Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

INTRODUCTION
• Types of article
• Submission checklist
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Contributors
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Submission
PREPARATION
• Peer review
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Structured abstract
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video
• Supplementary material
• RESEARCH DATA
• Data deposit and linking
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Proofs
AUTHOR INQUIRIES



The Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy) is a periodical dedicated to the publication of original scientific work, reviews and communications in the field of Pharmacognosy (the study of crude drugs and substances derived from natural sources used as medicines).

Types of article

The Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy accepts for publication original scientific work, reviews and communication articles written only in English.

• Original papers: Original papers are research articles describing original experimental results. The manuscript should be arranged in the following order: Graphical abstract, Title, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, Authorship, References, Figures with Legends, Tables,Structural Formulae and Supplemental files (if applicable). Results and Discussion sections may appear as a combined ‘Results and Discussion’ section. The normal length of the main text of an Original Paper (excluding references, tables, figures and figure legends) is approximately 3,000 words. Longer manuscripts may be accepted only in exceptional and well justified cases.
• Short communications: This section will cover mainly the isolation of known compounds from new neotropical sources, or complementary results of on-going work. The text should be arranged as follows: Graphical abstract, Title, Abstract of 200 words, Keywords, Introductory Remarks, Material and Methods with brief experimental details without subheadings, Results and Discussion as one body of text without headlines, Acknowledgements, Authorship, References (up to 20 citations) and Figures and/or Tables (up to 3). The text should not exceed 2,000 words.
• Reviews: Authors are invited to submit review articles that provides concise and critical updates on a subject, and with around 100 references. The main purpose of reviews is to provide a concise, accurate introduction to the subject matter and inform the reader critically of the latest developments in the field. They should be concise and include details of the search strategy used, such as time frame, search terms, used databases. A review should be an article that produces knowledge and not just a kind of survey of the existing literature. The review must be a result of response to a question, thus producing knowledge.Reviews of a particular herbal drug will be considered if they contain the newest issue and a perspective on future directions.

Authors are strongly recommended to prepare a manuscript using a A4-sized paper, double-spaced, with Times New Roman size-12 font, fully justified, with margins of 2 cm.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
Ensure the following:
i. One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details: Institutional e-mail address; full postal address.
ii. All authors, with their respective email addresses, should be entered into the system.
iii. All necessary files have been uploaded: graphical abstract, manuscript, keywords, all figures with their legends, all tables (including titles, description, footnotes), and supplemental files (if applicable).
iv. All figure and table citations in the text match the files provided;
v. Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked;
vi. All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa;
vii. Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet);
viii. Relevant declarations of interest have been made;
ix. Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed.

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.
All articles involving studies with humans or animals should have the approval and authorization of the Ethics Committees on Research on Human Beings or on Animals of the institution to which the author(s) belong.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Contributors

Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.
The role of each author involved in the development of the study and/or the elaboration of the manuscript must be clearly described, and he/she should be referred to by his/her initials.

Authorship

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this) to assign to the Brazilian Society of Pharmacognosy the copyright in the manuscript and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript (the "Article") in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the Article is accepted for publication. . An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access

This is an open access journal: all articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.

Article Processing Charges
The Brazilian Society of Pharmacognosy pays for most of the publishing costs incurred by the journal. But authors are required to pay a small publication fee to the Brazilian Society of Pharmacognosy in order to share in the costs of production.

Payments will be received through the PayPal system for Overseas, which is a safe, flexible and well-established service for on-line payments, or by Bank transfer.
Brazilian authors could make a bank deposit/transfer to Banco do Brasil account.
Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia (CNPJ: 76.259.381/0001-90)

Processing fees:
• Corresponding author non-member of the SBFgnosia: US$ 450
• Corresponding author member of SBFgnosia: US$ 350
• Corresponding author member of SBFgnosia for more than two successive years US$ 300
• Corresponding author: member of the SBFgnosia for more than five successive years R$ 250,00

A limited number of waivers for article processing charges are also available at the editors' discretion, and authors wishing to apply for these waivers should contact the editors prior to submit their manuscripts.
Editors and reviewers have no access to whether authors are able to pay; the acceptance of a manuscript is based exclusively on scientific criteria for quality, novelty and relevance.

Permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via https://www.evise.com/profile/api/navigate/BJP.

Additional information
- All plant, microorganism and marine organism materials used in the described research should be supported by an indication of the site (including GPS coordinates, if possible) and country of origin, the name of the person identifying the biological material and the location of the voucher specimen.
- Authors should be prepared to provide documentary evidence that approval for collection was afforded from an appropriate authority in the country of collection and, if applicable, to follow the rules concerning the biodiversity rights.
- The journal will not accept responsibility for research works that do not comply with the legislation of the country of residence of the author.
- We strongly recommend that authors avoid stating that the popular or traditional use of a certain herb was confirmed by pre-clinical, in-vitro or in vivo tests using animals.
- The Brazilian Journal of pharmacognosy strongly encourages the submission of original works in which the experimental procedures were conducted taking into consideration green chemistry principles, such as by employing green solvents and environmental resource saving experimental designs in any step of the investigation.

-The following immediate rejection criteria apply

i. the manuscript does not fall into the areas of interest of the journal;

ii. manuscripts not formatted in accordance with the standards of the journal;

iii. the manuscript results are preliminary;

iv. manuscripts reporting activity data without comparison with a reference, without a positive control/appropriate control or not based on adequate statistics;

v. the biological source (e.g. plant, microorganism, marine organism etc.) is not clearly identified, authenticated and documented;

vi. experimental work on antioxidant activity of crude extracts without isolation, identification and content estimation of the active compounds; phenolic compounds are widely spread in nature and fully recognized as antioxidants or scavengers.

vii. experimental work on antimicrobial activity with crude extracts without isolation and identification of the active compounds, with large MIC values (μg/ml) for antimicrobial activity (≥250 μg/ml for plant extracts and ≥50 μg/ml for pure compounds) and without appropriate identification of culture collections/strain designation codes;

viii. experimental work on essential oils with only one sample of a single plant specimen with a single chromatographic analysis and without appropriate statistical analyses; without oil yield (%) and characterization and component quantification not undertaken using GC-MS-FID. Analyses of the retention indices of the components not calculated using n-alkane homologous series together with analyses of some of the isolated natural components. Biological activity of essential oil without chemical characterization

ix. too preliminary data using in-vitro assays will not be acceptable if (i) no information on the type of activity is given; (ii) single dose or very high concentrations (must show dose–response studies); (iii) repetition of a simple bioassay (usually one assay with replicates); (iv) lack of appropriate controls (solvents; positive or negative substances according to the study); (v) no IC50 values (if applicable).

x. use of only the brine shrimp assay (Artemia salina) to access the toxicity of extracts;

xi. isolation and bioassay of well-known compounds with small or no relationship to the activity, or to the medicinal use of the plant without clear justification;

xii. manuscripts reporting pharmacological or biological activities of crude extracts without chemical and technical standardization. Standardization of the plant extracts is considered to be the complete description of manufacturing parameters such as granulometry, solvent-plant ratio, time of extraction, solvent composition etc., together with marker quantification and chromatographic fingerprint analyses.

-In addition to these Guidelines, a template (for original papers) is available at http://www.sbfgnosia.org.br/revista/templates.html..

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

The manuscript should be arranged in the following order: Graphical abstract, Title, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, Authorship, References, Figures with Legends, Tables, Structural Formulae and Supplemental files (if applicable).

Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Introduction
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

Results
Results should be clear and concise.

Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Essential title page information

Title: Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations: Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. Author affiliations should be presented in decreasing hierarchical order (e.g. Harvard University, Harvard Business School, Boston, USA) and should be written as established in its own language (e.g. Université Paris-Sorbonne; Harvard University, Universidade de São Paulo).
Corresponding author: Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the institutional e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address: If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Structured abstract

A structured abstract of ≤ 300 words, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations. The journal does not accept abbreviations in the abstract.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of six keywords in alphabetical order and separated by commas, to represent the content of the article.
Please avoid using the plant name species in the keywords as it should be already in the title and/or in the abstract. Choose representative words to help indexation and readers to reach your article.

Graphical abstract
A Graphical abstract is mandatory for this journal. It should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

BJP does not accept Graphical abstract using images of animals.

Abbreviations
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Acknowledgements
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Nomenclature and units
Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the International System of Units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Plant name species
Plant names should be complete, including author name and family, according to http://www.theplantlist.org/ or http://www.tropicos.org, and http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.

Structural Formulae
Chemical structures are not considered as figures, should be numbered sequentially in bold letters according to their citations in the manuscript, and placed closed to the desired point in the manuscript body. Structures should be drawn according to the style set by the American Chemical Society.
Chemical structures of well known compounds will not be published.

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Artwork

The journal uses recycled paper, so colour figures are accepted and will abe available only on the online version.

Image manipulation
Whilst it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, this journal is applying the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

References

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
http://open.mendeley.com/use-citation-style/revista-brasileira-de-farmacognosia
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference style
Text: All citations in the text should be chronologically identified and refer to:
Author in lower case, followed by the publication year between parenthesis, e.g. Pereira (1999); at the end of the citation: Author in lower case and year, both between parenthesis. e.g. (Silva, 1999) or (Silva and Souza, 1998) or (Silva et al., 1999) or (Silva et al., 1995a,b); textual citation: the page must be provided, e.g. (Silva, 1999, p. 24).
List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
Examples:
Reference to a journal publication:
Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2010. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51–59.
Reference to a book:
Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 2000. The Elements of Style, fourth ed. Longman, New York.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
Cancer Research UK, 1975. Cancer statistics reports for the UK. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/ (accessed 13.03.03).
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T., 2015. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Scientific meetings: Oliveira, R.M.M.W., Lolli, L.F., Santos, C.A.M., 2006. Possible involvement of GABAAbenzodiazepine receptor in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by Passiflora actinia extracts in mice. 19th ECNP Congress. Paris, France.
Patents: whenever possible the Chemical Abstracts Service number should be informed. Ichikawa, M., Ogura, M., Lijima, T., 1986. Antiallergic flavones glycoside from Kalanchoe pinnatum. Jpn. Kokai Tokyo Koho JP 61,118,396, apud Chemical Abstracts 105: 178423q.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Video

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB in total. Any single file should not exceed 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

RESEARCH DATA

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Data deposit and linking

Elsevier encourages and supports authors to share raw data sets underpinning their research publication where appropriate and enables interlinking of articles and data. More information on depositing, sharing and using research data.

Availability of accepted article
This journal makes articles available online as soon as possible after acceptance. This concerns the accepted article (both in HTML and PDF format), which has not yet been copyedited, typeset or proofread. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is allocated, thereby making it fully citable and searchable by title, author name(s) and the full text. The article's PDF also carries a disclaimer stating that it is an unedited article. Subsequent production stages will simply replace this version.

Proofs

One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.



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