The Journal of Pain publishes original articles related to all aspects of pain, including clinical and basic research, patient care, education, and health policy. Articles selected for publication in the Journal are most commonly reports of original clinical research or reports of original basic research. In addition, invited critical reviews, including meta analyses of drugs for pain management, invited commentaries on reviews, and exceptional case studies are published in the Journal. The mission of the Journal is to improve the care of patients in pain by providing a forum for clinical researchers, basic scientists, clinicians, and other health professionals to publish original research.
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Your Paper Your Way
We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.
The Journal of Pain publishes original articles related to all aspects of pain and pain management and welcomes submissions from clinical and basic researchers, medical specialists, psychologists, nurses, physical therapists, social workers, and workers in related fields. The Journal of Pain is interdisciplinary in focus and committed to advancing knowledge about pain mechanisms and pain management. The Journal will publish reports of original clinical research, reports of original basic research, Focus Articles, Critical Reviews, and Letters to the Editor. Manuscripts considered to provide particularly innovative or groundbreaking findings may be designated for fast-track handling by the editorial board, and such articles may be published on an expedited basis. Fast-track determination will be made by the Editor-in-Chief in consultation with the editorial board. Authors may request consideration of fast-track designation but must provide rationale for this in their cover letter. The editor may also select some manuscripts for triage handling. Authors will receive prompt notification in such cases.
In some cases, accepted manuscripts will be selected for electronic publication only and will not appear in the print version of The Journal. Such manuscripts will still appear in the Table of Contents in the print version of the Journal, and a summary of the article, along with a link to the URL where readers can view the paper, will also appear in the print version. The paper will also be indexed with all the appointed indexing services.The Journal does not publish case reports, studies that include open-label medication trials, uncontrolled studies, reports on the translation of established measures, or articles that are primarily descriptive in nature. However, studies that contribute to the development and testing of pain theories and that test specific hypotheses based on a theoretical rationale are particularly encouraged.
- The Journal will not consider manuscripts that are prepared by professional research or writing companies on behalf of—and funded by—pharmaceutical companies. Preparation of drafts of manuscripts by an employee of the study sponsor or by anyone else who is not listed as an author is expressly prohibited.
- All listed authors must make substantial contributions to conception, design, acquisition, and analysis of data; drafting and revising of the article; and approval of the article as written and responsibility for the content and completeness. No author may be added after review of the original submission.
- Approval of all authors must be granted to the final draft for publication.
- The corresponding author is responsible for communicating with The Journal of Pain and for determining the list of authors. This individual takes assumes responsibility for listing co-investigators who do not qualify for authorship (in the Acknowledgments section), if necessary. Guest or titular authorship based on assignment—such as department chair—is prohibited.
- All authors must sign and submit the Mandatory Submission Form, to be uploaded at the end of new or revised submissions. Authors of accepted manuscripts will also be required to submit a signed Copyright Agreement to Elsevier after accepted manuscripts are received by the publisher.
Critical Reviews/Other Reviews
Critical Reviews (systematic reviews, meta-analyses) offer a systematic summary of a topic and includes pertinent literature to answer a specific question or set of questions. These are not intended for the presentation of unpublished data. Systematic (literature) reviews analyze existing literature in a field; meta-analyses examine similar studies to combine data from multiple studies. Both types of review articles require prospective registration with PROSPERO (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/) in order to be considered for publication.
A Focus Article may present a hypothesis or state a position on a basic scientific or clinical topic related to pain. The position may be provocative, but must be based on scientific evidence. Such articles may outline key concepts and may identify future research needs.
Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor commenting on published items are encouraged. Letters should be limited to 500 words or less, though lengthier pieces may be approved by the Editor. The published item to which the letter refers must be cited in the References section; authors should refer to The Journal's instructions for proper citation formatting. The letter will be shared with the author(s) of the original article, who will have the chance to respond. All letters are subject to editorial review. Upon submission, letters must include author affiliations and must include a Disclosures section that notes any conflicts of interest; if no conflicts are present, this should be explicitly stated.
Meeting Announcements/Press Releases
Meeting announcements and press releases are not published in The Journal of Pain.
Submission of Material
Authors must submit manuscripts electronically, uploading documents to the submission website, https://www.editorialmanager.com/JPAIN/default.aspx. The system will convert documents to PDF files. Authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts in Microsoft Word. TIFF and EPS are the preferred formats for artwork. (See Preparation guidelines below for details regarding the correct order to upload files.)
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
Human and Animal Rights
Articles involving research conducted in human subjects must include statements in Materials and Methods indicating that 1) approval by the Institutional Review Board was granted; and 2) informed consent was obtained from each subject. Subjects should be identified only by number, not name or initials.
Articles involving research conducted in nonhuman subjects must include 1) a statement in Materials and Methods indicating approval by the Institutional Review Board and that the care and use of animals conformed to applicable national/international guidelines; and 2) information about the source (vendor and location) of animals. If anesthesia was used, the anesthetic, dose, and duration of surgery must be provided, as well as information about any intra- and/or postoperative drugs (ie, drug, dose, and interdosing interval, if given more than once).
Informed consent and patient details
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
Conflict of interest
All authors must state explicitly whether or not any conflicts exist. Authors must indicate any actual or potential conflicts of interest including any financial, personal, or other relationships with other people or organizations within 3 years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. This information should be presented in the Disclosures section. See also https://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at https://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/supporthub/publishing.
This required section must appear on the title page. Research funding sources must be acknowledged, including corporate, grant, institutional, or departmental funds. If this does not apply, authors must state that no funding sources were provided. In this section, all authors must also disclose any potential conflicts of interest and must include a declaration statement if no conflicts exist. Conflicts include honoraria, travel to conferences, consultancies, stock ownership (excluding publicly owned mutual funds), equity interests, and patent-licensing arrangements (particularly if a commercial product is noted in the article).
Checklists are required for some submissions
As of January 1, 2015, many submission types must include a checklist to be included during the upload process, submitted as the last file. Manuscripts lacking checklists will be returned to authors for completion. An ARRIVE checklist is required for animal studies and animal experiments. A CONSORT checklist is required for randomized controlled trials. A PRISMA checklist is required for systematic review articles and for meta-analyses. A STARD checklist is required for diagnostic validation studies. A STROBE checklist is required for observational studies including cohort, case control, cross-sectional studies and epidemiological studies. Checklists are not required for the following: Measure or Procedure Validation Study; Focus Article; Letter to the Editor; or Editorial.
Mandatory Submission Form
A Mandatory Submission Form must accompany all submissions. Authors are strongly encouraged to include the signed mandatory form as the final file when uploading new submissions. The form must be signed by all authors. Forms can also be emailed to the Editorial Office at firstname.lastname@example.org or faxed to (312) 275-7776.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.
Reporting clinical trials
Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Note to NIH Grant Recipients: Articles accepted for publication from authors who have indicated that the underlying research reported in their articles was supported by an NIH grant will be sent by Elsevier to PubMed Central (PMC) for public access posting 12 months after final publication. The version of the article provided by Elsevier will be the final peer-reviewed manuscript that was accepted for publication and sent to Elsevier's production department, and which reflects author-agreed changes made in response to peer-review comments. Elsevier will authorize the author manuscript's public access posting 12 months after final publication. Following the deposit by Elsevier, authors will receive further communication from the NIH with respect to the submission.
Text should be presented in English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who submit to international journals but are not are not native speakers of English sometimes receive negative feedback regarding language usage. We strongly encourage such authors to have submissions pre-reviewed by colleagues with English fluency, or to be considered by a professional editing service such as https://webshop.elsevier.com/language-editing-services/language-editing/.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project. Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described. There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page . For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect. In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data statement page.Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Editor contact information
The Journal of Pain
Mark P. Jensen, PhD, Editor
The Journal of Pain
University of Washington
1959 NE Pacific Street
Seattle, WA 98195-6490
Submit your article
Please submit your article via https://www.editorialmanager.com/JPAIN.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.
There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections.
Please ensure the text of your paper is double-spaced and includes page numbers - this is an essential peer review requirement.
Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file. The corresponding caption should be placed directly below the figure or table.
This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.
Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Pages must be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page. Manuscripts without numbered pages will be returned to authors for correction. Materials should be presented in this order:
- Cover letter
- Manuscript (as a single file that contains the following): title page (include all authors' names and affiliations and disclosures), abstract, perspective, key words, text, acknowledgments (optional), references, figure legends
- Checklist (see more information)
A cover letter must be presented and must include contact information for the corresponding author; this contact information must also be presented on the title page and must match the corresponding author designated in the Elsevier Editorial System upon upload. (When such information differs, manuscripts will be returned to authors for correction.) Any conflicts of interest should be noted, and if no conflicts are present, this should be explicitly stated. Include a statement that all authors are listed and that all have contributed substantially to the manuscript. Authors must state whether manuscripts from the same study were submitted or published. Authors are asked to suggest the names of three potential reviewers; please include contact information.
Title page (page 1)
The title should be a concise and informative description of the study and should indicate animal species if the research was conducted on nonhuman animals subjects. Within the title, use nonproprietary names for drugs, and descriptions for devices. Brand name may be mentioned only once within the text (upon first reference), unless essential to the study. The title page should include the authors' names, department(s), institution where the work was done, and institutional affiliations of authors. The corresponding author must be clearly identified and phone/fax/e-mail information must be provided. The corresponding author noted on the manuscript's title page must be the same person designated as corresponding author within the Elsevier Editorial System. The title page should include a short running title (45 characters, excluding spaces).
This required section must appear on the title page. Research funding sources must be acknowledged, including corporate, grant, institutional, or departmental funds. If this does not apply, authors must state that no funding sources were provided. In this section, all authors must disclose any potential conflicts of interest and must include a declaration statement if no conflicts exist. Conflicts include honoraria, travel to conferences, consultancies, stock ownership (excluding publicly owned mutual funds), equity interests, and patent-licensing arrangements (particularly if a commercial product is noted in the article).
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Abstract (page 2)
An abstract of 200 words or less should describe concisely the purpose of the study, the main findings, and conclusions, all in one paragraph without subheadings. References may not be included in the abstract.
The Journal will only consider for publication randomized clinical trials that were registered with an appropriate registration agency (such as clinicaltrials.gov) before the first subject was recruited. Registration information must be included at the end of the Abstract.
This item, limited to 50 words, should appear at the end of the abstract. The perspective presents a synopsis of the work to facilitate understanding of its significance. Authors of basic science reports should highlight the potential clinical relevance of their results for the benefit of clinical readers. Authors of clinical science reports should highlight the underlying mechanisms for the results, for the benefit of clinical scientists and basic scientists. Example: "Perspective: This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of spouse responses to patient chronic pain and well behavior. This measure could potentially help clinicians who seek to assess how spouse responses may contribute to patient pain and disability." References should not be included in the Perspective.
Five key words should be provided following the Perspective.
Text headings should be as follows:
Methods: Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference; only relevant modifcations should be described.
Results: Results should be clear and concise.
Discussion: This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
Subheadings in the Methods, Results, and Discussion sections should be used as necessary to aid organization and presentation, but subheadings and sections should not be numbered. All sections should be written concisely. Limit the Introduction to 600 words and the Discussion to 1500 words. Note that section labels may not apply to some article types, including Focus Articles and Critical Review Articles.Footnotes are not permitted in the text. Information must be cited parenthetically, or within the References section.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.
Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.
Collate acknowledgments in a separate section at the end of the article before the references; do not include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title, or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (eg, providing language help, writing assistance, or proofreading the article). The Acknowledgments section is optional.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.
All figures must be cited in the text; figures must be cited in consecutive order (this also applies to individual panels within figures). Computer-generated figures should use solid fills or cross-hatching, not tonal shading. Color figures may be accepted but any cost related to print production is the responsibility of the author. However, authors who are members of the American Pain Society may qualify for complimentary production of essential color figures. Also, color figures may be published in the electronic version of The Journal at no cost to the authors. Within figures, patients' eyes must be masked unless authors receive patient permission. For a consent form, contact the Editorial Office at email@example.com.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
A legend must be provided for each figure. Figure legends should be brief and not repetitive of description in the text. Legends should be placed in numerical order after the list of references.
All tables must be cited in the text in consecutive order. Tables should be comprehensive without reference to the text and should not be repetitive of descriptions in the text. Every table should consist of two or more columns; tables with only one column will be treated as lists and incorporated into the text. Each column must have a column heading. Explanatory matter and source notations for borrowed or adapted tables should be placed in a table footnote, not in the title or table body.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:
Citation examples:Journal articles
Jensen MP, Hakimian S, Sherlin LH, Fregni F: New insights into neuromodulatory approaches for the treatment of pain. J Pain 9:193-199, 2008
Koltzenberg M, McMahon S (eds): Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain, 5th ed. Philadelphia, Elsevier, 2006
Begg C: Publication bias. In: Cooper H, Hedges L (eds): Handbook of Research Synthesis. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1994, pp 399-409
SAS Institute. SAS/STAT software: Changes and enhancements through release 6.12. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, 1996
Dworkin RH, Gnann JW, Oaklander AL, Raja SN, Schmader KE, Whitley RJ: Diagnosis and Assessment of Pain Associated with Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia. J Pain 9(Suppl 1):37-55, 2008
Epub Ahead of Print
Nielsen CS, Staud R, Price DD: Individual differences in pain sensitivity: Measurement, causation, and consequences. J Pain 2009 Feb 8; [Epub ahead of print]
The American Academy of Pain Medicine: The use of opioids for the treatment of chronic Pain: A Consensus Statement. Available at: http://www.painmed.org. Accessed March 9, 2006
For other examples not listed here, please contact The Journal of Pain editorial office at firstname.lastname@example.org or at (319)430-4118.The reference list should appear at the end of the manuscript. The list must be in alphabetical order, according to the surname of the first author. In cases of multiple citations by the same first author, references should be listed by chronological date of the publication. In cases of multiple citations by the same first author and different second, third, etc. authors, references should be cited in alphabetical order according to the surname of the second, third, etc. authors. Within the text, papers should be cited using superscript numbers that correspond to the alphabetized reference list as follows: "Similar changes were demonstrated in the cingulate cortex.15" All authors must be listed in the references; the use of et al is not permitted. Journal abbreviations should conform to the style used in Index Medicus, National Library of Medicine. Unpublished data, personal communications, and abstracts that cannot be retrieved by readers (eg, some meeting abstracts), and other inaccessible materials may not be listed as references. Unpublished materials may be cited parenthetically within the text, noting the main author and the year in which the research was conducted. For manuscripts containing citations that are in press, authors must have electronic copies immediately available in case reviewers/ editors request these materials. If all or part of this research was presented in Abstract form at an American Pain Society annual meeting, please note this at the end of the Introduction and include the citation in the list of References, citing abstracts published in The Journal of Pain's annual meeting supplemental issue. For information on formatting a specific Abstract reference, contact the Editorial Office at email@example.com.
Citation in text
Ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). The abstract may not contain references. Unpublished results and personal communications are not permitted in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text as "Unpublished results" or "Personal communication." For unpublished study results, include the main author’s name and the year during which the research was conducted. In-press references are allowed for initial submission and during the review process only. Revised manuscripts accepted for publication by The Journal of Pain may not include in-press or unpublished materials in the references section; these materials may be cited within the text parenthetically as noted above.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
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