Guide for Authors

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• Types of Paper
• Submission Checklist
• Ethics in Publishing
• Declaration of interest
• Submission Declaration and Verification
• Use of inclusive language
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the Funding Source
• Open access
• Manuscript Submission
• Proofs
• Page Charges and Offprints
• Offprints
• Author Inquiries

Types of Paper

Summarize the recent progress in certain core scientific disciplines, comment on the research status, and highlight future directions. They should focus on one topical aspect rather than providing a comprehensive literature survey. Review papers should closely relate to, but not only focus on the author's own research work. Reviews are usually solicited by editors, but unsolicited submissions may also be considered. Reviews are suggested to be limited to 15 pages including up to 100 references, a 250-word abstract, 4-6 keywords and a maximum of 10 displayed items.

Feature Articles
Feature Articles are special invited reviews written by leading scientists who summarize their recent work from a personal perspective. These papers cover many exciting and innovative fields and are of general interest. Feature Articles are only solicited by editors. The format of Feature Articles is same as that of Reviews.

Introduce and comment on the substantial advancement and its importance in the fast-developing fields. Progress articles are expected to be no more than 6 pages with no more than 6 display items, 4-6 keywords and less than 60 references.

Originally report substantial advances regarding an important scientific problem. Articles normally include a 250-word abstract, 4-6 keywords, up to 6 figures or tables and 60 references. Other supporting information should usually be included in supplementary materials that will only be published online. Articles are suggested to be limited to 10 print pages, including references, captions and notes.

Short Communications
Provide rapid and concise report of a novel finding that is brief in nature but is of general interest to a broad readership. Short Communications are expected to be less than 2 print pages with 1 displayed item and less than 10 references. Abstract and keywords are not needed. Thus, the beginning paragraphs should present concise yet sufficient background information that would allow the readers to appreciate the rationale of the work, and put the study in a proper perspective. Any other supporting information (if necessary) should be submitted as supplementary materials.

Research Highlights
Highlight and explain potential scientific significance of a most recent exciting research. While Research Highlights are generally solicited, we welcome inquiries regarding your personal viewpoint on new research advances. Research Highlights should be limited to 2 pages with 1 displayed item and less than 10 references.

News and Views
Introduce or comment on recent scientific advances or issues that have major influence on science or scientific community. News and Views are generally solicited and are expected to have no more than 2 pages and 10 references.

Comment on a recent scientific publication, a general scientific issue, or a policy of broad interest. While snapshot an issue or problem, commentaries are expected to propose a solution in detail. Commentaries are usually limited to 2 pages with less than 10 references.

Remark on a recent publication in Sci Bull. Correspondences are generally within 1 page with less than 5 references.
Please ensure that you select the appropriate article type from the list of options when making your submission. Authors contributing to special issues should ensure that they select the special issue article type from this list.

Submission Checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.

Ensure that the following items are present:
Corresponding Author (s) has been designated

  • E-mail Address
  • Full Postal Address
  • Telephone and fax numbers

All necessary files have been uploaded

  • Keywords
  • All figure captions
  • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)

Further considerations:

  • Manuscript has been "spellchecked" and "grammar-checked"
  • References are in the correct format for this journal
  • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
  • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources
  • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction online only or to be reproduced in color both online and in print

For any further information please visit our customer support site at

Ethics in Publishing

Sci Bull is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.

All submissions to Sci Bull must conform to the ethical standards printed below. To confirm their agreement with this, authors are required to include the following statement in their cover letter indicating their agreement with these standards: "I have read and have abided by the statement of ethical standards for manuscripts submitted to Sci Bull." A list of ethical standards is not required in the cover letter.

Policy and ethics

The authors declare that all experiments on animal or human subjects were conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and that all procedures were carried out with the adequate understanding and written consent of the subjects.

The authors also certify that formal approval to conduct the experiments described has been obtained from the animal/human subjects review board of their institution and could be provided upon request.

If the ethical standard governing the reported research is different from those guidelines indicated above, the authors must provide information in the manuscript about which guidelines and oversight procedures were followed.

The following statements should be included in the "Materials and methods" or in the text before the References section:
Ethical approval: "All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards."

For studies with animals, the following statement should be included: "All applicable institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed."

The Editors reserve the right to return manuscripts in which there is any question as to the appropriate and ethical use of human or animal subjects.

For more information on Ethics in Publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should complete the declaration of interest statement using this template and upload to the submission system at the Attach/Upload Files step. If there are no interests to declare, please choose: 'Declarations of interest: none' in the template. This statement will be published within the article if accepted. More information.

Submission Declaration and Verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously or is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form in any language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').


Corresponding author(s)

Corresponding author(s) are responsible for clarifying any issues, such as those pertaining to materials and methods, or technical comments. If Sci Bull receives feedback from its readers concerning the published paper, the corresponding author will be contacted.

Changes to authorship

Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.

After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, E-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming the acceptance of the manuscript together with a "Copyright Transfer Agreement" form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of Sci Bull is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Sci Bull has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases, please contact when needed.

Role of the Funding Source

Authors are requested to identify the financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s) in Acknowledgements.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page from the Journal Homepage for more information.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more. This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted via online submission at If you have problems with the online submission, please contact Sci Bull Editorial Office by email at or by phone at 86-10-64034113. Please make sure you have prepared all the required manuscript information listed as follows before starting submission. If you are submitting a revised manuscript, please enclose a "Responses to the reviewers" to answer the reviewers and the editors' comments, together with the revised manuscript with all the changes highlighted.

Manuscript Preparation
Cover Letter

Please include:

  • The names, affiliation, phone numbers and e-mail address of corresponding author(s)
  • Suggestions for at least 4 potential reviewers with detailed contact information (affiliation and valid email address)
  • Name and affiliation of reviewer(s) that wish to be excluded (optional)
  • Total number of words of the manuscript
  • Conflict of interest statement for all authors
  • Brief introduction to the significance of the research work
  • Statement of responsibility that specifies the contribution of each author

Article organization

Manuscripts are suggested to be arranged in the following order:

    a.Title page
    e.Materials and methods
    g.Discussion and conclusion
    i.Disclosure of potential conflict of interest
    k.Figure legends
    m.Artwork and illustrations
    n.Electronic appendix
a. Title page

  • A concise and informative title
  • The name(s) of the author(s). All authors are responsible for the content of the manuscript
  • The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
  • The current e-mail address, telephone numbers of the corresponding author(s)

b. Abstract

One single paragraph of no more than 250 words that clearly describe the major findings reported in the manuscript.

c. Keywords

Provide a list of 4-6 words/phrases that reflect the specificity of the paper for indexing purposes in order of importance. Careful selection of keywords will help researchers to retrieve, read and cite your paper.

d. Introduction

Briefly introduce the purpose of the study and its relationship to earlier work in the field. Usually no more than one formatted page.

e. Materials and methods

Briefly but sufficiently describe the details to permit a qualified reader to repeat the experiments. Previously published procedures should be referenced without detailed description.

When reporting studies that involve human participants, authors should include a statement that the studies have been approved by the appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


Concisely present experimental results in text or display items (tables or figures).

g. Discussion and conclusion

Should focus on the interpretation of the results and avoid repeated information that already existed in the "Introduction" and "Results" sections.

h. Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments of grants, funds, people, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

i. Disclosure of potential Conflict of Interests

Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could influence or bias the work. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but not limited to the following:

  • Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
  • Honoraria for speaking at symposia
  • Financial support for attending symposia
  • Financial support for educational programs
  • Employment or consultation
  • Support from a project sponsor
  • Position on advisory board or board of directors or other types of management relationships
  • Multiple affiliations
  • Financial relationships, e.g., equity ownership or investment interest
  • Intellectual property rights (e.g., patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
  • Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work

In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.

The corresponding author will include a summary statement in the text of the manuscript in a separate section before the reference list. An example of disclosure is shown below:

Conflict of interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.

    If no conflict exists, the authors should state: "Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest."

j. References

An endnote template can be downloaded from

  • Citation
    Reference citations in the text should be numbered consecutively in square brackets. Some examples:

    (i) Negotiation research spans many disciplines [3, 4].
    (ii) This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman [5].
    (iii) This effect has been widely studied [1-3, 7].

  • Reference list

    The list of references should only include work that is cited in the text and that has been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished work should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.

Please always use the standard abbreviation of a journal's name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see LTWA-online.php.

Reference to a journal publication:

    [1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2000;163:51-9.

    [2] Lei Y, Liu Y, Song H, et al. A wetness index derived from tree-rings in the Mt. Yishan area of China since 1755 AD and its agricultural implications. Sci Bull 2014;59:3449-56.

    Reference to a book:

    [3] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan; 1979.

    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

    [4] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age. New York: E-Publishing Inc; 1999, p. 281-304.

k. Figure captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

l. Tables

Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

m. Artwork

General points

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
  • Save text in illustrations as ""graphics"" or enclose the font.
  • Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
  • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
  • Submit each figure as a separate file.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:

Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please ""save as"" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as ""graphics"".
TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.

If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply ""as is"".

Please do not:
a. Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
b. Supply files that are too low in resolution;
c. Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (s). Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

Page Charges and Offprints

Page charges are 300 RMB (US $50) for each page in black and white. Charge for color pages is dependent on the total page numbers. Detailed information please visit the online version of Guide for Authors on Sci Bull website. The Editorial Office will send an invoice regarding the payment to the corresponding author (s) right after you receive the galley proof. If extra offprints and sample journals are required, please return the detailed information to Editorial Office. The full text article opens free to the readers inside China at For oversea readers, articles are available at, or


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Author Inquiries

For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission) please visit this journal's homepage at or email to