Guide for Authors

Author information pack

• How to Submit
• Article Types
Basic Original Report
Teaching Case
Technical Report
Critical Review
Short Communications
• Ethics in Publishing
• Human and Animal Rights
• Studies Involving Biomarkers
• Guidelines for Reporting Preclinical Research
• Conflict of Interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Use of inclusive language
• Contributors
• Authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the Funding Source
• Open Access
• Informed Consent and Patient Details
• Submission
• Double-Blind Review
• Files for Submission
• Article Structure
• Editorial Decisions
• Use of Word Processing Software
• Footnotes
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video
• Proofs
• Offprints

Practical Radiation Oncology (PRO) is a peer-reviewed journal whose purpose is to document the state of radiation oncology practice. PRO publishes original clinical research related to the practice of radiation oncology and related disciplines. Concise manuscripts that focus on imaging, contouring, target delineation, simulation, treatment planning, immobilization, organ motion, patient safety, quality measurement, and other practical issues are of particular interest. PRO intends to provide its readers with content that emphasizes knowledge "with a purpose."

W. Robert Lee, M.D., M.S., M.Ed. serves as the journal's Editor-in-Chief. He can be contacted at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3085, Durham, NC 27710. Phone: (919) 668-5640; fax: (919) 668-7345; e-mail:

PRO can be accessed online at

How to Submit

Authors must register with the PRO electronic manuscript system. Those who have previously reviewed or submitted a manuscript for PRO may already be registered. Once the submission files are uploaded, the system automatically generates an electronic PDF proof used for reviewing. All correspondence, including editor decisions and requests for revisions, is conducted by e-mail through EES or

Article Types

Basic Original Report

Manuscript ≤ 4000 words, figures ≤ 8 references ≤ 50, authors ≤ 20
Required Elements:

  • Cover letter (preferred)
  • Title page
  • Abstract (≤ 300 words)
  • Blinded Manuscript
  • References
  • Figure Legends
  • Uniform disclosure forms

Original Reports are the primary mode of scientific communication in PRO. Authors are encouraged to review the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" prior to submission. The Editor-in-Chief and a Senior Editor review all Original Reports. All submitted manuscripts are reviewed by external peer reviewers, and when required, a biostatistician. Comments offered by external reviewers are returned to the author(s) for consideration. Authors should focus on accuracy, brevity, and clarity in their presentation and avoid lengthy introductions, repetition of data from tables and figures in the text, and unfocused discussions. Authors should include extended patient demographic data in a table, not within the text. Teaching Case

Manuscript ≤ 1500 words, figures ≤ 8 references ≤ 50

Required Elements:

  • Cover letter (preferred)
  • Title page
  • Abstract (≤ 300 words)
  • Blinded Manuscript
  • References
  • Figure Legends
  • Uniform disclosure forms

PRO invites case reports with high-resolution images, preferably in color (additional charges may be necessary), including X rays or scans of characteristic or classic conditions relevant to radiation oncology, for consideration in the Teaching Case section. All identifying information of patients, such as names, dates of birth, dates of service, or patient identification codes must be removed. If the case report or the image includes individually identifiable health information, authors must comply with the applicable privacy laws and obtain a HIPAA-compliant patient authorization form. Technical Report

Manuscript ≤ 1500 words, figures ≤ 8 references ≤ 50

Required Elements:

  • Cover letter (preferred)
  • Title page
  • Abstract (≤ 300 words)
  • Blinded Manuscript
  • References
  • Figure Legends
  • Uniform disclosure forms

PRO invites technical reports, which are brief 2- to 3-page descriptions of new developments, devices, or procedures. Technical Reports are concerned with innovations that might enhance practice or address specific challenges in radiation oncology. Critical Review

Manuscript ≤ 4500 words, figures ≤ 8, references ≤ 50

Required Elements:

  • Cover letter (preferred)
  • Title page
  • Abstract ≤ 300 words
  • Blinded Manuscript
  • References
  • Figure Legends
  • Uniform disclosure forms

The Editor-in-Chief typically solicits Critical Reviews, but authors may submit an unsolicited review for consideration. The manuscript must present significant new information to justify publication. Critical Reviews will be reviewed in the same manner as Original Reports. Short Communications


Manuscript ≤ 1500 words, references ≤ 10

Required Elements:

  • Title page
  • Manuscript
  • References
  • Uniform disclosure forms

The Editor-in-Chief may solicit an Editorial to accompany an accepted manuscript. Authors may submit editorials that are unrelated to a specific article or related to important research published in another journal.


Manuscript ≤ 400 words, references ≤ 10

Required Elements:

  • Title page
  • Manuscript
  • References
  • Uniform disclosure forms

Authors may respond to a published article or express an opinion in a short, freestanding piece. If the Correspondence refers to a published article, the Editor-in-Chief may choose to invite a reply. Correspondence is reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief for possible inclusion in the journal. Letters and replies must be submitted electronically using EES. Miscellaneous

Special Articles

Required Elements:

  • Title page
  • Abstract (≤ 300 words)
  • Blinded Manuscript
  • References
  • Figure Legends
  • Uniform disclosure forms

Special Articles are manuscripts whose content and style do not fall under the categories of Original Reports or Critical Reviews. These may include but are not limited to guidelines, summaries of consensus meetings, and other scholarly communications.

Interesting Images

Manuscript ≤ 400 words
Required Elements:

  • Title page
  • Manuscript
  • Image
  • Uniform disclosure forms

PRO invites interesting high-resolution images, preferably in color, including X rays or scans of characteristic or classic conditions relevant to radiation oncology. Exceptional images may be considered for the cover of the journal.

All identifying information of patients, such as names, dates of birth, dates of service, or patient identification codes must be removed.

If the image includes individually identifiable health information, authors must comply with the applicable privacy laws and obtain a HIPAA-compliant patient authorization form.

Narrative Oncology
Manuscript ≤ 1500 words, figures ≤ 8 references ≤ 50 Required Elements:

  • Title page
  • Manuscript
  • Image
  • Uniform disclosure forms

PRO invites Narrative Oncology commentaries that describe the unique challenges in the radiation oncology profession throughout the world. These commentaries are generally invited but we also welcome unsolicited articles of this type.

Ethics in Publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

PRO maintains a zero-tolerance policy when addressing allegations of plagiarism, duplicate publication (self-publication), data falsification, and scientific misconduct. Articles will be retracted if ethics violations are substantiated. Plagiarism is defined by the World Association for Medical Editors (WAME) as the "use of others' published and unpublished ideas or words (or other intellectual property) without attribution or permission, and presenting them as new and original rather than derived from an existing source." PRO participates in the CrossCheck/iThenticate program to investigate incidents of possible plagiarism.

Human and Animal Rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986, and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publication No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

Studies Involving Biomarkers

PRO requires that authors reporting on biomarker studies must adhere to REMARK criteria as listed in their guidelines. Reports that are predictive of therapeutic outcome or the natural history of disease are desired. Highest priority will be given to articles that are likely to have direct clinical applications and are definitive based on size of cohort, methodological approach, statistical analysis, multivariate analysis, reproducibility, and patient follow-up. Biomarker studies of interest to PRO include or are based on and accompanied by supporting mechanistic biological data; if prospective, are definitive in size and statistical power; if retrospective, include a validation study; are predictive and estimate response or survival in advance of therapy and have potential application in clinical practice; contain thorough specimen collection data (see REMARK), assay validation, and statistical rigor; and describe a unique cohort with results that directly impact clinical practice. (For rare cancer types, it is recognized that small cohorts will be analyzed.) Reference link:

Guidelines for Reporting Preclinical Research

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) held a workshop in June 2014 with the Nature Publishing Group and Science on the issue of reproducibility and rigor of research findings with journal editors representing over 30 basic/preclinical science journals in which NIH-funded investigators have most often published. The workshop focused on identifying the common opportunities in the scientific publishing arena to enhance rigor and further support research that is reproducible, robust, and transparent. The journal editors came to consensus on a set of principles to facilitate these goals. The PRO editorial board have chosen to uphold the high standards for preclinical research reporting established by the workshop, and we attach the summarized recommendations here. Please pay particular attention to these before submission.

Conflict of Interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal, or other relationships with other people or organizations within 3 years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: PRO adheres to the policy on conflict of interest promulgated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which states, in part, that "to prevent ambiguity, authors must state explicitly whether potential conflicts do or do not exist." (See Conflict of Interest Notification.) All authors are required to include an ICMJE form with submission, available for free download at Authors also must state their disclosures on the title page of the manuscript. If there are not disclosures, authors must say, "Conflict of interest: none."

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').


Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to Authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal, or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Registration of Clinical Trials
Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrollment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example, drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a Journal Publishing Agreement (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a Journal Publishing Agreement form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Role of the Funding Source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding Body Agreements and Policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies that allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

Open Access

This journal does not ordinarily have publication charges; however, authors can now opt to make their articles available to all online (including nonsubscribers), for which a fee of US $2,500 applies (for further information on open access, see Please note that you can only make this choice after receiving notification that your article has been accepted for publication, to avoid any perception of conflict of interest. The fee excludes taxes and other potential costs such as color charges. In some cases, institutions and funding bodies have entered into agreement with Elsevier to meet these fees on behalf of their authors. Details of these agreements are available at Authors of accepted articles who wish to take advantage of this option should complete and submit the open access form that is emailed to them once the mansucript is received by Elsevier. Whatever access option you choose, you retain many rights as an author. More information can be found here:

Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

Articles published under the OA option will be subject to the following user license:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For noncommercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The gold open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Informed Consent and Patient Details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions, and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail. Please submit your article via

Double-Blind Review

PRO uses a double-blind review process in which authors do not know the identity of their reviewers, nor do the reviewers know the identities of the authors. Please see Files for Submission section for when to exclude author, institution, and trial identification details. The Senior Editors select external reviewers from a database of experts, many of whom are Editorial Board members. The Editors encourage authors to suggest names of potential reviewers, although there is no guarantee that these reviewers will, in fact, review the submission. Reviewers provide comments for the Editors and the authors and recommend one of the 4 decisions listed below. The Editor assigned to the manuscript reads all reviews and forwards a recommendation to the Editor-in-Chief. The Editor-in-Chief approves all accept and reject decisions.

A portion of submissions are declined without external review if such manuscripts are judged to be inappropriate for the journal's readership. If review is required, authors can expect to learn of rejection or acceptance in approximately 4 to 6 weeks, depending on the turnaround time for reviews.

For more information please refer to

Files for Submission

EES accepts the following files for upload. Note that the title page, summary, blinded manuscript, and table files must be submitted as Word documents. Figure file requirements are detailed in the Artwork section below

Article Structure

Cover Letter
You are welcome to include a letter addressing the Editor-in-Chief to introduce your manuscript or to explain things not conveyed elsewhere in the submission process.

Title Page (With Author Details)
This should include the title, the short title, authors' names and affiliations, the name of the author(s) responsible for statistical analyses, a complete address for the corresponding author and author(s) responsible for statistical analyses including telephone and e-mail address, the conflict of interest statement, and the acknowledgments.

This brief description of the manuscript (=75 words in length) should be included in its own separate file. The summary should be no more than 3 brief sentences in length, and it should simply state the problem, the methodology, and the conclusions. Data is unnecessary

Blinded Manuscript (No Author Details)
The main body of the paper should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

The blinded manuscript should include the following:

Abstract: A brief, structured overview of the research conducted, including its purpose, the methods and materials used, the results, and the conclusions drawn.

Introduction: State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Methods and Materials: Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference; only relevant modifications should be described.

Results: Results should be clear and concise.

Discussion: This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Conclusions: The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

References: List the references in the order in which they appear in the text, making sure each reference cited is provided and vice versa.

Figure Captions: Include a caption for each figure. The caption should consist of a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Be sure to explain all symbols and abbreviations used within the figure.

Table Files (Blinded)
Include all of the tables in one Word document with no identifying information.

Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Footnotes in tables can include definitions of abbreviations, designated footnotes, and table legends, in that order, as needed. Designated footnotes take standard symbols (*, †, ‡, §, ¦, , #, **, ††, and so on). Place footnotes to tables below the table body. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

Figure Files (Blinded)

Figures should be identified within the figure files themselves, in the file name, and in the description column in EES on upload. Each figure should be uploaded separately and should not contain any identifying information.

  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
  • Submit each illustration as a separate file.

Supplementary Material (Blinded)

This material could be in the form of tables, figures, appendices, extraneous methods, data sets, and so on, and identifying author information should be excluded.


If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A1), Eq. (A2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A1; Fig. A1, etc.

Uniform Disclosure Form

Each author is required to complete and include an International Committee of Medical Journal Editors uniform disclosure form with submission, available for free download at

Editorial Decisions

Once the peer review process is complete, each manuscript will receive one of the following decisions:

  • Decline: The manuscript was not selected for peer review.
  • Reject: The manuscript was not selected for publication. Many factors contribute to acceptance, including but not limited to the importance of the research to the field of oncology, the originality of the work, the quality of the study, or the priority of the work to PRO and its readership.
  • Unacceptable/Major Revision: A number of issues were raised in peer review that need to be addressed for the manuscript to be reconsidered. If the author wishes to address the issues, the manuscript must be revised and resubmitted within 2 months of the decision.
  • Acceptable/Minor Revision: The editors and reviewers found the manuscript potentially acceptable for publication provided minor adjustments are made. Such manuscripts must be revised and resubmitted within 1 month of the decision.
  • Accept: The manuscript has been selected for publication. Additional information will be provided regarding the production process.

Use of Word Processing Software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format, and line numbering should be turned off. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts, and so on. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the spell check and grammar check functions of your word processor.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A1), Eq. (A2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A1; Fig. A1, etc.

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math Formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Embedded math equations
If you are submitting an article prepared with Microsoft Word containing embedded math equations then please read this (related support information).


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list. Footnotes in tables can include abbreviations, designated footnotes, and table legends, in that order, as needed. Designated footnotes take standard symbols (*, †, ‡, §, ¦, ¶, #, **, ††, and so on).


Electronic Artwork
General points:

  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
  • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
  • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
  • A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here. If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel), then please supply "as is" in the native document format. Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "Save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

    • EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    • TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    • TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    • TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

    Please do not:

    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color Artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF [or JPEG], EPS [or PDF], or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures, then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately (they should follow the references in the blinded manuscript); captions should not be attached to the figures. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Footnotes in tables can include definitions of abbreviations, designated footnotes, and table legends, in that order, as needed. Designated footnotes take standard symbols (*, †, ‡, §, ¦, ¶, #, **, ††, and so on). Place footnotes to tables below the table body. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.


    Citations in Text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either “Unpublished results” or “Personal communication.” Citation of a reference as “in press” implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high-quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef, and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year, and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Data references
    This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

    Reference style
    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    1. Davis JT, Allen HD, Powers JD, et al. Population requirements for capitation planning in pediatric cardiac surgery. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:257-259.
    2. Champlin RER, Feig SA, Ho WG, et al. Bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission: Importance of extramedullary involvement [Abstract]. Blood 1982;60 (Suppl 1):165a.
    3. Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and Leadership Skills for Nurses. 2nd ed. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers; 1996.
    4. Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, eds. Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management. 2nd ed. New York, NY: RavenPress; 1995:465-478.
    5. [dataset] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.


    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply stills with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.


    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness, and correctness of the text, tables, and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


    The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days of free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and coauthors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

    Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
    You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.