Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation is a new, multidisciplinary journal that explores sleep's role in population health and elucidates the social science perspective on sleep and health. Aligned with the National Sleep Foundation's global authoritative, evidence-based voice for sleep health, the Journal serves as the foremost publication for manuscripts that advance the sleep health of all members of society.
The scope of the journal extends across diverse sleep-related fields, including anthropology, education, health services research, human development, international health, law, mental health, nursing, nutrition, psychology, public health, public policy, fatigue management, transportation, social work, and sociology. The Journal welcomes original research articles, review articles, brief reports, special articles, letters to the editor, editorials, and commentaries.
Contact details for submission
If you experience any problems, contact our staff at email@example.com.
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
Ensure that the following items are present:One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
For further information, visit our Support Center.
Conflict of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also https://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Please complete and include with your submission the NSF Sleep Health Author Disclosure of Potential Conflicts Form: https://www.elsevier.com/__data/promis_misc/sleep-health-disclosure-form.pdf.
Manuscripts that involve research conducted on human subjects must follow the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki (http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3) and include a statement in the Methods section stating that the experimental protocol and informed consent were approved by the Institutional Review Board, and that all subjects gave informed consent. Manuscripts that report animal experiments must include a statement in the Methods section stating that the study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and that the animal care complied with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Washington: National Academy Press, 1996 (http://nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5140).
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').
Generally, the statistical guidelines for the Journal follow the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (http://www.icmje.org/index.html) developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
- Clearly state the study objectives in the Introduction section of the manuscript.
- Explain the study design and its relation to the stated objectives. Use technical terms (e.g., control group, sample versus population, incidence, prevalence, blinding, normal, random, matched) correctly.
- Specify how subjects were recruited and provide any inclusion or exclusion criteria.
- As appropriate, consider the overall response rate, differential response rate, dropouts, sample attrition, and nonresponder bias.
- Address measurement reliability, if appropriate. Use appropriate measures, like Kappa instead of % agreement and the intraclass correlation instead of Pearson's r.
- Describe the statistical methodology so the intent and purpose are clearly related to the study objectives.
- Reference all but very common tests with standard text with page numbers. Avoid referencing computer programs with a preference for standard texts or first-source peer reviewed articles appearing in statistical or methodological journals.
- Consider the study's statistical power and type II error rates when appropriate.
- Be mindful of the inflated risk of Type I errors resulting from numerous statistical tests. Use a Bonferroni correction, reduced criterion for significance, or some other method to correct the problem.
- Present the names of statistical tests and indicate if the tests are one-tailed. (Provide adequate rationale for using one-tailed tests.)
- In the Results section, give the test value, degrees of freedom (or N, if appropriate), and P-value for all important results.
- Provide standard deviations when means are reported. Standard errors are appropriate only with coefficients, such as correlations, sample survey estimates, and regression results.
- Assure that statistics meet generally accepted standards. For example, if a two-group t-test statistic is given, use the unequal variance t, a data transformation, or nonparametric alternative, if necessary.
- Use multivariate statistical approaches instead of a redundant series of univariate tests, when appropriate.
- Provide measures of effect size liberally. Give cautions when statistical significance has doubtful clinical or practical significance. Use confidence intervals to put statistical results in context.
- Avoid P-value trend language.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in: study design; the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; the writing of the report; the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, then their role should be described. Please see NSF Sleep Health Author Disclosure of Potential Conflicts Form: https://www.elsevier.com/__data/promis_misc/sleep-health-disclosure-form.pdf.
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in clear, fluent English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (https://service.elsevier.com) for more information.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Submit your article
Please submit your article via https://www.editorialmanager.com/sleephealth/Default.aspx.
Please click the Register button from the main menu and enter the requested information. On successful registration, you will be sent an e-mail indicating your user name and password. Print a copy of this information for future reference. Note: If you have received an e-mail from us with an assigned user ID and password, or if you are a repeat user, do not register again. Just log in. Once you have an assigned ID and password, re-registration is unnecessary, even if your status changes (that is, author, reviewer, or editor).
Please note the submission requirements for each article type listed below.
- Original Research Articles are original papers demonstrating the results of scientific studies. Regular Research Articles are based on empirical data. They can contain case vignettes, but clinical descriptions cannot be used as the main content of the article. The text of the article should contain no more than 4,000 words, in addition to an abstract of 250 words and up to 40 references. This word count includes only the main body of text (i.e., not abstract, references, tables, or figures). Structured Abstracts are required for all research articles; this abstract should be limited to 250 words or less. Please use the following headings in your abstract: Objectives, Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention (if any), Measurements, Results, and Conclusions.
- Review Articles are evidence-based, state-of-the-art overviews of topics that are relevant to sleep health. Review Articles should be a balanced review of the literature, not simply a review of the author's own work. These articles contain no more than 8,000 words. This word count includes the main body of text, the references, and an unstructured abstract of less than 250 words. Reviews may have up to 4 tables and/or figures and up to 100 references. Authors intending to write Review Articles are advised to inform the Editor-in-Chief before proceeding, to ensure that the topic is considered suitable and timely for publication in the journal.
- Brief Reports are original papers demonstrating the results of scientific studies. Brief Reports are based on empirical data. Brief Reports should contain no more than 1,500 words (not including references), in addition to a structured abstract of less than 150 words. Please use the following headings in your abstract: Objectives, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Brief Reports may include 1 table, 1 figure and approximately 20 references.
- Special Articles are usually overview articles that synthesize existing knowledge on a topic relevant to sleep health. They must contain comprehensive literature reviews. Special Articles may not exceed 7,500 words. This word count includes an unstructured abstract of 250 words and all references. Authors intending to write Special Articles are advised to inform the Editor-in-Chief before proceeding to ensure that the topic is considered suitable and timely for publication in the journal.
- Invited Commentaries and Editorials are relatively short pieces that respond to a current topic in Sleep Health. The Editor-in-Chief will invite authors to submit commentaries or editorials and provide guidelines on length on a case-by-case basis, usually not to exceed 1000 words and 20 references. Invited commentaries must meet journal standards for publication.
- Letters to the Editor that comment on an article published in Sleep Health will be sent to the authors for reply. Space will not allow the publication of all submitted letters. Letters to the Editor must be signed by all authors and become the property of the journal. Letters to the Editor should be less than 500 words with a maximum of 5 references. Single case reports or studies on a small number of cases may also be considered for publication in this section.
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
- Introduction. State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate and succinct background on the topic. The literature review should be thorough, yet concise, and provide motivation for the investigation of the current objectives. Hypothesized results along with justification should be included here.
- Participants and Methods. This section should provide information about the data and data analysis used in the study. Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
- Results. Results should be clear and concise. Tables should be clearly labeled, and discussed in this section.
- Discussion. This section should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. The results should be discussed in the context of prior literature and how the current findings either reinforce or contradict previous research. Limitations of the study, next research steps, and policy implications should also be discussed here.
- Conclusions. The primary conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of the Discussion section.
- Appendices. If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
The unstructured abstract must be used for Review Articles, Special Articles, and Invited Commentaries.
A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Only abbreviations firmly established in the field should be used. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. Define non-standard abbreviations in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Maintain consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Grant support should be acknowledged in a separate paragraph and should include the full name of the granting agency and not exceed four typed lines. Pharmaceutical company or other industry support of any kind must be acknowledged. List only persons who have made substantive contributions. Acknowledge material from other publications and submit written permission from the owner of the copyright to reprint any portion or figure with the manuscript.
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that numbers in table match to the relevant numbers in the text.
Tables are reserved for presentation of numerical data and should not be used as lists or charts. Values expressed in the same unit of measurement should read down, not across; when percentages are given, the appropriate numbers must also be given. Create tables using the table creating and editing feature of your word processing software. Do not use Excel or comparable spreadsheet programs. Cite tables consecutively in the text, and number them in that order. Each table should be uploaded in a file separate from the main manuscript file. Each table should appear on a separate page and should include the table title, appropriate column heads, and explanatory legends (including definitions of any abbreviations used). Identify statistical measures of variations, such as SD and SEM. Omit internal horizontal and vertical lines. Tables should be double-spaced, no wider than 120 characters (10 inches), including spaces, and no more than 70 lines.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Reference style: AMA
Text: Indicate references by indicating the reference number(s) in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
Example: '... as demonstrated, Barnaby and Jones (8) obtained a different result ...'List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
- Journal article example
1. Rand NS, Dawson JM, Julio SF, et al: In vivo macrophage recruitment by murine intervertebral disc cells. J Spinal Disord 2001; 14:339–342.
- Book chapter example
2. Todd VR: Visual information analysis: Frame of reference for visual perception, in Frames of Reference for Pediatric Occupational Therapy. Edited by Kramer P, Hinojosa J. Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999, pp. 205–256.
- Entire book example
3. Kellman RM, Marentette LJ (eds): Atlas of Craniomaxillofacial Fixation. Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
- Paper in conference proceedings or abstracts
4. Moossy J: Anatomy and pathology of the vertebrobasilar system, in Vertebrobasilar arterial occlusive disease. Medical and surgical management. Edited by Berguer R, Bauer RB. Papers from the First International Conference on Vertebrobasilar Occlusive Vascular Disease, held in Detroit, MI, November 8 & 9, 1982. New York: Raven Press, 1984:1–13.
- Abstract example
5. Sung JH, Manivel JC: Macrophages in ischemic infarcts of human brain. (Abstract) J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1989; 48:342.
- Software example
6. Epi Info [computer program]. Version 6. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1994.
- Online journals example
7. Friedman SA: Preeclampsia: A review of the role of prostaglandins. Obstet Gynecol [serial online]. January 1988; 71:22–37. Available from: BRS Information Technologies, McLean, VA. Accessed December 15, 1990.
- Database example
8. CANCERNET-PDQ [database online]. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 1996. Updated March 29, 1996.
- Website example
9. Gostin LO: Drug use and HIV/AIDS [JAMA HIV/AIDS Web site]. June 1, 1996. Available at: http://www.ama-assn.org/special/hiv/ethics.
- Dataset reference example
[dataset] 10. Oguro, M, Imahiro, S, Saito, S, Nakashizuka, T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.
In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
Changes to authorship
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Editorial Assistant from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Ediorial Assistant to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Editorial Assistant will inform the Editor-in-Chief of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.
If you need to question an editorial decision, your first step should be to contact the editorial staff at firstname.lastname@example.org about your particular issue. If you are not satisfied with the Journal's response, your next point of contact is our ombudsman. Information about our ombudsman process is found here.