Ethics in publishing
All papers should be original. Paragraphs or sentences from other papers should be minimized and properly cited. This also applies to previous papers by the same authors. All papers are cross-checked with Elsevier databases. Papers with similarity indices above 15% (excluding references) will likely be rejected. Details can be found in the section of "Ethics in Publishing" (see below), and a fact sheet about plagiarism can be found at: https://www.elsevier.com/editors/perk/plagiarism-complaints.
Legal issuesUpon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
- RSE is an international transdisciplinary journal focused on Innovative methods and applications of remotely sensed data.
- Our philosophy is that authors, reviewers, and editors learn from the editing process. We can and should provide recommendation to authors to improve their papers. Therefore, all comments and suggestions throughout the review process should be respectful and constructive.
- We treat each paper according to its own merits, regardless of country or institution of its authors.
- We are bound by the ethical rules set by the Committee of Publications Ethics (COPE).
- We uphold ourselves to the highest standards of editorial work. As editors we try to provide a fair and objective judgement of the quality of each paper, based on associate editors and reviewers' comments and on our experience.
Remote Sensing of Environment serves the remote sensing community with the publication of results on the theory, science, applications, and technology of remote sensing of Earth Resources and Environment. Thoroughly interdisciplinary, RSE publishes on terrestrial, oceanic and atmospheric sensing. The emphasis is on biophysical and quantitative approaches to remote sensing at local to global scales. Areas of interest include, but are not necessarily restricted to the following:
- Land cover mapping (forest, agriculture, rangeland, wetland, etc.)
- Land cover change detection and time series analysis
- Disturbance (fire, insect, harvest)
- Vegetation species identification and mapping
- Agriculture, crop mapping and yield prediction
- Forest and rangeland productivity and inventories
- Ecological applications (wetland, habitat, animal population, etc.)
- Urban applications (mapping, energy consumption, population, etc.)
- Radiative transfer models for vegetation and soil
- Vegetation structural parameters
- Vegetation physiological traits
- Terrestrial ecosystem productivity and carbon cycles
- Land surface reflectance and temperature (including sensor calibration studies)
- Land surface energy and water balance
- Soil properties (moisture, organic matter, texture, structure, etc.)
- Geological Applications (minerals, landslide, subsidence, geomorphology, earth quake, etc.)
- Hydrology and water resources
- Inland and coastal waters
- Atmospheric science and meteorology
- Oceanography and marine science
- Cryosphere mapping and modeling
- Snow, ice and glaciers
- Surface topography, hydrology and floods
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to an Associate editor or directly handled by the Editors. A minimum of two independent experts are asked to serve as manuscript reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final.The journal discourages repeated cycles of the review process. For this reason, whenever a paper receives major revisions, the authors should solve the main problems raised by the evaluators and assure that no additional major revision is required. If the new version does not satisfy both the reviewers and the Editor handling the manuscript, it will most probably be rejected. Similarly, when a manuscript is rejected, it will not be accepted as a new submission, unless it is explicitly stated in the Editor's decision letter.
Types of ArticlesOriginal Research Articles
Original Research Articles describe important significant new results or methods that will advance the science or application of remote sensing. The main contribution should be the remote sensing component, rather than investigation of an environmental problem in which remote sensing data or techniques do not play a major role. Papers dealing with single study sites are welcome, although the sites should be representative of broad conditions suitable for drawing conclusions of interest to the international audience of this journal. Studies based on ground sensors or field data alone should clearly articulate a pathway to airborne or satellite sensing. All papers should include a consistent and updated literature review, as well as a discussion section where the implications of the main findings are properly presented. A statistically sound accuracy assessment or validation is a requirement of all research papers. A critical requirement of papers is that the results or methods are significant enough to be of broad interest to the research and/or applications communities.
Research articles should be limited to 15,000 words, including references and figure captions. In special cases, a request can be made for longer papers.Review Articles
Review Articles are expected to provide a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art of an important subject, providing a synthesis of previous work beyond literature compilation. They should contribute to understanding of the topic by providing insights and perspectives on the trends, rather than focusing on individual research papers.
Review articles should be limited to 20,000 words, including references and figure captions. In special cases, a request can be made for longer papers.Short Communications
Short Communication papers are intended to publish significant new techniques, data, or results in a timely manner where expansion to a full-length paper may cause delay of their availability to the research or user community.
Short Communications should be limited to 5,000 words, including references and figure captions.Preparation of a manuscript
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files (https://ees.elsevier.com/rse). The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
Language (usage and editing services)
Papers are to be submitted in and will be published in English. Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). To avoid unnecessary errors, you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
All material should be double-spaced, using 2.5 cm margins on all four sides of the page. Do not format the text in columns. Number the pages and include line numbering (use CONTINUOUS numbering - do not restart numbering on each page).
The International System (SI) of units should be used.Paper structure
Your "Manuscript" file should include the full manuscript, including the paper title, author names, author affiliations, corresponding author information, abstract, tables, figures, and references. Place the tables and figures in the text next to the relevant text, however, do not wrap the text around the tables or figures. The table caption should appear ABOVE each table and the figure caption should appear BELOW each figure. Footnotes are discouraged.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes, and should be uploaded under the "Supplementary Data" category. Do not include this material in your "Manuscript" file. Do not include this material in your "Manuscript" file.Flexibility of presentation is allowed, but authors are asked to arrange the subject matter clearly under headings such as Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, etc. Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, …), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
Abstract. Provide a summary of the main objectives and findings of your paper. It is recommended to limit the abstract to 400 words.Graphical abstract. Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.Highlights. Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.
Title page. State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.Essential title page information
- Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
- Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
- Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
- Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Introduction–background. Provide a framework into which your research can be classified. This should include a sound literature review on the topic of your manuscript. The introduction should answer the following questions: Why your research is important? What has been done before? How do you plan to improve current knowledge? What are your main objectives?Methods. Describe methods used to obtain your objectives. Keep in mind that any scientific manuscript should describe a particular research in such a way that it can be reproducible by other authors.
Discussion. You should present the implications and analysis of your results and the way the impact on the current state of knowledge. Keep in mind the international audience of RSE.Description of author's responsibilities. A paragraph describing the tasks developed by each contributing author may be included. They should provide a brief recognition of the main responsibilities of each author.
Formatting of funding sources. List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.References
In text citation. References should be cited in the text by the name(s) of the author(s), followed by the year of publication in parentheses, e.g., Baret and Guyot (1991). When the same author and year are cited again, these references should have the year followed by (a), (b), etc. Avoid citing the references by numbers. Use the following formats:
- Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
- Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
- Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.
Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown …'Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication and a copy of the title page of the relevant article must be submitted.
Reference style. List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', as it is done in the main text, placed after the year of publication.Examples:
Reference to a journal publication:
Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2010. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51–59.
Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 2000. The Elements of Style, fourth ed. Longman, New York.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.Web references. Cancer Research UK, 1975. Cancer statistics reports for the UK. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/ (accessed 13 March 2003).As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
Data references. This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.[dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T., 2015. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.Reference management software. Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Figure, tables and equations
All equations, tables, and figure legends should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper using the numbering system 1, 2, 3, etc. Ensure that all tables and figures are included in the text, nearby where they are quoted. They should have a caption that comprises a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
- Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
- Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
- Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
- Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
- Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
- For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
- Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
Formats. Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
- Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
- Supply files that are too low in resolution.
- Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Color artwork. Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.Video
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. . In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
Research data. This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.
Data linking. If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.
In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).Mendeley Data. This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data. Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.
Data in Brief. You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple data articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes your data. Data articles ensure that your data is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication. You are encouraged to submit your article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the open access data journal, Data in Brief. Please note an open access fee of 500 USD is payable for publication in Data in Brief. Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website. Please use this template to write your Data in Brief.MethodsX. You have the option of converting relevant protocols and methods into one or multiple MethodsX articles, a new kind of article that describes the details of customized research methods. Many researchers spend a significant amount of time on developing methods to fit their specific needs or setting, but often without getting credit for this part of their work. MethodsX, an open access journal, now publishes this information in order to make it searchable, peer reviewed, citable and reproducible. Authors are encouraged to submit their MethodsX article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your methods article will automatically be transferred over to MethodsX, where it will be editorially reviewed. Please note an open access fee is payable for publication in MethodsX. Full details can be found on the MethodsX website. Please use this template to prepare your MethodsX article.
Data statement. To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.Data visualization. Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
- Assure that permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
- Relevant declarations of interest have been made
- Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
- Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
Revised submissionsRevised submissions should include:
- a document summarizing the changes made and a detailed response to all reviewer and editor comments;
- a "Revised Manuscript with Changes Highlighted";
- a "Revised Manuscript with NO Changes Highlighted"; and
- your high resolution figure files in one of the recommended formats (eps, tiff, jpeg, and high quality pdf). THIS IS IN ADDITION to the version of your figures with the caption below each figure in your "Manuscript" file. Do not include the figure number and caption on the high resolution figure files. Label each figure in the DESCRIPTION box on the upload screen as "Figure 1, Figure 2, etc." Include a "LIST OF FIGURE CAPTIONS" after the References in your Manuscript file.
The authors are strongly recommended to follow the deadlines for submitting new versions of their papers: 90 days for major revisions and 30 days for minor revisions. In case, an extraordinary situation occurs, they should contact the Editor handling their manuscript to apply for an extension.Online proof correction
A few days after the paper is finally accepted, corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.Open access
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:Gold open access
- Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
- A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution. The gold open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3800, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
- For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
- Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY). Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
- Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND). For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
- Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
- No open access publication fee payable by authors.
- The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or Academia.edu, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
Other issuesDeclaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and/or personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.