Guide for Authors

Resuscitation is a monthly interdisciplinary medical journal and is the official journal of the European Resuscitation Council. Papers published deal with the aetiology, pathophysiology and prevention of cardiac arrest, resuscitation training, clinical resuscitation, and experimental resuscitation research. Papers relating to animal studies will be published only if they are of exceptional interest and related directly to clinical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Papers relating to trauma are published occasionally but the majority of these specifically concern traumatic cardiac arrest. Review articles and Letters to the Editor, particularly relating to articles previously published in Resuscitation, are welcome. We no longer publish case reports but a case of exceptional interest and originality may be considered for publication in the form of a Letter to the Editor.

Editorial Policy
The originality of content of papers submitted and the quality of the work on which they are based is the prime consideration of the editors. The paper should deal with original material, neither previously published nor being considered for publication elsewhere, except in special circumstances agreed with the Editor-in-Chief. A small number of papers are randomly selected for plagiarism software checking. Most papers are assigned to an editor and sent for peer review; papers may be returned to authors as accepted, for reconsideration after revision, or rejection. The reviewer's name may or may not be revealed to the author(s), depending on the reviewer's preference. The decision of the Editor-in-Chief regarding acceptance or rejection is final. Papers that are out of scope or far below the standard for publication in Resuscitation will be rejected by the editors without obtaining peer review. Papers that simply describe a clinical trial protocol will be rejected. Resuscitation operates a word limit for all articles as detailed in the table below. Manuscripts will be returned to the author if the word count is exceeded.

WORD LIMIT (excluding abstract and references)
Original Paper* 3000
Short Paper* 1500
Review* 4000
Commentary and Concepts* 2000
Editorial 1200
Letter to Editor 500

TABLES/ILLUSTRATION LIMIT
Original Paper* 6
Short Paper* 3
Review* 8
Commentary and Concepts* 3
Editorial 1
Letter to Editor 1

REFERENCE LIMIT
Original Paper* 40
Short Paper* 20
Review* 75
Commentary and Concepts* 20
Editorial 30
Letter to Editor 5

*option for supplementary online materials

Guide for Authors
These guidelines generally follow the 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals'. The complete document appears at http://www.icmje.org

These instructions can also be found on https://www.journals.elsevier.com/resuscitation/

Submission of Papers
Authors must submit their original manuscript and figures online via http://ees.elsevier.com/resus which is the Elsevier web-based submission and peer-review system. You will find full instructions located on this site - a Guide for Authors and a Guide for Online Submission. Please follow these guidelines to prepare and upload your article.

Once a manuscript has been uploaded, our system automatically generates an electronic PDF proof, which is used for reviewing. All correspondence, including notification of the editor's decision and requests for revisions, will be managed via this system. Authors may also track the progress of their paper to final decision.

If you have any problems submitting your paper via this system, please contact the Editorial Office on: e-mail: resus@elsevier.com; tel: +44 (0)1865 843620; fax: +44 (0)1865 843992.

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to sign a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Once an article has been accepted, the uncorrected provisional pdf will be published immediately online pending publication of the fully formatted final version.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions).

If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

Your manuscript should be submitted together with a covering letter which should be signed by the corresponding author on behalf of all authors and should include:

* A statement that all authors have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or is the chair of the department who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

* A statement describing any overlap with previous publications and confirmation that the manuscript, including related data, figures and tables, has not been published previously and that the manuscript is not under consideration elsewhere.

* The names and contact addresses (including e-mail) of two potential reviewers that have not been involved in the design, performance and discussion of the data and are not a co-worker. These may or may not be used at the Editor's discretion. You may also mention persons who you would prefer not to review your paper.

Online-Only Publications
Due to the large volume of submissions to the journal, Letters to the Editor will be published online-only and listed on the contents page of a print issue. They should begin with 'Sir,' in italics. Where the letter is a reply to a letter to the editor, please ensure 'Reply to Letter:' is inserted before the title. All letters will be available open access on http://www.resuscitationjournal.com

Declaration of Conflicts of Interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.

Role of the Funding Source
All sources of funding must be declared as an acknowledgement at the end of the text. Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state. Please see http://www.elsevier.com/funding

Ethics and Patient Consent
Work on human beings that is submitted to Resuscitation must comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki; Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects. Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964, amended by the 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975, the 35th World Medical Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983, and the 41st World Medical Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989. The manuscript must contain a statement that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed and that, where appropriate, subjects gave informed consent to the work. The Ethics/Institutional approval reference number must be included in the paper. Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should disclose to these patients whether any potential identifiable material might be available via the Internet as well as in print after publication.

Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity.

Randomised Controlled Trials
Resuscitation has adopted the proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) which requires, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research project that assigns human subjects prospectively to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g. phase I trials), and manikin or laboratory studies would be exempt. Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org.

All randomised controlled trials submitted for publication in Resuscitation should be written to comply with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines. Authors must include the CONSORT flow chart and ensure that all elements in the CONSORT checklist are covered. A copy of the CONSORT checklist must be uploaded as supplemental material. Please refer to the CONSORT statement website at http://www.consort-statement.org for more information.

Animal Studies
Animal studies must be reported in accordance with the ARRIVE guidelines (Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) and must include the checklist as supplemental material. A blank form can be downloaded for completion here. An example of a completed checklist can be found at http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/page.asp?id=1357. (The example checklist is based on an original publication by Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC, Emerson M, Altman DG (2010) Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE Guidelines for Reporting Animal Research. PLoS Biol 8(6): e1000412. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000412).

The institutional protocol number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article.

Systematic Reviews
Systematic reviews should be reported in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Guidelines (www.prisma-statement.org/) and must include the checklist (http://www.prisma-statement.org/2.1.2%20-%20PRISMA%202009%20Checklist.pdf) as supplemental material.

Other Study Designs
Other types of study designs should follow the relevant guidance notes for standardized reporting. These can be accessed via the EQUATOR network. http://www.equator-network.org/library/

Structure of Papers
Papers must comply with the word count and figure, table and reference limit listed above.

All papers must include a separate title page documenting: authors' full names, academic and professional affiliations and complete addresses; the name and address of the corresponding author; the word count of the paper and the abstract (if applicable). Professional qualifications are not required to be listed.

Original Papers, Reviews and Short Papers must include an abstract of no longer than 250 words. This should be a structured abstract listing the aim of the study (or review), the methods (or 'data sources' for a review), the results and the conclusion. Commentaries must include a brief abstract of no more than 100 words that summarises the key points.

Papers must be written concisely and conform to the style of Resuscitation. They should be clearly divided into sections: Introduction; Methods; Results; Discussion; Conclusions; Conflicts of Interest; Acknowledgments; References; Legends to figures. For review papers and commentaries use appropriate sub-headings instead of methods, results and discussion.

Language
All papers submitted to the Editor-in-Chief must use 'English' spelling, e.g. haemodynamic, ischaemia, aetiology, oesophagus etc. Use generic names for all drugs. The term 'adrenaline' is preferred to 'epinephrine': for the first use only, 'adrenaline' should be followed by 'epinephrine' in brackets (parentheses). Similar arrangements apply to noradrenaline and norepinephrine.

Resuscitation has an international readership: keep abbreviations to a minimum and confine as much as possible to those in regular use. Too many abbreviations make reading difficult. Abbreviations of units must conform to the International System of Units (SI), for example, kg, g, mg, cm, mm, ml, mg kg-1. Plurals have the same abbreviations as used for the singular. If non-regular abbreviations are used supply a list of these with their definitions as a footnote to page 1. Do not use abbreviations of this type in the abstract.

Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

Supplementary Data (Including Multimedia and Video)
The journal accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files allow the author to submit supporting applications, movies, animation sequences, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more, which will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please ensure that data is provided in one of the recommended file formats (for detailed guidance on formats for supplementary files go to https://www.elsevier.com/artwork).

RESEARCH DATA
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the 'References' section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g. TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data. Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution.

If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data statement page.

AudioSlides
The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

References
Indicate citations by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given. Number the references (numbers in square brackets) on a separate sheet in numerical sequence in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text following the numbered Vancouver style of referencing. Please use the shortened form for the last page number, do not include issue numbers, and list all authors when there are six or less; when there are seven or more, list the first six, followed by 'et al'. Abbreviate the titles of journals according to the style used in Index Medicus. The list of journals can be found at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/terms_cond.html. Avoid using the words 'in press' in references if possible. References cited only in tables or figure legends are numbered in accordance with the sequences established by the first identification in the text of the particular figure or table.

The following are sample references:
Articles in Journals
[1] Ross P, Nolan J, Hill E, Dawson J, Whimster F. The use of AEDs by police officers in the City of London. Resuscitation 2001;50:141-6.
[2] Bernard SA, Gray TW, Buist MD, Jones BM, Silvester W, Gutteridge G, et al. Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia. N Engl J Med 2002;346:557-63.
Books
[3] Armitage P. Statistical methods in medical research. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1971.
Chapters
[4] Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, editors. Hypertension: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995, p. 465-78.
References to electronic publications
[5] Working Group of the Resuscitation Council (UK). Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions. Guidelines for healthcare providers. London, Resuscitation Council (UK), 2008. (Accessed 11 August 2008, at http://www.resus.org.uk/pages/reaction.pdf)
[6] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.

Numbered references to personal communications, unpublished data or manuscripts either 'in preparation' or 'submitted for publication' are unacceptable. If essential, include this material at the appropriate place in the text.

Data References
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

Illustrations
Illustrations must be in a form and condition suitable for reproduction. They should bear the manuscript title and be numbered in Arabic numerals according to the sequence of their appearance in the text, where they should be referred to as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc. Line drawings should be drawn at least twice the size of their final intended appearance. Lettering should be clear and of adequate size to be legible after reduction. The extent of reduction will be determined by the publisher, but in general the same reduction will be applied to all figures in the same paper. Reproduction in colour is subject to approval by the Editor-in-Chief and publisher. The extra costs of print colour reproduction will be charged to the author(s) although colour reproduction online is free of charge. Each illustration must have a legend that is typed with double spacing on a separate page and beginning with the number of the illustration to which they refer. Legends must be provided in an editable file format (such as Word).

Tables
Tables of numerical data are typed (double spaced) on a separate page, numbered in sequence in Arabic numerals (Table 1, 2, etc.) and provided with a heading, a legend, and referred to in the text as Table 1, Table 2, etc. Please provide tables in an editable file format (e.g. Word, Excel).

Statistical Methods
* Use nonparametric methods to compare groups when the distribution of the dependent variable is not normal.
* Use measures of uncertainty (e.g. confidence intervals) consistently.
* Report two-sided P values except when one-sided tests are required by study design (e.g., non-inferiority trials). Report P values larger than 0.01 to two decimal places, those between 0.01 and 0.001 to three decimal places; report P values smaller than 0.001 as P<0.001.

Funding Body Agreements and Policies
Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to enable authors who publish in Elsevier journals to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards from the funding bodies. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit https://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

Open Access
This journal offers authors two choices to publish their research:

1. Open Access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder

2. Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
• No Open Access publication fee

All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY): available only for authors funded by organizations with which Elsevier has established an agreement. For a full list please see http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies

Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies. This ensures authors can comply with funding body Open Access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC-BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies

To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access. Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles. The Open Access publication fee for this journal is 3000 USD, excluding taxes.

Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing

Elsevier Supports Responsible Sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals https://www.elsevier.com/authors/journal-authors/submit-your-paper/sharing-and-promoting-your-article

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Authors' Rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights; for details access: http://www.elsevier.com/authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.

Author Enquiries
The facility to track accepted articles and set up e-mail alerts to inform you when an article's status changes can be found at: http://authors.elsevier.com/TrackPaper.html. There is also information on artwork guidelines, copyright information, and answers to frequently asked questions.

Online Proof Correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proof reading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

All questions relating to proofs should be directed to: Elsevier Ltd, Stover Court, Bampfylde Street, Exeter, Devon, EX1 2AH, UK. e-mail : s.gooding@elsevier.com

Reprints
The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use. Paper offprints can be ordered by the authors. An order form with prices will be sent to the corresponding author.