Guide for Authors

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• Types of article
• Contact details for submission
• Submission checklist
• Ethics in publishing
• Declaration of interest
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Use of inclusive language
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Author charges
• Submission
• Writing style
• To start
• Language (editing services)
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• On the Ground
• Keywords
• Subdivision - unnumbered sections
• Acknowledgments
• Funding sources
• Appendices
• Footnotes
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video
• Supplementary material
• Research data
• Manuscript review
• Manuscript revision
• Manuscript decisions
• Proofs
• Offprints

Audience and Content
The audience for Rangelands is broader than most scientific research journals— encompassing ranchers and range management professionals, policy makers, students, academics and government researchers. Submissions for publication are generally less technical in nature than research-focused journals and germane to the broad field of range science and management. We encourage authors to use the active voice and compelling visual representations of their work to communicate the rangeland management relevance of their work, and to avoid jargon and excessive technical details about methods and results. Readers of Rangelands are interested in the "so what?" of your work. Technical details of methods can be published in (and linked to Rangelands articles) outlets such as MethodsX. We welcome submissions that describe management implications of technical research published elsewhere provided the submission constitutes a new contribution into its application. All Rangelands articles should be supported by evidence and the best knowledge of our field-they should be factual and logical, and opinions and experiences presented as such.

Types of article

Rangelands provides a forum for the presentation and discussion of facts, ideas, and philosophies pertaining to the state of rangeland science (quantitative and qualitative), art, management, technology, policy, economics, education (formal and informal), society, and culture.

We welcome submissions of the following types:

  • Research Papers (3,000 to 8,000 words) report findings from qualitative and quantitative research in a variety of rangeland disciplines.
  • Research Notes (3,000 words maximum) are short papers reporting research results of immediate interest. Notes are intended to foster communication on emerging research topics and concepts.
  • Technical Notes (3,000 words maximum) are short papers reporting new techniques and technologies, including those that are conceptual and qualitative.
  • Forums (3,000 to 6,000 words) are conceptual in nature and provide an informative summary of contemporary topics, synthesis of research from multiple disciplines or sources, or alternative views of contentious issues. These can focus on a variety of topics including management, policy, education, society, and culture.
  • Viewpoints may outline innovative theories, discuss old ideas that deserve to be revisited in light of new information, or provide interesting commentaries on a “hot topic.”
  • Letter to the Editors (1,500 words maximum) provide an opportunity for readers to comment on any topic of interest or concern to the SRM community. Letters to the Editor receive only editorial review, and the editor reserves the right to reject any letter unsuitable for publication or to edit the text to conform to style and available space.
  • Comments and Responses (2,000 words maximum) are short clarifications of, rebuttals to, or comments on articles published in Rangelands and a response by the original article's authors. Comments and responses are peer-reviewed for technical accuracy and merit but with the goal of publishing them as rapidly as possible. An 'On the Ground' section is not required for this article type
  • Research and Partnership Highlights (2,000 words maximum) describe emerging, high-impact research projects, management activities, or collaborative efforts of interest to the Rangelands audience. Highlights are reviewed for technical accuracy and are accepted at the discretion of the editor based on their relevance to Rangelands readers.
  • Columns are invited, regularly published pieces by select authors on a variety of topics.
  • Historical Reviews are invited submissions and provide a retrospective look at rangeland science, management, policy, education, and culture.

Contact details for submission

Questions or concerns regarding Rangelands submissions should be sent to:

Eva Levi, Ph.D.
Managing Editor, Rangelands

Jason Karl, Ph.D.
Editor-in-Chief, Rangelands
Associate Professor & Heady Endowed Chair of Rangeland Ecology
Department of Forestry, Rangeland, and Fire Sciences
University of Idaho
Moscow, ID

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

• One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details: e-mail address, full postal address
• Declarations of interest have been disclosed (title page)
• Keywords (title page)
• Acknowledgement of funding sources (Acknowledgments section)
• For all article types other than Comments and Responses, On the Ground section (included on separate page at end of manuscript - no Abstract necessary)

Ensure that the following items have been addressed prior to submission:

• Include keywords, complete author contact info, and funding sources
• All figures (include relevant captions in separate file)
• All tables (include titles, description, footnotes in separate file)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Check image resolution on all figures (see Guide for minimum resolutions) - color images are free
• Make sure manuscript meets guidelines on word limit and number of citations
Revisions: include point-by-point response/rebuttal to reviewer comments (in separate file)

Further considerations
• Provide reviewer suggestions and contact details (minimum of 2)
• Manuscript has been checked for spelling and grammar
• Use of proper format for citation style in text (superscript in order of appearance)
• All references mentioned in the References are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources
• Provide image credit where needed (e.g., a screenshot of a Google Earth image)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• All journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should complete the declaration of interest statement using this template and upload to the submission system at the Attach/Upload Files step. If there are no interests to declare, please choose: 'Declarations of interest: none' in the template. This statement will be published within the article if accepted. More information.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work (i.e., conflicts of interest). Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Declarations of interest help the journal editors maintain objectivity in the review and publication of submissions and protect the reputation of the journal. Competing interests do not preclude publication but may initiate alternative review or decision processes. Discovery of undisclosed conflicts of interest (also called competing interests) prior to publication is grounds for immediate rejection of a submission. Discovery of undisclosed competing interests after publication may result in a corrigendum being published for the article. If a post-publication undisclosed conflict is deemed to have compromised the quality of the research or the publication process, the article may be retracted.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Use of inclusive language

"The Society for Range Management (SRM) is a diverse body of members, employees, and representatives that are dedicated to leading the stewardship of rangelands based on sound ecological principles. These principles have led us to understand that humankind originated in rangelands, thus resulting in the present-day global diversity of peoples, languages, cultures, and natural resource management and socio-economic systems. SRM welcomes, encourages, affirms, and values the participation and inclusion of all individuals with an interest in rangelands regardless of race, color, religion, gender, age, sexual orientation, national origin, culture, educational status, disabilities, emerging ideas and perspectives, or socio-economic status. We vigorously strive to eliminate implicit bias and reject discrimination and stereotyping within the society by proactively fostering tolerance, mutual respect, and multicultural awareness and competency by actively promoting inclusion in membership, education and training, competition, leadership, committees, staff, and all other areas of SRM activity."
- Society for Range Management Diversity Statement

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page from the Journal Homepage for more information.

Author charges


Author charges vary according to the publishing access option:

The Society depends on the payment of page charges to offset the cost of publication. Payment of USD 100.00/printed page is required for members and non-members (excluding relevant taxes where applicable). Members receive a discount of USD 20.00/printed page for the first three pages. No open access publication fee applies.

Open access
An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder. The gold open access publication fees for this journal are:

Research Papers, Forums, and Viewpoints articles: USD 1500 for non-society members; USD 1350 for society members (excluding relevant taxes where applicable).
Research Notes, Technical Notes, Comments and Replies, and Research and Partnership Highlights articles: USD 500 for non-society members; USD 400 for society members (excluding relevant taxes where applicable).

Authors who opt for open access do not pay regular page charges.

Page charge waivers
The Society for Range Management will consider applications for waiving or subsidizing page charges for US and international authors who make requests for assistance in payment of page charges after review, revision, and acceptance of a manuscript in Rangelands. Applications for assistance will be evaluated by a committee for quality of the paper as indicated by peer reviewers/editors, a statement of need by the author, diversity/early career contributors, and/or representation of geographic areas that are under-represented in the rangeland literature. If the request for assistance passes initial screening, the evaluation committee will request additional information from the authors prior to further review and a final decision. Authors requesting assistance may not have received any past financial assistance from the Society regarding publication fees. The number of papers selected for assistance with pages charges will be limited to 4 or fewer per calendar year, with one selected each quarter. Initial communications regarding page charge assistance should be sent to the editorial staff of the journal; however, the final decision lays with the SRM evaluation committee, not the journal editors.

This journal has an embargo period of 24 months.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Writing style

Manuscripts for Rangelands should be written accurately, clearly, and concisely. Articles can convey technical information but should be written in a non-technical style. The writing style for Rangelands articles is not the writing style used in scientific journals like Rangeland Ecology & Management (REM). Submission of a manuscript to Rangelands in REM format could result in rejection or request for major revision of the manuscript, at the editor's discretion.

The language used in Rangelands should be clear and accessible throughout, especially when tackling the more complex aspects of a subject. Below are some guidelines for writing articles for Rangelands:

  • Use the active instead of the passive voice, and shorter sentences rather than longer ones.
  • Ask yourself if your piece will be interesting and clearly understandable to readers from other specialties.
  • Pick commonly used words rather than complex technical terms.
  • Write concisely, avoiding filler (e.g., “The fact that” and “In order to”).
  • Briefly and clearly explain technical concepts and terms as soon as they arise.
  • Break the text up into paragraphs of no more than a few hundred words, and add short, imaginative subsection headings whenever the subject changes, or simply to avoid overlong blocks of text.
  • Give the scientific name (genus and species, in parentheses and italics) of a species the first time it is used, in addition to its common name, which should then be used throughout the text.
  • Spell out all acronyms unfamiliar to the general reader (including those not in the USA) at first mention, putting the acronym in parentheses and using it from then on.
  • Include specific details such as names, places, and numbers when appropriate and permissible.

To start

For many people, writing concisely in a non-technical format is not easy. One of the most important items to remember is "who is going to read the article?" Most readers of Rangelands read it at their leisure and want to be able to assimilate the information of an article in a single reading. Here are some methods to start the writing process and keep articles interesting and easy to understand: Look for unique ways to structure your article rather than the standard scientific paper approach. Start by thinking about how you would tell the story/information if you were telling it to a friend. Use "hooks" to keep people engaged in what you want them to take away. Ask yourself the following questions: What is my story about? The one thing I want my reader to know/feel/do is… (fill in the blank). What message are you trying to present to your target audience? Once you've answered that question, you've got your "purpose" for the story. This is the most important information you should focus on conveying to the reader. Once you have written your article, re-read your last paragraph and consider it for your first (often it is in this paragraph where authors who are used to ending with a conclusion get to the point). Read your article out loud; if you stumble on something, go back and re-work it.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Language (editing services)

Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Article structure

Length of manuscripts for Rangelands varies by submission type (see above). Citations should be kept to a minimal amount (typically less than 30 per manuscript) unless a literature review is being presented or other arrangements have been made with the editor. Manuscripts should be in English and use American spelling (e.g., behavior, recognize, gray, color). Because of Rangelands' diverse audience, authors should minimize jargon. Writing style must be crisp, concise, and accessible, and should avoid or explain all terminology that might be unfamiliar to a multidisciplinary readership. Articles in Rangelands are read worldwide, and measurements should be given in SI (i.e., metric) and American standard units. Articles will be peer reviewed and should be supported by evidence and the body of knowledge of the field. Opinions and experiences not supported by previously published research or evidence presented must be clearly contextualized as opinions or experiences.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, including post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually completed the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Declaration of interest. Declare any potential conflicting or competing interests that may relate to the review or publication of the manuscript (see above).

On the Ground

Each article, exlcuding Comments and Responses, is introduced by an "On the Ground" summary that presents bullets highlighting the "so what" of the article and key words for the article. "On the Ground" takes the place of an abstract as a quick summary of how the information presented in the article is useful for readers. Please include the On the Ground bullets as a separate page at the end of your manuscript. An On the Ground summary is not needed for Comments and Responses.


Immediately after the On the Ground points, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Subdivision - unnumbered sections

Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.). Funding sources may also be included in this section.

Funding sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly, for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Artwork includes all figures, graphs, illustrations, maps, photographs and other non-text parts of an article. A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on Elsevier's website: You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

General points
Color graphs, illustrations, and photographs are free of charge to the authors in Rangelands.
• Format artwork to occupy the full width of a page. Rangelands layout style does not flow text around artwork.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.

Formats and Image Resolution
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel), please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content. The Editor has the authority to reject a visual that does not have a professional appearance and/or will not be suitable when published.

Cover photographs
Authors who have photographs of rangelands that are particularly attractive or interesting may suggest these be used on the cover of the issue of Rangelands in which the paper will appear. Submit possible cover images to the Editor. Figures and cover images should be CMYK and at the highest possible quality (300 dpi at 8½ × 11 in. print size, 2550 × 3300 pixels). Authors may be contacted for better files if those submitted are unacceptable. Provide all relevant text for the image caption (image subject, location, photo credit). Example image caption: Cattle grazing on rangelands in southern Cochise County, Arizona, USA. Photo credit: John Smith.

Illustration services
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Provide an informative, but brief, caption for each table. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.


CItation in text
References in Rangelands articles should be identified by superscript number in the text in order of appearance and then a list of citations for these references included at the end of the text in order of appearance. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the On the Ground points must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Example citations:
Other management decisions (e.g., timing of use, stocking density) can affect shrub use as well.5

Smith et al.7 and Jones et al.3 produced additional guidelines for use of these data as a basis for management decisions.

Smith12 compared a number of methods and discussed the significant differences in yield found among those most commonly used.

These results suggest that our treatment will increase production,4, 17 except during drought years8 or when implemented outside of the normal growing season.18, 19

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference style
Below are some example formats for citing various types of literature:

Journal article:
Cagney, J., S. Cox, and D. Booth. 2011. Comparison of point intercept and image analysis for monitoring rangeland transects. Rangeland Ecology and Management 64:309-315.

Berger, J. and C. Cunningham. 1994. Bison: mating and conservation in small populations. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press. 330 p.

Chapter in an edited book:
Karl, J.W., J.E. Herrick, and D.A. Pyke. 2017. Monitoring protocols: Options, approaches, implementation, benefits. In: Briske, D.D., editor. Rangeland Systems: Processes, management and challenges. Cham (Switzerland): Springer International Publishing. p. 527-567.

NRCS. National Resource Conservation Service Field Office Technical Guide. Accessed (date).

Extension publication:
Smith, L., G. Ruyle, J. Maynard, S. Barker, W. Meyer, D. Stewart, B. Coulloudon, S. Williams, and J. Dyess. 2007. Principles of obtaining and interpreting utilization data on southwest rangelands. University of Arizona Extension Publication AZ1375.

Agency technical reference:
Coulloudon, B., K. Eshelman, J. Gianola, N. Habich, L. Hughes, C. Johnson, M. Pellant, P. Podborny, A. Rasmussen, and B. Robles. 1999. Sampling vegetation attributes: interagency technical reference. Technical Reference 1734-4, USDI Bureau of Land Management. Second Revision. Denver, CO, USA: National Applied Resource Sciences Center. 163 pp.

Herrick, J. E., J. W. van Zee, K. M. Havstad, L. M. Burkett, and W. G. Whitford. 2009. Monitoring Manual for Grassland, Shrubland and Savanna Ecosystems, Vol I. USDA-ARS Jornada Experimental Range, Las Cruces, New Mexico: Distributed by University of Arizona Press


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