Guide for Authors

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Prostate International(Prostate Int, PI), the official English-language journal of Asian Pacific Prostate Society (APPS)and Korean Prostate Society (KPS)is an international peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated to basic and clinical studies on prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, and other prostatic diseases. It is published four times per year, March 30, June 30, September 30, and December 30. Its formal abbreviation is Prostate Int. Original articles and topical reviews on various prostate-related conditions and problems are published in Prostate International, covering the state-of-the-art contents. Analysis articles, Technical reports, and invited/commissioned meeting reports are also published in Prostate International. Prostate International represents the only academic journal devoted to various prostatic diseases in Asian Pacific region. The incidence, characteristics, and management of various diseases may vary according to region and race. Prostate International brings solid coverage of prostatic diseases in Asian Pacific men. Prostate International also serves as a medium for cooperation amongst urologists and specialists from around the world focusing on various aforementioned prostatic conditions. All or part of Prostate International is indexed/tracked/covered by DOI/Crossref, Google Scholar, ScienceCentral,ScienceDirect,PubMed and Scopus.

Types of paper

1. Review article
Review articles shall be limited to an invited review article, which, by the Editorial Board, was selected as a significant theme from areas relevant to prostate disease field and whose authors were selected and referred on the basis of articles published in this or other journals. The submitted manuscript should be decided to be published via reviewing of the Editorial Board. The length of the manuscript should not exceed 3,500 words except for the cover, tables, figures, and references. The works in the references should not exceed 100.

2.Original article
The manuscript for original articles should be organized in the following order: 1) title page, 2) abstract and keywords, 3) introduction, 4) materials (or subjects) and methods, 5) results, 6) discussion, 7) conflict of interest, 8) acknowledgments (if necessary), 9) references, 10) tables, 11) figures and photos, and 12) legends. The manuscript should be provided in MS Word file (doc, docx), double spaced on 212×297 mm (A4 size) with 2.5 cm margins at the top, bottom, and left margin. The length of the manuscript should not exceed 3,000 words except for the cover, tables, figures, and references. No more than 35 references can be cited. All manuscript pages are to be numbered consecutively, beginning with the abstract as page 1. Neither the authors’ names nor their affiliations should appear on the manuscript pages. The use of acronyms and abbreviations is discouraged and should be kept to a minimum. When used, they are to be defined where first used, followed by the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses. Abbreviations are not allowed in the title. The names and locations (city, state, and nation) of manufacturers of equipment and nongeneric drugs should be given. When quoting from other sources, give a reference number in bracket after the author’s name or at the end of the quotation.

Contact details for submission

Manuscripts for Prostate International may be submitted using online For editorial questions, please contact us via e-mail, telephone +82-2-2258-7638, or fax +82-2-537-8233,telephone +82-2-2258-7638, or fax +82-2-537-8233.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Human and animal rights

For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at:

Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified (see relevant section below).

Articles covering the use of human samples in research and human experiments must be approved by the relevant review committee (see relevant section below).

Articles covering the use of animals in experiments must be approved by the relevant authorities.

Conflict of Interest

The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. Conflict of interest statements will be published at the end of the text of the article, before the 'References' section. Please consult the COPE guidelines ( on conflict of interest. Even when there is no conflict of interest, it should also be stated.

Submission declaration

Redundant (or duplicate) publication is publication of a paper that overlaps substantially with one already published in print or electronic media. Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium. For more information, please refer to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication' (Available at:

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

Clinical trial results

Clinical trials are recommended to register a primary national clinical trial registration site such as,, or other sites accredited by WHO or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.


Published manuscripts become the permanent property of Asian Pacific Prostate Society and must not be published elsewhere without written permission. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from Asian Pacific Prostate Society . A copyright transfer form should be downloaded in the submission site and submitted to the editorial office by fax or e-mail containing a scanned copyright transfer form on acceptance.

Where material has been reproduced from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to use the copyrighted sources must be supplied.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language services

Articles should be written in English (using American English spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear, concise and grammatically correct, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data. For non-native English-speaking authors, we suggest that manuscripts be checked and edited by a native English speaker.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Peer review

This journal operates a double anonymized review process. All contributions are typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

Double anonymized review

This journal uses double anonymized review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

Use of Word Processing Software

•Articles should be prepared in the simplest form possible and submitted in Microsoft Word (*.doc or *.docx).

Manuscripts must be typed in English, double-spaced and 10 or 12-point type. And all pages must be numbered consecutively starting from the title page.

•You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes.

•Put text, references, tables, and legends in one file, with each table on a new page.

Article Structure

The text for Original Articles, for example, should include the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. The Introduction should be as concise as possible, without subheadings. The Methods section should be sufficiently detailed. Subheadings may be used to organize the Results and Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page.

The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.

Material and methods
The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patient samples or animal specimens used, with inclusion and exclusion criteria, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.

The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented with tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in the tables and/or figures.

The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

Essential Title Page Information

The title page should include: category of paper, article title, names (spelled out in full) of all authors, academic degrees, the institutions with which they are affiliated (only 1 affiliation per author is permitted); indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase number after the author's name and in front of the appropriate affiliation, short running title not exceeding 30 characters, separate word count for abstract and text, and the corresponding author details (name, address, phone and fax, e-mail information).

An abstract is required for the following article categories: Review Article, Original Article.

Abstracts should be no more than 300 words in length.Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for Review Articles are unstructured in one single paragraph.

Keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Article, Original Article, and Case Report. For selecting keywords, refer to the Index Medicus Medical Subject Headings (National Library of Medicine (US). MeSH [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 1954 [updated 2009, cited 2009 Nov 1]. Available from:

Where a term/definition is continually referred to (i.e. 3 times or more in the text), it is written in full when it first appears, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract); thereafter, the abbreviation is used.

General acknowledgments for consultations, statistical analysis, etc., should be listed after main body of text, before the references, including the names of the individuals involved. All financial and material support for the research and the work should be stated here clearly explicitly.

(Nomenclature and )Units
UnitsCurrent standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. Genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee ( or refer to PubMed (

Electronic artwork General points

•Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.

• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.

• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.

• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.

• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.

• Provide captions to illustrations separately.

• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.

• Submit each illustration as a separate file.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:

You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.


If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.

Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.

TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.

TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.

TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

Please do not:

• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;

• Supply files that are too low in resolution;

• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Figures must be in numerical order using Arabic numerals in the order of their citation in the text. Figures should be uploaded as separate files, not embedded in the manuscript file.

Color Artwork
Please note that the cost of color illustrations will be charged to the author.

Illustration services
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure Captions
Figure legends should be submitted for all figures and should be brief and specific and placed on a separate sheet after the reference section


Tables are numbered consecutively, in the order of their citation in the text. Table legend example:Table 1 Demographic characteristics of patients [note: "Table 1" in bold font with no end period; no end period after legend]. Shortening of some words inside table (NOT in table legend): year(s) → yr; month(s) → mo; day(s) → d; hour(s) → hr; minute(s) → min; second(s) → sec; and → &. Use en dashes for empty entries. Footnotes are indicated using superscript alphabets with bracket(in order of appearance): a), b), c)... Abbreviations used in the table, even when already defined in the text, should be defined and placed after the footnotes and presented like in this example: CT, computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging. [note: the use of "," with a space on either side, semi-colon to separate, and a period after the last].


Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation.

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference Style
References should include, in order, authors' surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 6 authors only followed by "et al". Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE. Journal titles in references should be set in Italics.


Journal article:

1. Kim WT, Kim WJ. MicroRNAs in prostate cancer. Prostate Int 2013;1:3-9. 2. Lu-Yao GL, Albertsen PC, Li H, Moore DF, Shih W, Lin Y, et al. Does primary androgen-deprivation therapy delay the receipt of secondary cancer therapy for localized prostate

cancer? Eur Urol 2012;62:966-72.

2.Oguro, M, Imahiro, S, Saito, S, Nakashizuka, T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.


Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, Partin AW, Peters CA, editors. Campbell-Walsh urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2007.

Book chapter:

Klein Ea, Platz EA, Thompson IM, Epidemiology, etiology, and prevention of prostate cancer. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, Partin AW, Peters CA, editors. Campbell-Walsh urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2007. p. 2854-73.


International Committee of Medical Journal Editor. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: writing and editing for biomedical publication [Internet]. Philadelphia: International Committee of Medical Journal Editor, c2009 [cited 2013 Jan 1]. Available from:

Supplementary data: Prostate International accepts electronic supplementary material such as high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips, video material, animation sequences and more to support and enhance your scientific research and to evade the limit of manuscript length. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at Authors should submit the material as an e-component in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file.

Video, animation and audio - Preferred specifications:

To ensure that the majority of potential users are able to access, view and playback the data, Elsevier recommends the submission of material in the specified 'preferred' formats.


Format : MP3
Extension :.mp3
Details :

  1. MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 format required
  2. Highest possible quality required

If submitting audio, the following specifications are a guideline for authors/contributors
•Audio Bit rate: at least 128 kbps


Format Extension Details
MPG .mpg •MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 format required
•Highest possible quality required
MP4 .mp4 •Acceptable video format
•Highest possible quality required
Apple QuickTime .mov • Acceptable video format
•Highest possible quality required
Microsoft Audio/Video Interlaced format .avi •Acceptable video format
•Highest possible quality required
Compuserve GIF .gif •Expected to be non photographic animation based data

If submitting video, the following specifications are a guideline for authors/contributors
  • Frame rate: 15 frames per second minimum
  • NTSC (4:3) size and frame rate, de-interlaced
  • Video Codec: MPEG2 or MPEG4 (MPEG4 preferred)
  • Video Bit rate: at least 260 kbps (750 kbps preferred)
  • Resolution: 492x276 recommended
  • Time: no more than 5 minutes

If the software used for the creation of your video(s)/animation(s) cannot deliver one of the above formats, then please save them in one of the accepted formats. Any alternative format supplied may be subject to conversion (if technically possible) prior to online publication

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Submission Checklist
A cover letter. It must include your name, address, telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address, and state that all authors have contributed to the paper and have never submitted the manuscript, in whole or in part, to other journals A conflict of interest disclosure statement (see relevant section below).

Articles covering the use of human samples in research and human experiments must be approved by the relevant review committee (see relevant section below).

Articles covering the use of animals in experiments must be approved by the relevant authorities.

Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified (see relevant section below).

Clinical trials are recommended to register a primary national clinical trial registration site such as,, or other sites accredited by WHO or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

Where material has been reproduced from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to use the copyrighted sources must be supplied.

Online proof correction

To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will be notified and receive a link to the published version of the open access article on ScienceDirect. This link is in the form of an article DOI link which can be shared via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services.

Author Inquiries

For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission) please visit this journal’s homepage. For detailed instructions on the preparation of electronic artwork, please visit Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher. You can track accepted articles at You can also check our Author FAQs at and/or visit opur Support Center at