Types of paper
Significant original research papers and pertinent reviews on all aspects of steroids will be considered for publication. Specifically, both experimental and theoretical studies dealing with the following areas of investigation are welcome: chemistry and physiochemistry; biosynthesis; metabolism; molecular biology; physiology; pharmacology; analytical techniques; comparative endocrinology; clinical research; mode of action (including that of related peptides); and the role of steroids on growth and differentiation. Relevant compounds also include non-steroidal analogs that are inhibitors or activators of steroid biosynthetic enzymes or ligands for steroid hormone receptors
Letters to the editor are welcome, for editing and publication at the discretion of the editor. Rapid Communications will be considered if material is of unusual interest and particularly timely.
Publication of Articles Describing the Isolation and Identification of New Steroids or the Synthesis of New Steroids or Steroid Derivatives
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When experimental animals are used, the materials and methods section must clearly indicate that adequate measures were taken to minimize pain or discomfort, and that the experiments were conducted in accordance with international standards on animal welfare as well as being compliant with local and national regulations. Studies are expected to be compliant with minimal standards as defined by the European Communities Council Directive of 24 November 1986 (86/609/EEC) http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/aw/aw_legislation/scientific/86-609-eec_en.PDF and the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/labrats/ Full details of any anesthetic or analgesic dose and treatment must be given.Declaration of interest
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. More information.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
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The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
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Manuscripts Arrange the manuscript in the following order: title page, abstract, keywords, text, acknowledgments, references, footnotes, tables, figure legends, and figures. Number the pages in sequence, with the title page as page 1, the abstract as page 2, etc. Text: Arrange the body of the manuscript in the following order:
Introduction, Experimental, Results, Discussion.
Provide the name and address of the corresponding author to whom questions and reprint requests should be sent. Give the name and address of the institution from which the work originated.
Arrange the text in the following order:
- Introduction: The rationale for the study. Provide a brief account of the nature, approach and importance of the study to be presented.
- Experimental: A clear and precise description of the experimental procedures. Identify all drugs and chemicals used, dosages, and routes of administration. All methods must be referenced and/or described in sufficient detail to enable a reader to repeat the experiment. For animal and human studies, the experimental protocol must be humane and ethical. In all manuscripts reporting the results of human studies, a statement must appear in the Experimental section indicating that approval was obtained from the institutional review board and that all human subjects signed written informed consent.
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- Discussion: Place the results of the study in present and historical context and denote its importance to the field. Ensure that all conclusions are justified by the results of the study.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
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• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length 250 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results, and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. References should be avoided but, if essential, they must be cited in full. Avoid non-standard or uncommon abbreviations; if they must be used, define them at their first mention in the abstract itself.
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Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of six keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations; only firmly established ones should be used.
You can enrich your article by providing a list of chemical compounds studied in the article. The list of compounds will be used to extract relevant information from the NCBI PubChem Compound database and display it next to the online version of the article on ScienceDirect. You can include up to 10 names of chemical compounds in the article. For each compound, please provide the PubChem CID of the most relevant record as in the following example: Glutamic acid (PubChem CID:611). Please position the list of compounds immediately below the 'Keywords' section. It is strongly recommended to follow the exact text formatting as in the example below:
Chemical compounds studied in this article
Ethylene glycol (PubChem CID: 174); Plitidepsin (PubChem CID: 44152164); Benzalkonium chloride (PubChem CID: 15865)
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Acknowledge grants, sponsors, funding sources, and individuals who provided significant assistance. Include the affiliations of individuals being thanked. It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission from all those mentioned by name, because readers may infer their endorsement.
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Units of measure
Standard metric units are preferred. SI units are optional, except that the use of Bq (becquerel) is not acceptable; use Ci (curie) or dpm (disintegrations per minute). Centrifugation should be described in terms of force (_g), not as rpm.
Refer to drugs by their approved generic names. If trade names are used, the generic equivalent should be given parenthetically at the first use. Identify compounds by their formal chemical name at first use; thereafter the trivial name may be used. All names should be in accordance with the most recent IUPAC-IUB rules on the nomenclature of steroids published in Pure and Applied Chemistry 61, 1783-1822, 1989. Substituted steroids should be named so that only one functional group is designated as a suffix and all other substituents are listed as X steroids 71 (2006) IX-XI prefixes. If the first letter of the suffix is a vowel, the terminal 'e' of the name of the hydrocarbon should be dropped (e.g., etiocholan-17-one). Unsaturation should be indicated by writing the locant number for the double bond(s) before the suffix (e.g., 3-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one). Trivial names may be modified by prefixes indicating substituents (e.g., 17-hydroxyprogesterone) but must not be more cumbersome than the systematic names they replace. Chemically impossible trivial names (e.g., 20-hydroxyprogesterone) are not acceptable. Alcohols are named as ols or hydroxy derivatives, not as dihydroketones. Isotope location should be designated by a prefix bracket placed directly before the part of the name to which it applies (i.e., without a space or hyphen): e.g., 3,20-dihydroxy-[4-14C]pregnan-7-one; [3-3H]methoxyandrostan-17-one, 11?,21-dihydroxy-[1,2-3H; 4-14C]pregnane-3,20-dione. Iodinated compounds, in which iodine is part of the structure, are to be labeled in the same manner; e.g., [16?-125I]iodoestradiol; 3-hydroxy-[21-125I]iodopregn-5-en-20-one.
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUPAC: Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry:http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/1989/pdf/6110x1783.pdf for further information.
Identification of structure: Sufficient spectroscopic information must be presented to establish the structural identity of all new compounds, whether isolated as naturally occurring steroids or newly synthesized ones. These data should appear in the Experimental Section and be adequate for unambiguous structure elucidation. A list of proton or 1H and 13C NMR peaks is generally sufficient, but if structural identification was based on NMR data, peak assignments should also be given. Chemical shift data should be given only to two decimal places. Infrared absorptions, diagnostic for key functional groups, are also helpful, and high resolution mass spectroscopic data can provide an additional criterion of compound identity. When a series of closely related compounds is reported, spectroscopic data can be presented in a table, or full spectroscopic data for a representative member can be presented, with comments made on the spectral features unique to other members of the series. For known compounds, the source or literature reference(s) to the previous isolation or to the previous method of preparation and characterization must be provided.For known compounds, indicate the observed and literature melting points for crystalline solids, and/or the observed and literature optical rotations, in the following formats: mp xx oC (lit [ref] xx oC) and/or [α]DºC ± xxo (c, xx g/100 mL; solvent) (lit [ref] [α]D ºC ± xxo (c, xx g/100 mL; solvent). Provide comments (either in general or for individual compounds) comparing the observed 1H and 13C NMR data of known compounds with the literature values, e.g., “The 1H and 13C NMR data (xx MHz, solvent) agreed well with the literature values [ref].” It is not necessary to report complete data sets for known compounds. However, significantly different or improved data (e.g., different chemical shifts, data in different solvents, data taken at higher field, improved coupling analyses, etc.) should be reported in the Experimental Section or in a Table of NMR data and assignments.
Many naturally occurring steroids are isolated as glycoside derivatives. In such cases, the structures and absolute configuration of the individual sugar residues should be determined after hydrolysis. The absolute configuration of an individual sugar can be determined by comparing its optical rotation with the literature value for sugars of well-established absolute configuration. Another approach is direct comparison with authentic samples of the D and L sugars, or their derivatives, by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) or by gas chromatography (GC) on columns containing suitable chiral adsorbents, provided it is demonstrated that the enantiomeric compounds give separate peaks on the chiral columns.
Criteria for the purity of all compounds and of compounds with biological data: All new compounds need to be pure. Evidence of high purity is essential where biochemical or biological assay data are presented and related to compound structures; these compounds are termed "SAR compounds." The purity of SAR compounds should be more than 98 percent; the purity of other compounds should be more than 95 percent. Any questions regarding the purity of SAR compounds should appear in the Results.
The methods used to establish the purity of steroids subjected to biochemical or biological assays must be described in the Experimental Section. Most steroids obtained in pure form will be crystalline. Thus, there should be an attempt to purify and crystallize all products of chemical reactions or compounds isolated from plant extracts. Melting points should be recorded and reported for all crystalline compounds. It is strongly recommended that optical rotations be reported for new compounds. The weights and % yields should be reported for products isolated from chemical transformations.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
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You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
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TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
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Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full in the abstract itself. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either "Unpublished results" or "Personal communication" Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.
A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884i. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list. Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
Example: '..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones  obtained a different result ....'
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
 J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2010) 51–59.
Reference to a book:
 W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, fourth ed., Longman, New York, 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
 Cancer Research UK, Cancer statistics reports for the UK. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/, 2003 (accessed 13.03.03).
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
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Preparation of supplementary data
Elsevier accepts supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, movies, animation sequences, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. To ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please ensure that data is provided in one of our recommended file formats: TIFF, EPS or PDF. MS Office files (Word, Powerpoint, Excel). Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions."
Data in Brief
Authors have the option of converting any or all parts of their supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple Data in Brief articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes their data. Data in Brief articles ensure that your data, which is normally buried in supplementary material, is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication. Authors are encouraged to submit their Data in Brief article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your Data in Brief article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the new, open access journal, Data in Brief. Please note an open access fee is payable for publication in Data in Brief. Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website. Please use this template to write your Data in Brief.
Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving readers access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). More information and a full list of supported databases.
The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.
This journal enables you to show an Interactive Plot with your article by simply submitting a data file. Full instructions.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
For any further information please visit our Support Center.
DNA sequences and GenBank Accession numbers
Example 1: ''(GenBank accession nos. AI631510, AI631511,AI632198, and BF223228), a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048), and a T cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117)''. Authors are encouraged to check accession numbers used very carefully. An error in a letter or number can result in a dead link. In the final version of the printed article, the accession number text will not appear bold or underlined (see Example 2 below).
Example 3: ''(GenBank accession nos. AI631510, AI631511, AI632198, and BF223228), a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117)''.
Note that Steroids uses the serial comma, e.g., Jones, Smith, and Brown (comma before 'and' in a series of three or more items). American-style spelling is required. For example: color, not colour; hydrolyze, not hydrolyse; estrogen, not oestrogen; labeled, not labelled. End-of-line hyphenation should be according to American-style word division (based on pronunciation, not word derivation). Leave a space between number and unit (50 mg, 3.5 M). For solvent proportions use the following style: ethanol/methanol (70:30 v/v) or ethyl acetate/isooctane (1:1).
Letters to the Editor
There is no specific format but there should be a short abstract of no more than 2 sentences; and no more than 5 references. There is word limit of 2, 500 words, not to exceed 2 -3 published pages including figures , tables, abstract and references. A maximum of any combination of 2 tables or figures is allowed. Online proof correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.
Track your submitted article
Track your accepted article
You are also welcome to contact the Elsevier Support Center.