Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Submission checklist
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Conflict of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Submission
PREPARATION
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Supplementary material
• AudioSlides
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Online proof correction
AUTHOR INQUIRIES


The purpose of Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery is to provide the most current information on specific topics. Each article should be of genuine clinical interest and should provide cardiovascular and thoracic surgeons with detailed descriptions and sound evaluations of new methods of diagnosis and treatment, new techniques and scientific and technologic advances, as appropriate to the subject assigned.

NEWS AND VIEWS

Description: Authors are invited to write a paper on a “hot topic” and expand on a recent article found in another journal (NEJM, Nature, Cell, etc.). The goal of this section is to expand on the review in an article that is 5-6 pages in length with a thoughtful analysis with references to support it.


Articles should follow these guidelines:

  • 2000-2500 words of text = 3 printed pages
  • 30 references = 1 printed page
  • 3-5 figures/tables and legends = 2 printed pages

News and Views articles now require the following mandatory items as part of your manuscript:

Central Picture

The authors should submit only one picture which can be a separate illustration or one of their figures that summarizes an important component of their manuscript to be used as the Central Picture. The central picture should be only one (or at the most two) panels of multi-paneled figures. The purpose of the illustration is to provide a snapshot of the paper with a single memorable visual image.

This figure will appear on the first page of the manuscript and in both the print and electronic tables of contents. Do not use a multiple framed figure; these tend to be illegible at thumbnail size. The central picture and legend are required for all article types. For the best Central Picture results, please consider the following criteria:

  • Color is required for all figures (the journal does not provide gratis color printing, however, all images will remain in color in the online version)
  • The size of the Central Picture is approximately 2" high by 1.5" wide
  • Select only a single frame or panel from a multi-section figure
  • Author photo(s) are acceptable Central Pictures; provide author name as figure legend
  • Text pictures are discouraged and if submitted should have a minimum number of words because text is not legible at thumbnail size
  • If the central picture is also submitted as a figure, then it must be cited in your manuscript text and a full length figure legend should be included

Central Picture Legend

The central picture should be accompanied by an abbreviated legend; the legend has an absolute limit of 90 characters including spaces. Provide the abbreviated legend in the submission fields and in the legend section of the paper. If a photo of the author(s) is used as the central picture, please provide their name(s) as the legend.

Central Message

The central message contains the essence of the manuscript the message of the paper. There is an absolute limit of 200 characters including spaces. It is not a brief summary of results. Rather, for clinical manuscripts, it is the inference(s) that will be supported by the results. It is often identical to the conclusions of the abstract. Only if one can simply and succinctly understand the findings of the study and articulate what they mean will one be able to convey them clearly to the reader. Once the essence is written, the entire manuscript - tables, figures and text - should be sharply focused on those results that are supportive of the paper's message. Other information should be either included in appendices (electronic only) or eliminated altogether. The central message will be included immediately beneath the title of the paper in the table of contents and on the first page of accepted manuscripts.



STATE OF THE ART

Description: Authors are invited to write a review article on a topic selected by the editor.
Articles should follow these guidelines:

  • 3500 words, double-spaced (15 typed pages) = 5 printed pages
  • 35 references, double spaced = 1 printed page
  • 6 figures or tables = 1 ½ printed pages
State of the Art Articles now require an optional Author photograph and the following mandatory items as part of your manuscript:

Central Picture

The authors should submit only one picture which can be a separate illustration or one of their figures that summarizes an important component of their manuscript to be used as the Central Picture. The central picture should be only one (or at the most two) panels of multi-paneled figures. The purpose of the illustration is to provide a snapshot of the paper with a single memorable visual image.

This figure will appear on the first page of the manuscript and in both the print and electronic tables of contents. Do not use a multiple framed figure; these tend to be illegible at thumbnail size. The central picture and legend are required for all article types. For the best Central Picture results, please consider the following criteria:

  • Color is required for all figures (the journal does not provide gratis color printing, however, all images will remain in color in the online version)
  • The size of the Central Picture is approximately 2" high by 1.5" wide
  • Select only a single frame or panel from a multi-section figure
  • Author photo(s) are acceptable Central Pictures; provide author name as figure legend
  • Text pictures are discouraged and if submitted should have a minimum number of words because text is not legible at thumbnail size
  • If the central picture is also submitted as a figure, then it must be cited in your manuscript text and a full length figure legend should be included

Central Picture Legend

The central picture should be accompanied by an abbreviated legend; the legend has an absolute limit of 90 characters including spaces. Provide the abbreviated legend in the submission fields and in the legend section of the paper. If a photo of the author(s) is used as the central picture, please provide their name(s) as the legend.

Central Message

The central message contains the essence of the manuscript the message of the paper. There is an absolute limit of 200 characters including spaces. It is not a brief summary of results. Rather, for clinical manuscripts, it is the inference(s) that will be supported by the results. It is often identical to the conclusions of the abstract. Only if one can simply and succinctly understand the findings of the study and articulate what they mean will one be able to convey them clearly to the reader. Once the essence is written, the entire manuscript - tables, figures and text - should be sharply focused on those results that are supportive of the paper's message. Other information should be either included in appendices (electronic only) or eliminated altogether. The central message will be included immediately beneath the title of the paper in the table of contents and on the first page of accepted manuscripts.



CURRENT READINGS

Description: A Guest Author will be selected by the editors and this individual will select 5-6 articles to write about. Each manuscript from the invited author will examine the seminal articles on a topic from the past 2-3 years. The manuscripts will have a short 1-2 paragraph summary with 5 key points as to why it is important to practitioners of cardiac and thoracic surgery and therapies. At the end of each group of manuscripts the Guest Author will provide a synthesis of all the readings along with his own critical review and interpretation of the information. The synthesis can also provide a historical context for the topic, presenting the current reading articles as the newest best information—since xyz (the classic article(s) on a topic) has been published here are the best most relevant articles, showing where we’ve come from to get to cutting edge practice.


Articles should follow these guidelines:

  • 2100 words (250 words per page), double-spaced = 3 printed pages
  • 6 tables or figures = 1 ½ printed pages—may be re-printed figures/tables from articles covered, with permissions
  • 1400 words, double-spaced (Guest Author’s own synthesis of articles) = 2 printed page
Current Readings now require an optional Author photograph and the following mandatory items as part of your manuscript:

Central Picture

The authors should submit only one picture which can be a separate illustration or one of their figures that summarizes an important component of their manuscript to be used as the Central Picture. The central picture should be only one (or at the most two) panels of multi-paneled figures. The purpose of the illustration is to provide a snapshot of the paper with a single memorable visual image.

This figure will appear on the first page of the manuscript and in both the print and electronic tables of contents. Do not use a multiple framed figure; these tend to be illegible at thumbnail size. The central picture and legend are required for all article types. For the best Central Picture results, please consider the following criteria:

  • Color is required for all figures (the journal does not provide gratis color printing, however, all images will remain in color in the online version)
  • The size of the Central Picture is approximately 2" high by 1.5" wide
  • Select only a single frame or panel from a multi-section figure
  • Author photo(s) are acceptable Central Pictures; provide author name as figure legend
  • Text pictures are discouraged and if submitted should have a minimum number of words because text is not legible at thumbnail size
  • If the central picture is also submitted as a figure, then it must be cited in your manuscript text and a full length figure legend should be included

Central Picture Legend

The central picture should be accompanied by an abbreviated legend; the legend has an absolute limit of 90 characters including spaces. Provide the abbreviated legend in the submission fields and in the legend section of the paper. If a photo of the author(s) is used as the central picture, please provide their name(s) as the legend.



Central Message

The central message contains the essence of the manuscript the message of the paper. There is an absolute limit of 200 characters including spaces. It is not a brief summary of results. Rather, for clinical manuscripts, it is the inference(s) that will be supported by the results. It is often identical to the conclusions of the abstract. Only if one can simply and succinctly understand the findings of the study and articulate what they mean will one be able to convey them clearly to the reader. Once the essence is written, the entire manuscript - tables, figures and text - should be sharply focused on those results that are supportive of the paper's message. Other information should be either included in appendices (electronic only) or eliminated altogether. The central message will be included immediately beneath the title of the paper in the table of contents and on the first page of accepted manuscripts.



EDITORIAL COMMENTARY

Description: Editorial Commentaries are intended to provide a broad perspective on the importance of this paper for the readers of Seminars. Please indicate why this paper is significant to the field and worthy of the reader's attention. In addition, please outline the strengths and weaknesses of the paper. Your expertise in this field and your views will be appreciated by our readership.

  • Fewer than 800 words.
  • Catchy title for your Editorial Commentary
  • Brief summary of your Commentary, less than 50 words, which will be used to publicize your contribution.
  • Please be sure to list academic degrees and affiliations for all authors including Institution and Department/Division.
  • Provide a picture which summarizes an important component of their commentary or provide a picture of themselves. The picture should be accompanied by an abbreviated legend. This figure will appear on the first page of the manuscript and in the electronic tables of contents.

Requires a mandatory author photograph or central picture.


ORIGINAL SUBMISSIONS


Require the following mandatory items as part of your manuscript:

Central Picture

The authors should submit only one picture which can be a separate illustration or one of their figures that summarizes an important component of their manuscript to be used as the Central Picture. The central picture should be only one (or at the most two) panels of multi-paneled figures. The purpose of the illustration is to provide a snapshot of the paper with a single memorable visual image.

This figure will appear on the first page of the manuscript and in both the print and electronic tables of contents. Do not use a multiple framed figure; these tend to be illegible at thumbnail size. The central picture and legend are required for all article types. For the best Central Picture results, please consider the following criteria:

  • Color is required for all figures (the journal does not provide gratis color printing, however, all images will remain in color in the online version)
  • The size of the Central Picture is approximately 2" high by 1.5" wide
  • Select only a single frame or panel from a multi-section figure
  • Author photo(s) are acceptable Central Pictures; provide author name as figure legend
  • Text pictures are discouraged and if submitted should have a minimum number of words because text is not legible at thumbnail size
  • If the central picture is also submitted as a figure, then it must be cited in your manuscript text and a full length figure legend should be included

Central Picture Legend

The central picture should be accompanied by an abbreviated legend; the legend has an absolute limit of 90 characters including spaces. Provide the abbreviated legend in the submission fields and in the legend section of the paper. If a photo of the author(s) is used as the central picture, please provide their name(s) as the legend.



Central Message

The central message contains the essence of the manuscript the message of the paper. There is an absolute limit of 200 characters including spaces. It is not a brief summary of results. Rather, for clinical manuscripts, it is the inference(s) that will be supported by the results. It is often identical to the conclusions of the abstract. Only if one can simply and succinctly understand the findings of the study and articulate what they mean will one be able to convey them clearly to the reader. Once the essence is written, the entire manuscript - tables, figures and text - should be sharply focused on those results that are supportive of the paper's message. Other information should be either included in appendices (electronic only) or eliminated altogether. The central message will be included immediately beneath the title of the paper in the table of contents and on the first page of accepted manuscripts. Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
Manuscript:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Conflict of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Please download and submit this form with your manuscript http://cdn.elsevier.com/promis_misc/ICMJE_COI.pdf. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/supporthub/publishing.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 1700, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/stcvs/.

Referees
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Estimating manuscript length
We ask for your cooperation in keeping within our page limitations for each issue of the journal. Please refer to the first page of these guidelines for the requested length of your manuscript. The following approximations are offered to help you calculate length:

  • Three 8½ × 11 pages, double-spaced with 1.5-inch margins, in standard 10- or 12-point word processor type (approximately 250 words per page) = 1 printed page
  • 35 references (all lines double-spaced) = 1 printed page
  • 4 tables or figures with legends = 1 printed page
Example: A manuscript contains 15 pages of text with 17 references and 6 tables: 15 pages of text = 5 printed pages, 17 references = ½ printed page, 6 figures or tables = 1½ printed page

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Introduction
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Results
Results should be clear and concise.

Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Conclusions
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Appendices
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Abstract

A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Keywords

Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Acknowledgements
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Artwork

Electronic artwork
General Figure Instructions
• All figures must be submitted in electronic format in color (which will appear online for free) as separate files, and all images should be at least 5 inches wide. Preferred images formats are EPS or TIF. Include the figure legends at the end of the manuscript file.
• Graphics software such as Photoshop and Illustrator, not presentation software such as PowerPoint, should be used to create art.
• Color images need to be CMYK and at least 300 dpi.
• Gray scale images should be at least 300 dpi.
• Line art (black and white or color) and combinations of gray scale and line art should be at least 1200 dpi.
• For best reproduction, avoid screening, shading, and lettering on a dark background.
• All time varying outcome figure must have confidence limits provided as well as the number of patients at risk. The confidence limits can be provided as shaded areas or bars on the figure, in the table with the patients at risk in the figure, in the legend or in a separate online table.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.

References

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884i. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference formatting
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

Reference style
Discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links within ScienceDirect and to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef or PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent the link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain an error. There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume and issue/book chapter and the pagination must be present. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that incorrect or missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages.

AudioSlides

The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.



Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.