Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

INTRODUCTION
• Article Categories
• Editorial Office
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
• Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration
• Reporting Clinical Trials
• Copyright
• Open Access
• Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees
• Preparation for Publication
• Changes to Authorship
• Submission
• Important Information
• Supporting Documents
PREPARATION
• Manuscript Preparation
• The Editorial and Peer Review Process
• Peer review
• Article Structure
• References
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Publication Charges
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES
• FORMS



Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology is the official, peer-reviewed open access journal of the Ophthalmological Society of Taiwan (OST), founded in May 1960 and is committed to active participation in eye care and the promotion of scientific research in ophthalmology.

The aims of TJO are to increase the visibility of scientifically interesting and relevant articles for authors, and to create an international communication forum for globally-minded ophthalmologists.

The journal encompasses all major subspecialties in the field of ophthalmology, with a special focus on ocular diseases that are prevalent in Southeast Asia. Each issue has a major theme that is focused on topics from a variety of subspecialties.

The journal welcomes original innovative research, including up-to-date clinical studies and basic science research in ophthalmology, as well as related disciplines that are of interest to ophthalmic professionals. High-quality papers of other types, such as reviews, editorials, brief communications, letters to the editor, and case reports are also accepted. TJO is indexed in ScienceDirect, Scopus and EBSCOhost.

Special features of the journal:

  • Review articles from world-renowned experts: major reviews on specific topics by leading international ophthalmic experts in every issue
  • Region-specific updates: high-quality papers reporting advanced findings on eye diseases prevalent in Southeast Asia (i.e., myopia, angle-closure glaucoma, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, infectious scleritis, pterygium) in every issue
  • Fast publication speed
  • Open access with no publication fee

The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE); current URMs are available at http://www.icmje.org. These Instructions to Authors are revised periodically by the Editors as needed. Authors should consult a recent issue of the Journal or visit www.e-tjo.com for the latest version of these instructions. Any manuscript not prepared according to these instructions will be returned immediately to the author(s) without review.

Article Categories

The categories of articles that are published in the Journal are listed and described below. Please select the category that best describes your paper. If your paper does not fall into any of these categories, please contact the Editorial Office.

Review and Systematic Review Articles
These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical subject in the field, and should be systematic and critical assessments of literature and data sources. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated. The text (including references) should not exceed 4500 words.

Format guide
• Word limit: 4500 words (main text)
• Abstract: unstructured, up to 250 words
• References: 100 or less
• Tables/Figures: no limit

Special Reports
These are miscellaneous articles of special interest to the ophthalmological community; limited to 4500 words.

Format guide
• Word limit: 4500 words (main text)
• Abstract: unstructured, up to 250 words
• References: 50 or less
• Tables/Figures: no limit

Editorials
Editorials are invited articles or comments concerning a specific paper in the Journal. Although editorials are normally invited, unsolicited editorials may be submitted.

Format guide
• Word limit: 1500 words (main text)
• Abstract: No abstract required for this type of manuscript
• References:15 or less
• Tables/Figures: no limit

Original Articles
These may be randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.

Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if any), References.

The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.

The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, patient samples or animal specimens used, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.

The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in the tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, and the main results.

The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

Format guide
• Number of cases: more than 10 cases (suggested)
• Word limit: 3500 words (main text)
• Abstract: structured, up to 250 words
• References: 50 or less
• Tables/Figures: no limit

Brief Communications
These should clearly and concisely describe clinical or technical notes, preliminary experimental results or instrumentation and analytic techniques. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if any), References. The Editors reserve the right to decide what constitutes a Brief Communication.

Format guide
• Number of cases: 4 to 10 cases (suggested)
• Word limit: 2000 words (main text)
• Abstract: unstructured, up to 250 words
• References: 25 or less
• Tables/Figures: no limit

Case Reports
These are short discussions of a case or case series with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. They may describe novel techniques, novel use of equipment, or new information on diseases of importance. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Presentation, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if any), References.

The Introduction should describe the purpose of the report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.

The Case Presentation should include the general data of the case, medical history, family history, chief complaint, present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and outcome.

The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported case and similar previously reported cases. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of the disease and possibility of prevention.

Format guide
• Number of cases: 1 to 3 cases (suggested)
• Word limit: 2000 words (excluding references)
• Abstract: unstructured, up to 250 words
• References: 25 or less
• Tables/Figures: 5 maximum

Letters to the Editor
These include brief constructive comments concerning previously published articles, interesting cases that do not meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, and other communications of general interest. Letters should have a title and include appropriate references, and include the corresponding author's mailing and e-mail addresses. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of the Editors.

Format guide
• Word limit: 600 words (main text)
• Abstract: No abstract required for this type of manuscript
• References: up to 5 references
• Tables/Figures: 5 maximum

Editorial Office

Editor-in-Chief
Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
Ophthalmological Society of Taiwan
11F, No. 32, Kung-Yuan Road
Taipei, Taiwan
Tel: (+886) 2-23146694
Fax: (+886) 2-23146835
E-mail: tjo@oph.org.tw

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Available at http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf).

For investigations of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).

For work involving animals, the guidelines for their care and use that were followed should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal institutional guidelines relating to animal experiments, the European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm); should be followed and the same should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript.

Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

A conflict of interest occurs when an individual's objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. TJO Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it can be difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest.

Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers' bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.

Declaration of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. More information.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Reporting clinical trials
Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.

Reporting Clinical Trials

All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart (please go to www.consort-statement.org for more information). The TJO has adopted the ICMJE proposal that requires, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article.

For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events.

Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration. Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org.

Registration of clinical trials
Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

The TJO is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Ophthalmologic Society of Taiwan. Manuscripts published in the TJO become the permanent property of the Ophthalmologic Society of Taiwan. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No TJO article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Ophthalmologic Society of Taiwan.

Open Access

This Journal is a peer reviewed, subsidized open access journal where the Ophthalmological Society of Taiwan pays for the publishing costs incurred by the Journal.

Publication charge to authors
Authors will be charged for color pages in the print journal if applicable. Please refer to the "Publication Charges and Reprints" section in the Guide for Authors.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all subjects (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the subjects themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. State explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects or from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).

Preparation for Publication

Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of the manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, to Editorial Office email tjo@oph.org.tw.

Changes to Authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts. Before the accepted manuscript is published online, requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (i) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged; and (ii) an updated Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement with signatures from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of author names, this must include confirmation from the author(s) being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedures as described above.

Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) online publication of the accepted manuscript is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

After the accepted manuscript is published online, any requests to add, remove, or rearrange author names in an article will follow the same policies as detailed above and result in a corrigendum. 

Submission

Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) must be submitted directly to Editorial Office email tjo@oph.org.tw.

Editorial Office
Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
11F, No. 32, Kung-Yuan Road
Taipei, Taiwan
Tel: (+886) 2-23146694
Fax: (+886) 2-23146835
E-mail: tjo@oph.org.tw

Important Information

Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format and prepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in the correct font, font size, margins and so on according to the Journal's style.

  • You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, headers and footers.
  • Put text, references, tables, and table/figure legends in one file.
  • Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution and named according to the figure number and format, e.g., "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg". Please see section Figures for more information

Supporting Documents

The following documents must be included in your submission (refer also to the Checklist). Items (1), (2) and (3) are mandatory. Items (4), (5), (6) and (7) are required only if they are applicable to your manuscript.

(1) Cover Letter. This must include the following information:

  • title of the manuscript
  • names (spelled out in full) of all the authors*, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letter after the author's name and in front of the matching affiliation (*the name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g., Wan-Lin Chang)
  • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
  • a statement that the material contained in the manuscript has not been previously published and is not being concurrently submitted elsewhere
  • persons who do not fulfill the requirements to be listed as authors but who nevertheless contributed to the manuscript (such as those who provided writing assistance, for example) should be disclosed
  • list of manuscripts that have been published, submitted, or are in press that are similar to the submission to the TJO (and include in your submission copies of those similar manuscripts so that TJO Editors can be assured there is no overlap)
  • the signature of the corresponding authorOptional: if you have a list of reviewers who you wish to review or not to review your manuscript, you may include this list in the cover letter

(2) Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement. Each author's contribution to the manuscript should be listed. Any and all potential and actual conflicts of interest should also be listed (see Section 2 for more information). Please use the TJO Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form that is provided on the Journal's website at www.e-tjo.com. The corresponding author should sign on behalf of all the authors listed in the manuscript.

(3) Copyright Transfer Agreement. In the event that your manuscript is accepted for publication in the TJO, you are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to the Ophthalmologic Society of Taiwan. Please use the TJO Copyright Transfer Agreement form that is provided on the Journal's website at www.e-tjo.com. Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included. However, the Agreement will be null and void if your manuscript is not published in the TJO.

(4) Ethics Statement. Articles covering the use of human or animal samples in research, or human or animal experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities. See Section 3 for more information.

(5) Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart for randomized controlled trials submitted for publication. See Section 4 for more information.

(6) Signed Statement of Informed Consent. Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. See Section 5 for more information.

(7) Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrighted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.

Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission

Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.

Basic Criteria
Articles should be written in English (using American English spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.

Manuscript Preparation

Text should be typed double-spaced on one side of white A4 (210 X 297 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. A manuscript should include a title page, abstract, keywords, main text, acknowledgments (if any), references, and figures and tables as appropriate.

Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.

Title Page
The title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to the bottom of the page):
• article category
• article title
• author names and the affiliations
• corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
• declaration of any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest

Funding/Support Statement
All financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified in a Funding/Support Statement.

Acknowledgments
General acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analyses should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties. 

Abstract and Keywords
Abstracts should be no more than 300 words in length. Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings: Background/Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for Case Reports are unstructured, but should include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case. Abstracts for Review Articles and Brief Communications should also be unstructured. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. No abstract is required for Editorials and Letters to the Editor.

For all article categories, 3-5 relevant keywords taken from the MeSH list of Index Medicus (www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html) should be provided in alphabetical order. Avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.

Tables
Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.
 
Figures
General guidelines

The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the figure legend in alphabetical order. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should follow the same style as that for tables unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details (such as their name and date of birth) of the patient must be removed. If their face is shown, use a black bar to cover their eyes so that they cannot be identified (for further information, see www.elsevier.com/patientphotographs).

All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain. Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution (see Section 9.8.2.) and named according to the figure number and format, e.g., "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg".

Formats
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
• EPS: vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
• TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones)–always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
• TIFF: bitmapped line drawings–use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
• TIFF: combination of bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale)–use a minimum of 600 dpi.
• DOC, XLS or PPT: if your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, please supply "as is".

Please do not:
• Supply files that do not meet the resolution requirements detailed above;
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (such as GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Please note that the cost of color illustrations will be charged to the author (see Section 12 for more information).

The Editorial and Peer Review Process

As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 2 weeks of submission; authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.

Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that it contains all parts. Submissions will be rejected if the author has not supplied all the material and documents as outlined in these author instructions.

Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, the manuscript will be rejected without review.

Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for the Journal are sent to 2 or more expert consultants for peer review. Authors will usually be notified within 8 weeks of the initial acknowledgment of whether the manuscript is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance. However, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable.

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article Structure

Main Text

The text for Original Articles should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Presentation, Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page.

Each heading and subheading should be numbered, e.g., "1. Introduction", "2. Methods", "2.1. Patients", "2.2. Statistical analyses", etc. Use these section numbers for internal cross-referencing if necessary: do not just refer to "the text". Each heading should appear on its own line.

Abbreviations

Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract). Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary and ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. Ensure that an abbreviation so defined does actually appear later in the text (excluding in figures/tables), otherwise, it should be deleted.

Numbers

Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.

Units

International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

Names of drugs, devices and other products

Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text.

For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) should be provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example, "...IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 was used (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)". Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.

Gene nomenclature

Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (www.genenames.org). You may also refer to the resources available on PubMed at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/guide/genes-expression. The Human Genome Variation Society has a useful site that provides guidance in naming mutations at www.hgvs.org/mutnomen/index.html. In your manuscript, genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number.

Statistical requirements

Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except Case Reports. Use correct nomenclature for statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.

All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001 since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.

Personal communications and unpublished data.
These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

References

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct in-text citation. In the main text, tables and figure legends

• References should be indicated by superscripted Arabic numerals, numbered consecutively in order of appearance. The numerals should be placed outside periods and commas, and inside colons and semicolons. [The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.]
• References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
• Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
• Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") as references. Also see Section Personal communications and unpublished data

In the references list

• References should be compiled at the end of the manuscript according to the order of citation in the text.
• References should be limited to those cited in the text only.
• Journal references should include, in order, authors' surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers.
• The surnames and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 3 authors only followed by "et al".
• Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
• If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
• Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.

Examples of the most common reference types are provided below. (Please pay particular attention to the formatting, word capitalization, spacing and style.)

Standard journal articles
Bisdas T, Pichlmaier M, Wilhelmi M, Bisdas S, Haverich A, Teebken O. Effects of the ABO-mismatch between donor and recipient of cryopreserved arterial homografts. Int Angiol. 2011;30:247–255.

Quintini C, D'Amico G, Brown C, et al. Splenic artery embolization for the treatment of refractory ascites after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2011;17:668–673.

Journal supplement
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78-80.

Journal article not in English but with English abstract
Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, et al. Elderly patient with cerebellar malignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka 2008;36:799-805. [In Japanese, English abstract]

Book with edition
Bradley EL. Medical and Surgical Management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1982.

Book with editors
Letheridge S, Cannon CR, eds. Bilingual Education: Teaching English as a Second Language. New York, NY: Praeger; 1980.

Book chapter in book with editor and edition
Levitt MD. Pancreatitis. In: Sleisenger MH, ed. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1988:774–780.

Book series with editors
Wilson JG, Fraser FC, eds. Handbook of Teratology, Vols. 1–4. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1977–1978.

Bulletin
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Emergency Department Trends from the Drug Abuse Warning Network, Final Estimates 1995–2002. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Statistics; 2003.

Electronic publications
Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(2). Available at http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 12, 2004.

Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002(2):CD001054. Doi:10.1002/14651858.CD1001054.

Thesis
Griffiths P. Nursing Patients in Transition: An Ethnography of the Role of the Nurse on an Acute Medical Admissions Unit. PhD thesis. Wales, UK: University of Wales; 2007.

Website
NICE—XNational Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Management (CG141). London, UK: NICE; 2012. Available at

http://publications.nice.org.uk/acute-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-management-cg141. Accessed April 15, 2013.

Publication Charges

Authors will be charged NT $2500 per illustration, figure or table that is in color. For manuscripts that require extensive English editing, authors will be charged for the correction of English grammar at US $20/page.

Offprints

The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link

providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.



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