Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

About the Journal
• I. Overview
• II. Essential points for manuscript submissions
• III. Composition rules for manuscripts
• Confirmation points
• Copyright
• Peer review

I. Overview

2010 marked the 50th anniversary of Soils and Foundations, of which the first issue (Volume 1, 1) came out in June 1960. Today, as a full-fledged international journal, Soils and Foundations publishes original "technical papers", "technical reports" and "technical notes" in English in the fields of soil and rock mechanics, geotechnical engineering, and environmental geotechnics, as well as "Geo-disaster Report" on invitation from the Editor. Theoretical and practical contributions to the above fields are equally welcome, and particular encouragement is given to case studies including original descriptions and to interdisciplinary work with applications in geotechnical engineering. "Discussions" of articles published are also gladly received in order to provide an avenue for feedback and exchanges of opinions among peers. As a source of latest expertise on specified topics, one issue a year out of six, on average, is allocated to presenting selected papers from international symposia held in Japan and overseas.

II. Essential points for manuscript submissions

1. Contributors
• At least one of the authors of the manuscript must be a member of The Japanese Geotechnical Society, or of The International Geotechnical Society or one of its member societies.

2. Authors must indicate which of the following 5 categories they wish their manuscripts to be classified under:
(1) Technical Paper
• Must be a complete paper; papers in a series, such as Part I and Part II, are not acceptable.
• Must be a report of independent original and innovatory research related to geotechnology.
(2) Technical Report
• A report of a design, construction, in-situ measurement etc.
• An operational report of results from in-situ surveying, design, construction work, site measurement, etc., conducive in content to the development of geotechnology.
(3) Technical Note
• A short paper etc.
• A brief report of main points for a new method of in-situ surveying, laboratory experimentation, analysis, or computation.
• A brief report of new on-site information conducive to the development of geotechnology.
• A brief report of a new research, survey, design, construction work, etc. conducive in content to the development of a future technical paper or report.
• Supplementary numerical tables or figures useful for the understanding of a past technical paper or report.
(4) Discussion
• Questions or opinions relating to technical papers, reports and notes, committee reports or current situation reports published in the journal within the previous 7 months; on request, however, this period may be extended to 8 months.
(5) Geo-disaster Report
•A quick reconnaissance report of major geo-disasters induced by earthquake, heavy rainfall, etc.
•The only invited authors from Editorial Committee can submit the manuscript.
•Geo-disaster Report is published as open access.
(6) Other categories: Society committee report, current situation report, state-of-the-art report
•The author of a state-of-the-art report must have consulted the Editorial Committee before submitting the manuscript.
3. For the manuscript of a technical paper, technical report or technical note, the following points (a) to (c) must be carefully adhered to.

(a) The content must not have been previously published in a widely read technical journal.

(b) The manuscript must not be multiply submitted.
A manuscript will be considered as "multiply submitted" if it has elsewhere been submitted for publication, or actually published, in a collection of papers authorized by an academic society or association at the end of a peer review, or if a decision has been made for its publication in this way. No distinction will be made for the publication language. Papers which have been published in such settings as conference or society proceedings, symposium reports, university or research center journals, or company-internal reports will be regarded as predominantly having the character of brief notes or materials (i.e., papers which have not undergone a peer review). However, to avoid being rejected as a double submission, the contents of such a paper will need to have been further developed and amplified.

(c) The content has to stand independently, not as part of a series.

4. The review process
All manuscripts will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. If the manuscript corresponds to the following issues, it will be returned to the authors without external review.

  • The topic is outside of the journal scope.
  • The language is not reasonable.
  • The manuscript contains an unacceptable level of overlap with other published papers.
  • The technical contents of the manuscript lack clearly in a basic requirement (insufficient explanation on purpose, methodology, data reliability, literature review, novelty comparing to previous work, etc. ).

1) The number of reviewers
Reviews will be requested from specialists in each field, as follows:
Technical Paper 2 reviewers
Technical Report 2 reviewers
Technical Note 2 reviewers
Discussion 1 reviewer
Geo-disaster Report No external review. Only editorial board's review.

2) Evaluation levels
After considering the review results, the Editorial Committee will assign one of the following evaluations:
(A-1) Acceptance in the form submitted
(A-2) Acceptance with optional suggestions for revision
(B) Reassessment after extensive revisions
(C-1) Rejection with encouragement to re-submit
(C-2) Rejection

• (C-1) means that the manuscript cannot be accepted in the form submitted, but if (and only on condition that) it is resubmitted with corrections or additions that satisfy the objections pointed out by the Editorial Committee, it will be reviewed again as a fresh submission.
• In the cases of (A-2), (B), if a manuscript returned to the sender for revision by the Editorial Committee does not arrive back with revisions completed within the space of three months, it will be assumed that the submission for publication has been withdrawn.

5. Policy regarding transfer of copyright
Of the property rights for the works published in Soils and Foundations, the rights pertaining to the editing of the journal issue concerned will belong to The Japanese Geotechnical Society, whereas the rights relating to individual authorship and authorial status will belong to the author or authors. In cases in which the Society receives a request from a third party for permission to use the property rights in connection with a reproduction of contents (including in the electronic media), or in cases in which the Society itself makes use of the rights outside of the publication of Soils and Foundations, the author or authors will grant the Society the power to exercise the rights concerned. Further, if, in the course of such a transaction, the Society receives fees or other recompenses for the granting of the use of the property rights, the author or authors will consent to these being appropriated into the Society's operating account. However, this will not impede the author

6. Open access
The Japanese Geotechnical Society allows authors to publish their articles that will be immediately open access for all readers via ScienceDirect. This is known as the gold route to open access. The open access is available for a fee of 80,000 JPY. Authors who choose to pay this fee will have one-year priority for open access to the general articles. Open access may even lead to an increase in the impact of an author's research. The editorial board encourages all author to consider this option.

III. Composition rules for manuscripts

1. The manuscript must employ symbols and terminology which are widely accepted in the current soil mechanics/geotechnical engineering literature as recommended by the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.

2. SI units should be used as a general rule. If other conventions are followed, they must be accompanied by SI unit equivalents in parentheses.

3. Manuscripts must be in English, and must be type-written, double spaced, a single column, on A4-size paper (21.5 cm by 28 cm). A typed page can be considered to contain around 250 words, which is roughly equivalent to one third of a printed page.

4. Manuscripts except for Discussion must be accompanied by an abstract of approximately 200 words, 5 to 10 key words.

5. A list of references must be supplied, arranged in alphabetical order based on the first author's last name. In the text, the authors' last names and the year of publication must be given in parentheses.

6. All figures and photographs must be of sufficiently high quality for printing ( see Artwork and media instruction). Note that color figures or photographs submitted with a manuscript will also appear in color on the web with no charge. However, there will be a charge for color reproductions of figures or photographs in print; if preferred, such figures or photographs can be reproduced without color in print with no charge.

7. The maximum number of printed pages in each category, including tables and illustrations is as shown below:

Category Standard length Max. extra pages Cost per extra page
Technical Paper 12 or less 8 30,000 yen
Technical Report 12 or less 8 30,000 yen
Technical Note 6 or less 4 30,000 yen
Discussion 3 or less no limit None
Geo-disaster Report 12 or less 8 None

Where the number of pages exceeds the maximum, the author(s) will be required to reduce the length to the permitted maximum. If the Editorial Committee judges that this constitutes a major change in content, it may then be necessary for the manuscript to be resubmitted for another review and/or revision process. In the case of a state-of-the-art report, the Editorial Committee will decide the maximum page length and other conditions separately.

8. The text, tables, figures and photographs for a manuscript must be submitted electronically to the following site. Note that a list of tables, figures and photographs must be supplied, and write the caption in "Description" when they are separately submitted.

Inquiries should be addressed to:
4-38-2, Sengoku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0011, JAPAN (Address changed from March 22, 2004)
TEL: +81-3-3946-8677
FAX: +81-3-3946-8678

Confirmation points

1. I declare that this manuscript has been submitted only to Soils and Foundations and is not previously published, in press, or in process of submission elsewhere.
2. Please indicate if the manuscript contents have a previous history of presentation without a review process, giving details (e.g., "contents presented at the … International Conference").
3. I have read and understood the journal's policy concerning transfer of copyright.
4. I have read and understood the journal's policy concerning charges for extra pages and color printing.
5. If you are resubmitting a manuscript which has been previously rejected, please enter the paper number and title that were used in the rejected paper.
6. How many figures are there in the manuscript?
7. How many tables are there in the manuscript?
8. How many photographs are there in the manuscript?
9. How many words are there in the text of the manuscript?
10. In the event of the work being published, how many offprints will you require?
Authors requiring separate printings of their papers (that is, in the form of offprints) may order them in unit sets of 50. A PDF file of the paper in its ready-to-print state will be provided free of charge in any case. Charges for separate printings will vary depending on the final number of pages etc., so that a single standard charge cannot be quoted.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (see more information on this). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Open Access Fee
The open access fee for this journal is JPY 80,000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 24 months.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.