Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

INTRODUCTION
• Submission checklist
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Submission
PREPARATION
• Formatting the Manuscript
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Supplementary material
• AudioSlides
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Online proof correction
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES



Survey of Ophthalmology is a teaching and review journal. It does not publish original research or case reports, although a limited amount of original material can sometimes be integrated into a review article. Articles should not duplicate material already available in textbooks or other reviews. Articles should be submitted only by individuals with experience and expertise in the topic that they are reviewing. The type of in-depth, critical reviews that characterize Survey simply require such experience. At least one author should have an academic affiliation.

Submitting an Outline
Before preparing a manuscript, the author should submit a detailed outline of the proposed article to the Editor-in-Chief to assure that the material is appropriate and that no similar article is in preparation. The outline should include a preliminary reference list. The outline should be submitted to the journal's Editor-in-Chief: John Gittinger Jr, MD, Stellar Medical Publications, 20 North Street- Unit 1, Plymouth, MA 02360 (jgittinger@stellarmed.com). Outlines are sent to referees; please allow 4 to 6 weeks for a response.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
Manuscript:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Once the outline is approved, the manuscript can be submitted to the journal. Manuscripts should be submitted electronically via the EVISE platform. The website is https://www.evise.com/evise/faces/pages/navigation/NavController.jspx?JRNL_ACR=SURVOPH and there are step by step instructions for submitting.

Method of Literature Search

The Literature Search Statement

In accordance with editorial policy, please prepare a section at the end of the review entitled, "Method of Literature Search." This paragraph should state the databases and search words used, years covered, and additional sources (e.g., articles cited in the reference lists of other articles), and should indicate criteria for inclusion or exclusion of articles from this review. It should also indicate how the foreign literature was treated. Were non-English articles translated, or were English abstracts used? Were some languages included and others omitted? Although not all SURVEY articles require extensive literature coverage, it is important to indicate how the articles that are referenced were selected.

Guidelines for Literature Searching

1) The methods of literature search should be clearly formulated and should specify how search words were combined. E.g., "laser" is not a useful search term, but "'laser injury' and 'eye'" or "'laser' and 'posterior capsular opacification'" would be useful search terms.

2) MEDLINE is usually the main resource for locating relevant articles. However, authors should be aware there are many peer-reviewed medical journals worldwide that are not included in MEDLINE. We encourage authors to utilize additional sources, e.g., EMBASE, ISI, etc., if they are available. Authors should also obtain additional references that are cited in the articles they read. It is especially important that all articles reporting results of clinical trials are included.

3) Authors should make every effort to include the non-English language literature. They should obtain translations of important articles. The published English abstracts may provide adequate information in some cases. If abstracts are used, this limitation should be acknowledged in the statement of "Methods of Literature Search." If articles in some languages are excluded, this should be acknowledged.

4) The authors should attempt to establish objective criteria for including/excluding retrieved articles. As examples, they might wish to state:

"We included case reports only if they contributed new information about characteristics, diagnosis or treatment of the disease."
"We included reports of orbital cellulitis only if the condition was secondary to a surgical procedure."
"We included articles related to techniques in widespread clinical use and excluded those related to techniques that are considered experimental."
"We excluded studies with follow-up of less than 18 months."
"A few select articles published before 1990 are included for historical purposes, but the review is based mainly on articles published in the past decade."

5) Articles that meet the criteria for inclusion should be included. If the authors of the review feel that the study has important shortcomings, the study should still be cited and the shortcomings stated.

Editorial

Retaining the Past

We are living in an age of an accelerating information explosion. In MEDLINE alone, there will be about 500,000 citations added to the database in 2004. In ophthalmology and visual sciences we have seen an increase in the number of articles published in many of our standard journals, and a review of the number of pages published per year from 1993 to 2003 indicates an increase as much a 50% per journal.

The question now arises as to what is an author's responsibility for reviewing the literature when preparing an article for publication. Survey of Ophthalmology has for a number of years required its authors to state how they reviewed the literature, including what databases were searched, what key words were used, and what languages were reviewed. The statement of literature search is published at the end of each article.

When conducting a search of the literature, most authors rely only on the MEDLINE database, which goes back to 1996. However, prior to 1966 much significant research was published, and it is available in such abstract journals as Excerpta Medica/EMBASE (1947 to present), Ophthalmic Literature (1947-1998), Zentralblatt fÃr die Geseamte Ophtalmologe und ihre Grenzebiete (1914-1981), and Zentralblatt fÃr Praktische Augenheilkunde (1877-1919). In addition, the Index Catalog of the Library of the Surgeon General (1880-1961) and the cumulative Index Medicus (1879-1956) are excellent sources of previously published literature. Furthermore, MEDLINE has now embarked on citing the literature in its database going back to 1950; this database is called OLDMEDLINE.

It is apparent that any editor or reviewer, let alone an author, will have great difficulty in keeping track of not only the current literature in relation to their subject but also the past literature. Therefore, it is incumbent upon the individual to undertake a comprehensive and adequate review of the literature, not only when preparing a review article but also when preparing a research article or research grant. It would be pertinent for authors to state in the methods section of their articles and grants how they reviewed the literature. This statement should specifically indicate the rationale for including and excluding articles. For some articles that describe studies done on a new drug or new procedure, a limited review of the literature will probably be adequate, but this limited review may not apply for descriptions of diseases, concepts of disease, or the pathophysiology of the disease.

Considering the tremendous effort that is made in pursuing research as well as preparing it for publication, it is only appropriate for that process to include reviewing what has been done in the past. Survey of Ophthalmology will continue to emphasize the importance of an adequate review of the literature, and it will encourage the use of MEDLINE as well as additional sources for this purpose.

Bernard Schwartz, MD, PhD
Founding Editor

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Formatting the Manuscript

Survey's objective is to publish critically integrated, literature-based reviews that are readable. The primary responsibility for the text is the author's. Authors whose native language is not English may need to enlist the assistance of English language medical editors before submitting their manuscripts. Manuscripts must contain the following: a title page, a narrative abstract, key words, organized text, a conclusion, formatted references, a literature review statement, and tables and figures (if appropriate).

Title Page
Title page should include title, authors' names, highest degrees and institutional affiliations, and address for mailing proofs

Abstract
The paper should contain a 100-200 word narrative abstract.

Key Words
The paper should contain 5-10 key words.

Organized Text
The text should contain concise internal headings in outline format (I, A, 1, a, etc.). Tables and figures should be cited by number Please avoid abbreviations. While a few well known abbreviations are acceptable, most are not.

Conclusion
The manuscript should include a concluding paragraph that focuses on the unresolved issues of the current knowledge and suggests potential areas of future study.

Literature Search
Methods of literature search and criteria for including/ excluding articles must be stated in the manuscript. Searches must be comprehensive and international.

Abbreviations
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Acknowledgements
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Artwork

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.

References

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884i. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
http://open.mendeley.com/use-citation-style/survey-of-ophthalmology
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

References must be arranged alphabetically, by author and cited by superior numbers in the text. Every reference listed in the reference section MUST be cited in the text. Only peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters should be listed in the reference section of your review.

Please use the Vancouver format when formatting your references. "In press" articles may be included; the journal must be specified. Use Index Medicus style of abbreviation, and punctuation. Some typical examples follow; note the absence of periods after initials and abbreviations. When there are 5 or more authors, name the first three, and use "et al" to indicate additional authors.

Journal Articles
Standard format:
1. Drummond PD. Triggers of motion sickness in migraine sufferers. Headache. 2005;45(6):653-6
2. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(7):284-7

Volume with supplement
1. Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9

Issue with supplement
1. Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12

Book Chapters
1. Stevens JT. A transcendentalist's view of optics, in Smith JD (ed). Ophthalmology and the Universe, Vol. 6, Part 3. Boston, Bayside Press, 2001, ed 2, pp 230-245

Other Cited Material
References to websites, abstracts, and meeting presentations, and other similar sources should be listed in a separate section below the references entitled "Other Cited Material." This information should be arranged in the order in which it appears in the text and it should be cited with use of superscript capital letters. For instance the first citation should be "A" and the next "B"

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages.

AudioSlides

The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.



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