Aims and Scope
Sexual Medicine Reviews (SMR) solicits evidence-based, primarily systematic, in-depth reviews of the highest caliber on multi-disciplinary clinical or translational topics in Sexual Medicine. These reviews, published quarterly, embrace wide-ranging, comprehensive subjects of male, female and couple sexual function and dysfunction.
The scope of SMR represents the diversity of subjects in basic science and clinical practice that define sexual health, sexual function, sexual dysfunction and sexual medicine. SMR is targeted at the sexual medicine investigator, practitioner, and trainee, but is also explicitly intended to appeal to and serve the needs of a broader audience of generalists and specialists with interest in or need of a high quality overview of a specific topic in sexual medicine.
The Journal accomplishes this objective by publishing high quality, evidence-based reviews that support the mission of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM).Manuscript Types
Sexual Medicine Reviews publishes several types of manuscripts. A brief description of each type follows:
Review articles are timely, in-depth treatment of an issue. Reviews are solicited by the editors, but unsolicited materials can be considered. The text should be approximately 5,000 words, with an abstract, a maximum of 7 tables and figures (total), and up to 75 references. More references may be accepted if justified.
Editorials provide opinions of recognized leaders in the field. Editorials providing commentary and analysis of reviews in a particular issue of the journal are always solicited.
Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor, subject to editing, are considered for publication provided they do not contain material submitted or published elsewhere. The text must not exceed 500 words or have more than five references and one figure or table. Letters referring to a published article must be received within four months of the article's publication. Please send contributions to this section directly to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Irwin Goldstein, MD
Director, Sexual Medicine
University of California
San Diego, CA, USA
Address correspondence to the Editorial Office:
Sue W. Goldstein, BA
Managing Editor, Sexual Medicine Reviews (SMR)
San Diego Sexual Medicine
San Diego, CA, USA
The Journal is indexed by EMBASE (Elsevier), Emerging Sources Citation Index (Clarivate Analytics), MEDLINE/PubMed (NLM), PsycINFO, and Scopus (Elsevier). Ethics in publishing
Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.
Authors' Professional and Ethical Responsibilities
Should possible scientific misconduct or dishonesty in research submitted for review be suspected or alleged, Sexual Medicine Reviews reserves the right to forward any submitted manuscript to the sponsoring or funding institution or to other appropriate authorities for investigation. The journal also screens manuscripts for incidents of plagiarism; please ensure that manuscripts present original data written in unique language.
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
Sexual Medicine Reviews requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, which might be perceived as influencing an author's objectivity, is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or directly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include, but are not limited to, patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker's fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in any ISSM journals. If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and collectively to list on the cover letter to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript (under the Acknowledgements section), and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').
Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
Sexual Medicine Reviews requires that all authors complete an authorship statement. All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions to Category 1: a) conception and design, b) analysis of data, and c) interpretation of data; and Category 2: a) drafting the article, or b) revising it critically for important intellectual content; and on Category 3) final approval of the version to be published. Categories 1, 2, and 3 must all be met. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. Any part of an article critical to its main conclusions must be the responsibility of at least one author.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Sexual Medicine Reviews requires that all prospective, randomized, controlled trials with patient enrollment starting on or after August 1, 2007, be registered in a public database that meets the requirements of the World Health Organization. Currently, such registries include the following: http://www.actr.org.au, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, http://www.ISRCTN.org, http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm, and http://www.trialregister.nl.
All submitted manuscripts containing data analyses will be evaluated for the integrity of the statistical methods as well as a sufficient description of the methodological approach. This will entail evaluation of the study design, statistical analysis and presentation and interpretation of study results. As a general guideline, readers of the manuscript should be able to replicate the analysis with the same data based on the description given in the Methods section. Authors are encouraged to carefully select language in the Discussion that is appropriate given the study design and refrain from causal inferences from observational (nonrandomized) studies.
- Report the sample size n for each study and each analysis
- Describe the power analysis to justify the sample size if appropriate
- Identify all statistical methods and verify the assumptions for all statistical tests
- Provide alpha (the probability of a Type I error) for all statistical tests
- Specify whether tests are one- or two-sided
- Report the descriptive statistics (n, mean, median, and standard deviation) for all continuous variables
- Report n and the sample proportion for binary variables
- Adequately explain complex statistical procedures such a multivariate logistic regression and the Cox proportional hazards regression model and verify the assumptions of each such procedure
- Report the actual P-values and explain what is meant by statistical significance
- Discuss and describe adjustments for multiple testing
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see https://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see https://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see https://www.elsevier.com/copyright.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
This journal will offer the following gold open access publication fees: $500 per Open Access article for individual members of the Society (ISSM) and members of the regional affiliate societies (APSSM, ESSM, SLAMS, MESSM, SMSNA, SASSM, ISSWSH), $2500 per Open Access article for non-members, and $5000 per Open Access article for industry sponsored articles, excluding taxes.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Please submit your article via http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/smrev.
Sexual Medicine Reviews requires that authors submit electronically via the ScholarOne Manuscripts online submission site. Complete, detailed instructions on uploading your manuscript are detailed below.
First click on the "Check for Existing Account" button on the opening page of the website (the bottom of the two buttons). If you do not already have an account, then create an account for yourself by clicking on the "Create an Account" button. You will then be able to submit and monitor the progress of your manuscripts. Follow the submittal instructions carefully.At the end of a successful submission, a confirmation screen with manuscript number will appear and you will receive an E-mail confirming that the manuscript has been received by the journal. If this does not happen, please check your submission and/or contact the editorial office at email@example.com. Through individual Author Centers on this website, authors can view the status of their manuscripts as they progress through the review process.
Any major word processor software may be used, and both DOS-based and Macintosh operating systems are acceptable.Please note that if you are an author or reviewer for The Journal of Sexual Medicine, Sexual Medicine Reviews, or Sexual Medicine, you automatically have an account with Sexual Medicine Reviews and you should use the same login information for submission for that journal that you use for the other journal. Editorial and Peer Review Process
Sexual Medicine Reviews maintains the highest standards of peer review and pursues editorial approaches that may help us avoid bias. All submitted manuscripts are reviewed for quality, novelty, scientific importance, and relevance to The Journal's readership. Manuscripts are assigned to an Associate Editor, who is a subject expert. Associate Editors select the external peer reviewers who are experts in the field, and submit a recommendation to the Editor-in-Chief along with the peer review reports. The Editor-in-Chief makes all final decisions on manuscripts. All review articles published in The Journal undergo full peer review. We do our utmost to judge each manuscript objectively on its own merits and to avoid favoring work, for example, from particular institutions, countries, or regions. Sexual Medicine Reviews employs a double-blind review process in which author identities and peer reviewer identities are kept confidential from one another. All publication decisions are made by the Editor-in-Chief on the basis of the reviews provided. Associate Editors lend insight, advice, and guidance to the Editor-in-Chief generally and assist in decision making on specific submissions. The Managing Editor provides administrative support to ensure The Journal maintains the integrity of peer review and delivers rapid and efficient publication to authors and reviewers. The existence of a manuscript under review is not revealed to anyone other than the peer reviewers and editorial staff. Peer reviewers are required to maintain confidentiality about the manuscripts they review and must not divulge any information about a specific manuscript or its content to any third party without prior permission from the journal editors. All authors will be sent notification of the receipt of manuscripts and editorial decisions by e-mail. During the review process, designated contact authors can also check the status of the submitted manuscript via ScholarOne Manuscripts at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/smrev.
Information for Peer Reviewers
As per the guidelines issued by the World Association of Medical Editors (for further information, refer to http://www.WAME.org):
- The reviewer should have identified and commented on major strengths and weaknesses of design and methodology.
- The reviewer should comment accurately and constructively upon the quality of the author's interpretation of the data, including acknowledgment of its limitations.
- The reviewer should comment on major strengths and weaknesses of the manuscript as a written communication, independent of the design, methodology, results, and interpretation of the study.
- The reviewer should comment on any ethical concerns raised by the study, or any possible evidence of low standards of scientific conduct.
- The reviewer should provide the author with useful suggestions for improvement of the manuscript.
- The reviewer's comments to the author should be constructive and professional.
- The review should provide the editor the proper context and perspective to make a decision on acceptance (and/or revision) of the manuscript.
Recommendations about publication are appreciated and are welcomed in the comments to the Editors. However, we kindly ask that reviewers not make such recommendations in their comments to the authors. Indeed, it is our policy to edit such comments out of any communications to authors.
Double-Blind Peer Review
This journal uses double-blind peer review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor. Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'. Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described. Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. Appendices
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.
Abstracts must be submitted in the appropriate field without the manuscript title or factors identifying the authors or institutions. Abstracts have a 300 word limit. Abstracts must be structured to include introduction, aim, methods, main outcome measures, results and conclusions.
Below the abstract authors should provide, and identify as such, 4 to 10 key words or short phrases that will assist indexers in cross-indexing the article and may be published with the abstract. Terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus should be used; if suitable MeSH terms are not yet available for recently introduced terms, present terms may be used.
A list of acceptable abbreviations is published in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals (also known as the Declaration of Vancouver). For more information, refer to: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journal (Ann Intern Med 1997;126:36-47). You may contact the Editor or publisher directly with questions.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Embedded math equations
If you are submitting an article prepared with Microsoft Word containing embedded math equations then please read this (related support information).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list. Electronic artwork
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
For journal articles: all authors should be listed, title of article; name of journal; year; volume number; first and last page.
For books: surname and initials of all authors, title and subtitle, edition (other than first), publishing house, city, year, page as specific reference.
For chapters in books: surname and initials of all authors of chapter, title of chapter, editors, authors, or compilers of book, title of book, edition (other than first), publishing house, city, year, page.
2. King, RE. Sexual dysfunction in men and women. Taylor and Francis: Philadelphia 1974, 86pp.
3. Stevens RA, Otis PN. Persistent sexual arousal syndrome. In: Johnson DA, ed. Female sexual dysfunction.. Little Brown and Company: Boston, 1976, pp 100-106.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
 Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.Sc.2010.00372.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
 Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00205
Reference to a book:
 Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
 Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13 March 2003].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset]  Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. . In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
In general, manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org).
Please use the Manuscript Submission Checklist below to ensure that the manuscript has all the information necessary for successful publication.Checklist
Please complete the following steps to ensure the correct submission of your manuscript:
1. Include a title page for your manuscript that is separate from the rest of the main document (preferably uploaded as a Supplementary File Not for Review), including:
- Full author names and the highest qualifications (PhD, MD, etc.) for all authors
- Institution, city and country details for each author
- Address of corresponding author (especially email address for the person to whom the proof notification is to be sent).
- Title page WITHOUT authors’ names or authors’ affiliations
- Abstract and 4–10 keywords
- Text (introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion)
- Literature cited (see below for tips on references)
- Tables (may be sent as a separate file if necessary)
- Figure legends
- Acknowledgements, including details of funding bodies with grant numbers
3. Abstracts for Review articles must be structured as follows: Introduction, Aims, Methods, Main Outcome Measures, Results, Conclusion.4. Provide a conflict of interest statement for every author.
5. Please pay attention to the quality of all figures and artwork supplied (see below for requirements):
- All charts must be in black and white or grayscale.
- Should your figures originate in a PowerPoint presentation, please remove: any previous presentation effects, such as line-art color that is not of didactic value; background color or shading effects and 3-dimensional views where 2-d can convey results with equal effectiveness.
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Drugs and Devices
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