works from third parties, even in an introduction or methods section, should never be used without clearly identifying the other source (either by quotations or indentations). Every paper should present some novelty and new results in the form of a unique paper written in an author's own words. The Journal of Pediatrics uses CrossCheck powered by iThenticate software to screen for originality on all submitted manuscripts.
A cover letter must accompany all submissions. The cover letter should provide a brief explanation of why the manuscript should be considered for publication in The Journal of Pediatrics and note additional information that may be useful to the editors.
- Disclosure of prior publications or submissions (excluding rejected submissions) with any overlapping information, including studies and patients; a copy of the work(s) must be uploaded. Although poster presentations and abstracts as well as publication in an electronic preprint server are not considered duplicate publication, they should be stated in the cover letter. If there are no prior publications or submissions with any overlapping information, provide the following statement: "There are no prior publications or submissions with any overlapping information, including studies and patients." Additional information is available at http://jpeds.com/authorinfo#dup;
- A statement of any potential conflict of interest, real or perceived; this includes a description of the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in: (1) study design; (2) the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; (3) the writing of the report; and (4) the decision to submit the paper for publication. Include statements even when the sponsor had no involvement in the above matters. This information must also appear on the title page of the manuscript. Additional information is available at http://jpeds.com/authorinfo#conf.
To assist with a prompt, fair review process, authors must enter the names, departments, institutions, and e-mail addresses (institutional e-mail accounts, not gmail, yahoo, hotmail, etc.) of 5 potential reviewers in Elsevier Editorial System (EES); however, suggesting 7 or more potential reviewers is preferable. Potential reviewers must have the appropriate expertise to evaluate the manuscript, be outside of the authors' institution(s), and have no known potential conflicts of interest. Ultimately, the Editors reserve the right to choose reviewers.
The title page should include authors' full names and highest academic degrees; departmental and institutional affiliations of each author; sources of financial assistance (see Formatting of Funding Sources) or potential conflicts of interest, if any (see Conflicts of Interest/Disclosure Policy), and disclose prior presentation of study data as an abstract or poster. A data sharing statement may also be listed on the title page (see Data Statement). Listed authors should include only those individuals who have made a significant, creative contribution to the manuscript as defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org). The authorship list and author order should be determined before submitting to The Journal of Pediatrics and authorship contributions should be detailed on the Authorship Agreement and Contribution form uploaded at initial submission. One author must be designated as the correspondent, with complete address, business telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address. The corresponding author is responsible for communicating with the Editorial Office and all other co-authors; the Editorial Office will not provide status updates or decision information to anyone other than the corresponding author. Proofs and order forms for reprints will be sent to the corresponding author if the manuscript is published. Include a list of key words not in the title, as well as a short title (8-word maximum). Trade names of drugs and other products must not appear in the article title.
A list of abbreviations and acronyms that appear >3 times should be included in the manuscript, along with the expansion of each. All abbreviations and acronyms should be expanded, followed by the abbreviation or acronym in parentheses, upon first use in the abstract, as well as in the first use in the body of the manuscript. All subsequent uses, including tables and figures, should use the abbreviation or acronym. Because abbreviations and acronyms are designed to assist readers, they should be limited to those defined in the AMA Manual of Style, those that are commonly used by general pediatricians, and those that shorten the names of study groups.
Drugs, Devices, and Other Products
Use nonproprietary names of drugs, devices, and other products, unless the specific trade name is essential to the discussion. The trade name may appear once in the Abstract and once in the Introduction or Methods section, followed by the nonproprietary name, manufacturer, and manufacturer location in parentheses; all other mention of the product must use the generic name. Trade names of drugs and other products must not appear in the article title.
Laboratory values should be described in metric mass units. The International System of Units (SI units) should be provided in parentheses immediately after metric units. Conversion tables are available (see JAMA 1986; 255:2329-39 or Ann Intern Med 1987; 106:114-29).
Beginning November 1, 2015, authors are encouraged (but not required) to connect manuscripts with external databases, giving readers access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your initial manuscript submission: (DATABASE: identifier; URL). For example, (TAIR: AT1G01020; https://www.arabidopsis.org/servlets/TairObject?id=137159&type=locus). For more information and a full list of supported databases, please go to https://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking.
Antibody Data is the reference application linking to information about the antibodies mentioned in the article, based on the NIF Antibody Registry. Authors are encouraged to include relevant antibody identifiers in their articles (eg, Antibody Registry: AB_878537 or RRID: AB_878537), if appropriate. More information can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/books-and-journals/content-innovation/antibody-data.
References must be numbered according to order of appearance in the text and use superscript or parenthesized numbers in the text. For reference style, follow the Vancouver format set forth in "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" (http://www.icmje.org/), with journal abbreviations according to Cumulated Index Medicus. If the reference is to an abstract, letter, or editorial, place the appropriate term in brackets after the title. Citations should refer to primary analyses (ie, original content), instead of literature reviews and secondary analyses.
For journal articlesKramarz P, DeStefano F, Gargiullo PM, Chen RT, Lieu TA, Davis RL, et al. Does influenza vaccination prevent asthma exacerbations in children? J Pediatr 2001; 138:306-10.
Cozzi F, Morini F. Possible mechanisms of pacifier protection against SIDS [letter]. J Pediatr 2001;138:783.For Articles in Press (online)
Hellems MA, Gurka KK, Hayden GF. A review of The Journal of Pediatrics: The first 75 years. J Pediatr (2008). doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.08.049.
Rosenstein BJ, Fosarelli PD. Pediatric pearls: the handbook of practical pediatrics. 3rd ed. St Louis: Mosby; 1997.
For chapters in books
Neufeld EF, Muenzer J. The mucopolysaccharidoses. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, et al, eds. The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited diseases. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001. p. 3421-52.
American Medical Association [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/1736.html
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Reference Management Software
The reference template for The Journal of Pediatrics is available in many of the most popular reference management software products, including products that support Citation Style Language styles (http://citationstyles.org), such as Mendeley (http://www.mendeley.com/features/reference-manager) and Zotero (https://www.zotero.org/), as well as EndNote (http://endnote.com/downloads/styles). Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, please select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. Please be sure to double-space the Reference section.
Tables are to be uploaded into EES as separate documents, formatted in .doc or .xls. A concise title should be supplied for each. Tables should be self-explanatory and should supplement, not duplicate the text. If a table or any data therein have been previously published, a footnote must give full credit to the original source. (See Permissions).
All Tables should be numbered according to their sequence in the text of the manuscript. Online only Tables, if any, should be submitted "as usual" through EES. Indicate what should be published online only in EES (type "Table x; online only" in the file description field when you upload the files) and in the manuscript text (add "online" behind the reference to the table going online only). Do not renumber online only Tables or label them as "supplemental."Figure Legends and Keys
A concise legend for each Figure must be included in the manuscript file, not in the Figure files. If a Figure has been previously published or has been adapted from a prior publication, the legend must give full credit to the original source.(See Permissions).
If a Figure key is included, it must be in a font size that is easy to read and proportionate to the Figure and added to blank space inside or under graphs. If patterns or symbols are included in the Figure key, they must be large enough to decipher. If the same Figure key is used for a multipanel Figure, only one centrally located Figure key is needed.Figures
Black and white Figures will be reproduced at no cost to the authors, but authors are expected to pay the extra cost associated with reproduction of color illustrations in the print version of The Journal of Pediatrics (currently $450 for the first color figure and $100 each for additional figures in the same manuscript). The Editors retain the right to edit, delete, or move online Figures and Tables as they deem appropriate. (See Article Type). Figure legends must be separate from the figures, and included in the manuscript file. (See Figure Legends) Each figure must be uploaded into EES as a separate file.
All Figures should be numbered according to their sequence in the text of the manuscript. Online only Figures, if any, should be submitted "as usual" through EES. Indicate what should be published online only in EES (type "Figure x; online only" in the file description field when you upload the files) and in the manuscript text (add "online" behind the reference to the figure or table going online only). Do not renumber online only Figures or label them as "supplemental."All Figures must be clear and legible. Patterns or shadings must be distinguishable from each other and dark enough for reproduction. Lines, symbols, and letters must be sharp, smooth, and complete. Uniform lettering (Arial, Courier, and Times New Roman work best) and sizing should be used. The integrity of scientific images (eg, gels, micrographs) must be maintained in Figures submitted to The Journal (see JAMA's policy on Image Integrity: (see JAMA's policy on Image Integrity: http://jama.ama-assn.org/misc/ifora.dtl#ImageIntegrity).
Color Figures are acceptable, but authors are expected to pay the extra cost associated with reproduction of color in the print version of The Journal of Pediatrics (currently $450 for the first color figure and $100 each for additional figures in the same manuscript). After final acceptance the publisher will contact authors with pricing and instructions for payment. The colors must be dark enough and of sufficient contrast for reproduction. Fluorescent colors do not reproduce well. Avoid using color descriptors in the figure legends. If the Editors determine that color Figures will be clear in black and white, the Figures may be published in black and white in the print version and in color in the online version at no cost to the authors.All Figures should be at least 5 inches wide; multipaneled Figures should be sized close to the desired dimensions of the printed version. Figures may be provided in a variety of formats. TIFF and JPEG are the best formats, although EPS and PDF also are appropriate for graphs (embed all used fonts). Do not supply Figure files that are optimized for the screen (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG). Line art (black lines on a white background) must be created at a minimum of 1000 dpi, and combination line art (i.e., grayscale) must be created at a minimum of 1200 dpi. Black and white or color photographs must be created at a minimum of 300 dpi. For complete instructions, please go to https://www.elsevier.com/artwork. If you experience difficulties with uploading Figures into EES, please visit our Support Center.
In addition, short movie, animation, or audio files can be published in the online version of The Journal; a reference to the electronic material would appear in the print version. Each file should be uploaded into EES as a "multi-media" file. For specifications for these types of files, please go to https://ees.elsevier.com/jpeds/ and click on Artwork Guidelines.
As a general rule, permission should be sought from the rights holder to reproduce any "substantial parts" of any copyright work. This includes literary works (eg, text and tables), as well as all photographs, slides, line illustrations, or other artwork. Tables and illustrations, even if modified, that have appeared in copyrighted material must be accompanied by written permission for their use from the copyright owner, along with complete information as to source. In most cases this will mean contacting the publisher of the original work. Although the publisher may not own copyright in all cases, the publisher usually has the exclusive right to grant the permission. For further information on how to obtain permission, please go to https://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/obtaining-permission-to-re-use-elsevier-material.
Authors are required to obtain written permission from the patient, or parent or guardian of a minor child, for publication of photographs or other images that include recognizable portions of the face; black bars over the eyes are not sufficient. Patient initials should not be used anywhere in the text, tables, or figures. Because articles appear in both the print and online versions of The Journal of Pediatrics, the wording of the letter should specify permission in all forms and media. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier upon request; the signed consents should not be submitted to The Journal. For further information about permissions for recognizable photos, please go to https://www.elsevier.com/patientphotographs or contact email@example.com.Article Types
Full-length manuscripts for the Original Articles section of The Journal of Pediatrics must include a structured abstract of less than 250 words, to appear after the title page, with the following headings: Objective(s), Study design, Results, and Conclusion(s). The Objective(s) should put the study in context with the current literature (i.e., what is new, not textbook background information) and reflect the purpose of the study, that is, the hypothesis that is being tested or the question being asked (e.g., "To assess…," "To evaluate…"). The Study design should include the study methodology, the setting for the study, the subjects (number and type), the treatment or intervention, principal outcomes measured, and the type of statistical analysis. The Results section should include the outcome of the study and statistical significance, if appropriate. The Conclusion(s) states the significance of the results and limitations of the study.
Structured Abstract: less than 250 words (Objective must contain a concise hypothesis of 1-2 sentences, beginning with "To test…," "To assess…," "To evaluate…," etc., which is free of background information that is more appropriate for the Introduction.)
Introduction: 1 page
Methods: 2-3 pages
Results: 2-3 pages
Discussion: 3-5 pages
Graphics: No more than 4 tables + figures total for print consideration. Additional tables or figures can be considered for online-only content.
Total page length: 18 manuscript pages, including title page, *not including references and online-only content
(Online-only content includes appendices, tables, figures, videos, audio clips, and PowerPoint presentations. Unless extremely long and detailed, portions of the manuscript should not be separated into online appendices.)
Brief Reports are either (1) brief, focused studies, with a single question or hypothesis, related to a topic of interest to the general academic pediatrician; (2) a small series of diagnostic or therapeutic interventions that provide a novel observation or conclusion; or (3) "case reports" that provide novel insight into pathophysiology, diagnosis, or treatment of an entity that does not represent a coincidental association. Please note that Brief Reports are not designed to present information that is generally available in textbooks, even if the reported entity is novel. Brief Reports are designed to provide readers with new information and stimulate new approaches to diagnosis, clinical management, or research. Do not include line numbers. Brief Reports should be approximately 9 double-spaced, numbered manuscript pages (including the title page), a brief, unstructured abstract of <50 words, and a combined total of no more than 2 tables + figures for print consideration. Additional tables or figures can be considered for online-only content. Length targets do not include references and online-only content. (Online-only content includes appendices, tables, figures, videos, audio clips, and PowerPoint presentations. Portions of the manuscript should not be separated into online appendices.)
Insights and Images
Submissions to the Insights and Images section of The Journal of Pediatrics should be of clinical pictures or other images of excellent quality and composition that provide insight into the diagnosis or pathophysiology of a clinical problems or a solution. These should be of general interest to the broad readership of pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists. Text should be a succinct short clinical vignette or description and a brief discussion of the most relevant new information, such as a differential diagnosis, management, pathophysiology, or genetic basis. A video and/or audio file is encouraged. These submissions should not be case reports or reports of medical or surgical mishaps. Insights and Images manuscripts should be no more than 1.5 double-spaced, numbered manuscript pages (not including the title page, references, and at least 1 figure for print consideration). References may be published in the online version of The Journal. Additional figure(s) may be placed in the online version of The Journal if the piece exceeds one published page. Original, signed, written permission from the patient, or parent or guardian of a minor child, is required for publication of recognizable images in all forms and media. (See Permissions) Authors will be required to sign a standard copyright transfer agreement; therefore, all submissions must have a title. Submissions will undergo review by the Editors, and their decision to accept or reject will be final.
Rediscovering the Physical Exam
Submissions to the Rediscovering the Physical Exam section of The Journal of Pediatrics should should be of clinical pictures or other images of excellent quality and composition that illustrate "typical" findings on physical examination, either normal or abnormal, that reveal underappreciated normal findings or classic features of a disease. The objective is to instruct the reader about the recognition, correct assessment, and/or underlying pathology/pathophysiology. A video and/or audio file is encouraged. Rediscovering the Physical Exam manuscripts should be no more than 1 ½ double-spaced, numbered manuscript pages (not including the title page, references, and at least 1 figure for print consideration). References may be published in the online version of The Journal. Additional figure(s) may be placed in the online version of The Journal if the piece exceeds one published page. Original, signed, written permission from the patient, or parent or guardian of a minor child, is required for publication of recognizable images in all forms and media. (See Permissions) Authors will be required to sign a standard copyright transfer agreement; therefore, all submissions must have a title. Submissions will undergo review by the Editors, and their decision to accept or reject will be final.
Letters to the Editor should pertain to papers published in The Journal of Pediatrics within the past year or to related topics and should not exceed 300 words. Provide a unique title for the Letter on the title page with complete contact information for the author(s). Double-space the text of the Letter. References, including reference to the pertinent article(s) in The Journal, should conform to style for manuscripts (see References).
The Editors may decide to send Letters to the Editor to the authors of the article about which the Letter was written for review and/or Reply. If the Editors choose to publish the Reply, it will be published in the same volume as the Letter to the Editor. Replies are not sent to Letter authors prior to publication.Medical Progress
Authors who wish to propose a review article for the Medical Progress section must e-mail a proposal letter and formal academic outline of the manuscript (i.e., introduction, thesis statement, supporting ideas, and conclusion), identifying the article type for the Editors to assess, and outline to firstname.lastname@example.org for approval before submitting the full manuscript. (Editors will not assess full manuscripts prior to submission.) Medical Progress articles are a focused summary on the latest evidence-based advancements in a rapidly changing field. Practical guidelines, diagnostic algorithms, comment on case management issues, and summation of results of outcomes research may be appropriate. Articles considered for this section should not be review articles, opinion, or advocacy pieces. One or all contributing authors should be recognized expert(s) in the subject matter, as illustrated by their record of impactful publications in peer reviewed journals. Do not include line numbers. Medical Progress manuscripts should be approximately 18 double-spaced, numbered pages, including the title page, tables, and figures (not including references and online-only content). (Online-only content includes appendices, tables, figures, videos, audio clips, and PowerPoint presentations. Portions of the manuscript should not be separated into online appendices.)
Authors who wish to propose a Commentary must e-mail a proposal letter and formal academic outline of the manuscript (i.e., introduction, thesis statement, supporting ideas, and conclusion), identifying the article type for the Editors to assess, to email@example.com for approval before submitting the full manuscript. (Editors will not assess full manuscripts prior to submission.) Commentaries are a forum to inform readers about controversies or emerging consensus in areas such as governmental health policies, economic issues, medical/scientific ethics, psychosocial issues, and international health. These are meant to be a focused point of view based on science. One or all contributing authors should be recognized expert(s) in the subject matter, as illustrated by their record of impactful publications in peer reviewed journals. Do not include line numbers. Commentary manuscripts should be approximately 18 double-spaced, numbered pages, including the title page, tables, and figures (not including references and online-only content). (Online-only content includes appendices, tables, figures, videos, audio clips, and PowerPoint presentations. Portions of the manuscript should not be separated into online appendices.)
Authors who wish to propose a manuscript for the Grand Rounds section must e-mail a proposal letter and formal academic outline of the manuscript (i.e., introduction, thesis statement, supporting ideas, and conclusion), identifying the article type for the Editors to assess, to firstname.lastname@example.org for approval before submitting the full manuscript. (Editors will not assess full manuscripts prior to submission.) Articls for the Grand Rounds section are a concise and formal presentation of an informative case, followed by explanation of background and approach for the clinician, and containing up-to-date, but not necessarily new, unpublished data. These can be concise reviews of topics of current interest or change, with discussion based on evidence and experience and emphasizing reasoning as practiced by master clinicians, similar to Grand Rounds presented at a major academic center. One or all contributing authors should be recognized expert(s) in the subject matter, as illustrated by their record of impactful publications in peer reviewed journals. Do not include line numbers. Grand Rounds manuscripts should be approximately 16 double-spaced, numbered pages, including the title page, tables, and figures (not including references and online-only content). (Online-only content includes appendices, tables, figures, videos, audio clips, and PowerPoint presentations. Portions of the manuscript should not be separated into online appendices.)
Authors who wish to propose a manuscript for the Workshop/Symposium Summary section must e-mail a proposal letter and formal academic outline of the manuscript (i.e., introduction, thesis statement, supporting ideas, and conclusion), identifying the article type for the Editors to assess, to email@example.com for approval before submitting the full manuscript. (Editors will not assess full manuscripts prior to submission.) Workshop/Symposium Summary articles are succinct summaries relating to a scientific, single topic, consensus workshops/symposia that took place less than one year prior to submission and would be of interest to the readership. A summary submitted for this section must be the only publication for the workshop; The Journal will not consider summaries that have been or will be published in whole or in part, excluding the workshop/symposium description/abstract in the meeting program.
Pages of The Journal of Pediatrics are reserved for the Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs, Inc. (AMSPDC), which is solely responsible for their content, and do not necessarily represent the views of The Journal of Pediatrics or its publisher, Elsevier, Inc. Authors interested in submitting to this section should contact AMSPDC directly. All other manuscripts must be submitted as detailed above by each article type.
- Section Editor
Mitchell B. Cohen, MD
UAB Department of Pediatrics
University of Alabama School of Medicine
Physcian-in-chief, Children's of Alabama
1600 7th Ave. S.,
600 Lowder Bldg
Birmingham, AL firstname.lastname@example.org
Announcements and Upcoming Events
Announcements of scheduled meetings, symposia, or postgraduate courses of interest to the pediatric readership may be sent to the Editorial Office via e-mail for consideration at least 2 months in advance of the meeting date or deadline. News items of general interest to pediatricians and related specialists will also be considered. Approved Announcements will be published in the online version of The Journal of Pediatrics. The Journal requests a reciprocal posting back to www.jpeds.com; however, the organization's decision to link to The Journal's website will not be a barrier to The Journal's willingness to post this Announcement or Event.
Event Title *
The Journal of Pediatrics publishes funded supplements after approval and review by the Editorial Office. Initial inquiries and proposals for supplements should be directed to
- Brian Jenkins, Senior Supplements Editor
Elsevier Supplements Department
360 Park Avenue South
New York, NY 10010
Tel: (212)462 1924
Fax: (212)462 1935
Article types that are not detailed above (Editorials, 50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics, The Editors' Perspectives, Current Best Evidence, European Paediatric Association Pages) cannot be submitted without a direct request from the Editors of The Journal of Pediatrics.Reviewer resources and guidelines specific to The Journal of Pediatrics provide authors with detailed requirements and expectations that may increase their manuscript's potential for acceptance.
Have you been asked to review a manuscript for The Journal of Pediatrics? Are you interested in becoming a reviewer for The Journal of Pediatrics? Please review our reviewer resources and guidelines to get started. Contact the editorial office at email@example.com with any questions.Books for Review
The Journal of Pediatrics does not publish book reviews. Books sent to the Editor will not be returned.
Authors will receive e-mail notification from the Editorial Office of The Journal of Pediatrics after a decision has been made. It is very rare that peer-reviewed manuscripts are accepted upon initial submission. Requesting a revised manuscript should be seen as a positive step towards potential publication (although requesting a revision does not guarantee acceptance). We request that all revised manuscripts are submitted 4 weeks from the date of the revise decision. If you are unable to submit your revision in 4 weeks, we require that you send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org, explaining why you are unable to submit a revision within the allotted time, as well as when you anticipate submitting the revision. We will then determine the merit of the requested extension.
All inquiries concerning manuscript decisions should be in writing from the designated corresponding author (email@example.com). The complete manuscript file will be forwarded to the appropriate Editor for response to the inquiry. The Editors are not available for telephone calls regarding decisions.
Release to Media/Embargo Policy
It is a violation of the copyright agreement to disclose the findings of an accepted manuscript to the media or the public before publication in The Journal of Pediatrics. Information in the manuscript may be announced when it is published on The Journal's website. Please notify the Editorial Office as soon as possible if your institution anticipates writing and distributing a press release regarding an accepted article. The Journal publishes pre-proofs (i.e. accepted manuscripts that have been selected for publication that have note have been typeset and may change before final publication). Because of The Journal's rapid online publication, if the authors have not notified the Editorial Office by the time the manuscript has been accepted by the editor for publication, then requests for press release may not be fulfilled and will be determined on a case-by-case basis.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.Elsevier's copyright and authors' rights policies can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
Elsevier Supports Responsible Sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days of free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including e-mail and social media, after the article has published online (see Release to Media/Embargo Policy). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form that is sent after the manuscript is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop Corresponding authors who have published their article as Open Access do not receive a Share Link because their final published version of the article is freely available on ScienceDirect and jpeds.com and can be shared through the article DOI link (see Open Access Policy).
RESEARCH DATAThis journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.There are different ways to link your datasets to your article.
When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page .For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
Mendeley DataThis journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.Data Statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. Data sharing statements should be included on the title page.If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data statement page.
As of July 1, 2018, manuscripts submitted to ICMJE journals that report the results of clinical trials must contain a data sharing statement. Such data sharing statements must indicate the following: whether individual deidentified participant data(including data dictionaries) will be shared; what data in particular will be shared; whether additional, related documents will be available (e.g., study protocol, statistical analysis plan, etc.); when the data will become available and for how long; by what access criteria data will be shared (including with whom, for what types of analyses, and by what mechanism). Additional information and examples of data sharing statements can be found here.Open Access Policy
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.CrossMark
The Journal of Pediatrics is pleased to announce the implementation of CrossMark, beginning with the August 2014 issue. CrossMark is a multipublisher initiative to provide a standard way for readers to locate the current version of an article. By implementing CrossMark, The Journal and Elsevier are committing to maintaining the content it publishes and alerting readers to changes if and when they occur. Clicking on the CrossMark logo will indicate whether an article is current or updates have been published. Additional information about CrossMark can be found on CrossMark's website (http://www.crossref.org/crossmark/), as well as The Editors' Perspective published in the August 2014 issue of The Journal (http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476(14)00537-X/fulltext).
Retraction Guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)
The retraction guidelines published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) can be found at http://publicationethics.org/files/u661/Retractions_COPE_gline_final_3_Sept_09__2_.pdf
Guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) regarding cooperation between research institutions and journals on research integrity cases can be found at http://publicationethics.org/files/Research_institutions_guidelines_final.pdf.https://ees.elsevier.com/jpeds.
Please click here to find a table describing article types that appear in The Journal of Pediatrics.• Cover letter
- o Disclosure of prior publications or submissions (excluding rejected submissions) with any overlapping information, including studies and patients; a copy of the work(s) must be uploaded. Although poster presentations and abstracts are not considered duplicate publication, they should be stated in the cover letter. If there are no prior publications or submissions with any overlapping information, provide the following statement: "There are no prior publications or submissions with any overlapping information, including studies and patients." Additional information is available at http://jpeds.com/authorinfo#dup;o A statement of any potential conflict of interest, real or perceived; this includes a description of the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in: (1) study design; (2) the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; (3) the writing of the report; and (4) the decision to submit the paper for publication. Include statements even when the sponsor had no involvement in the above matters. This information must also appear on the title page of the manuscript. Additional information is available at http://jpeds.com/authorinfo#conf.
- o One form completed and signed by all authors uploaded at initial submission
- o Title of article;
o Full name(s), academic degrees, and affiliations of authors;
o Name, address, e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of corresponding author;
o Name of reprint request author or notation of no reprints;
o List of key words not in the title;
o Source of funding and conflict of interest statement, if applicable;
• Abstract (double-spaced), structured (less than 250 words) for Original Article or unstructured (50 words) for Brief Reports
• Article proper (double-spaced), including
- o List of abbreviations (double-spaced)
o References (double-spaced), on a separate page
o Figure legends (double-spaced), on a separate page
• Illustrations, each saved as a separate file; saved and uploaded as a separate file
• Letter(s) of permission to reproduce previously published material in all forms and media-must be mailed or scanned and e-mailed
• Letters of permission to publish patient photographs in all forms and media-must be mailed or scanned and e-mailed
• Copies of prior and/or in press publications Updated April 2019