Guide for Authors

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Poultry Science® has moved to Gold Open Access (OA) per January 1st, 2020. Note that for manuscripts submitted after September 30th, 2019, an article processing charge (APC) is therefore payable after acceptance for publication. The APC for Poultry Science is $1500 for Poultry Science Association members, and $2000 for non-members per article. It will be requested after peer review and acceptance. For more information please also view the PSA press announcement and answers to frequently asked questions.

First self-published in 1921, Poultry Science is an internationally renowned monthly journal, known as the authoritative source for a broad range of poultry information and high-caliber research. The journal plays a pivotal role in the dissemination of preeminent poultry-related knowledge across all disciplines. As of January 2020, Poultry Science will become an Open Access journal with no subscription charges, meaning authors who publish here can make their research immediately, permanently, and freely accessible worldwide while retaining copyright to their work. Papers submitted for publication after October 1, 2019 will be published as Open Access papers.

An international journal, Poultry Science publishes original papers, research notes, symposium papers, and reviews of basic science as applied to poultry. This authoritative source of poultry information is consistently ranked by ISI Impact Factor as one of the top 10 agriculture, dairy and animal science journals to deliver high-caliber research. Currently it is the highest-ranked (by Impact Factor and Eigenfactor) journal dedicated to publishing poultry research. Subject areas include breeding, genetics, education, production, management, environment, health, behavior, welfare, immunology, molecular biology, metabolism, nutrition, physiology, reproduction, processing, and products.


All manuscripts are submitted and reviewed via the journal's Editorial Manager manuscripts submission site at New authors should create an account prior to submitting a manuscript for consideration.

The submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submission Checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details (please note that co-corresponding authors are not allowed):

  • E-mail address
  • Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:


  • Include keywords
  • All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
  • Figure legends
  • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided

Figure files (figures must be uploaded as separate files, not embedded in the manuscript)

Supplemental files (where applicable)

Conflict of Interest statement

Further considerations

  • Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
  • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
  • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
  • A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
  • Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
  • Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.


For information on the scientific content of the journal, contact the editor-in-chief, Dr. Robert L. Taylor, Jr., Professor of Animal & Nutritional Sciences, West Virginia University, 2108 Agricultural Science Building, P.O. Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26506-6108; contact at

For assistance with Editorial Manager manuscripts, manuscript submission, and manuscript status contact David Busboom at

For all other inquiries, visit the Elsevier Support Center. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.

You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.


Full-Length Articles

The journal emphasizes the importance of good scientific writing and clarity in presentation of the concepts, apparatus, and sufficient background information that would be required for thorough understanding by scientists in other disciplines. The results of experiments published in Poultry Science must be replicated, either by replicating treatments within experiments or by repeating experiments. Care should be taken to ensure that experiments are adequately replicated.

Review Papers

Review papers are accepted only if they provide new knowledge or a high-caliber synthesis of important knowledge. Reviews are not exempt from Open Access charges. All Poultry Science guidelines for style and form apply.

Research Notes

Research Notes report the results of complete experiments but are less comprehensive than full-length articles. These short papers may convey preliminary or final data fulfilling one or more of the following criteria: a single experiment, low sample numbers, or limited replication. Manuscripts should be prepared according to the guidelines for full-length articles. The title of a Research Note must begin with the words "Research Note:". The running head shall be "RESEARCH NOTE." Results and Discussion should be a unified section with concise data interpretation. A conclusions heading is not permitted. Supplementary data are not permitted. These papers are limited to: 1) 3,000 words or approximately nine typed, double-spaced pages; 2) two tables or figures or one of each; and 3) maximum ten (10) references. Authors must also indicate the section under which the manuscript is to be reviewed on the manuscript title page and on the Manuscript Submission Form. Editors may request that submitted full-length papers be revised for publication as Research Notes.

Symposium Papers

Symposium chair must decide whether or not the symposium is to be published and will inform the editor-in-chief of this decision at the January meeting. If the decision is not to publish the symposium, the individual authors retain the right to submit their papers for consideration for the journal as ordinary manuscripts. If publication is decided upon, all manuscript style and form guidelines of the journal shall be followed. If you are interested in publishing a symposium in Poultry Science, please contact the editor-in-chief for full guidelines.

Invited Papers

Invited papers are subject to review, and all manuscript style and form guidelines of the journal shall be followed. Invited papers are exempt from open access fee.

Invited Reviews

Invited Reviews will be approximately 10 published pages and in review format. Nominations or suggestions for potential timely reviews are welcomed and should be sent directly to the editor-in-chief.

Contemporary Issues

Contemporary Issues will address critical issues facing poultry scientists and the poultry industry. As such, submissions to this section should be of interest to any poultry scientist, to the industry, to instructors and faculty teaching contemporary issues classes, and to undergraduate and graduate students. The section will consist of short papers (approximately 2 published pages) written in essay format and will include an abstract, appropriate subheadings, and references.

Book Reviews

A limited number of book reviews will publish in Poultry Science. Book reviews shall be prepared in accordance to the style and form requirements of the journal, and they are subject to editorial revision. No fees will be assessed.

Letters to the Editor

The purpose of letters will be to discuss, critique, or expand on scientific points made in articles recently published in Poultry Science. Introduction of unpublished data will not be allowed, nor will material based on conjecture or speculation. Letters must be received within 6 months of an article's publication. Letters will be limited to 400 words and 5 references. The author(s) of the original paper(s) will be provided a copy of the letter and offered the opportunity to submit for consideration a reply within 30 days. Replies will have the same page restrictions and format as letters, and the titles shall end with "-Reply." Letters and replies will be published together. Letters and replies shall follow appropriate Poultry Science formatting and may be edited by the editor-in-chief and a technical editor. If multiple letters on the same topic are received, a representative letter concerning a specific article may be published. Letters and replies will be published as space permits.



This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper, frequently under the direction of a section editor with expertise in the manuscript topic. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. For more information on the types of peer review, please visit:

All submissions to the journal are initially reviewed by the editorial office. At this stage, manuscripts may be rejected without peer review if it is felt that they are not relevant to the journal's scope or do not conform to manuscript formatting requirements. This fast rejection process means that authors are given a quick decision and do not need to wait for the review process.

Manuscripts that pass initial screening will be forwarded to the appropriate section editor. The section editor may suggest rejection based on fatal design flaw, inappropriate replications, lack of novelty, or other major concerns. If appropriate, the paper will be sent out for peer review, usually to 2 independent reviewers who will provide comments. The section editor may recommend rejection or acceptance at this point, after which the manuscript and reviewer comments are made available to the editor-in-chief for a final decision to the authors. The manuscript will be sent back to the corresponding author for revision according to the guidelines of the reviewers. Authors have 30 days to complete the revision, which shall be returned to the section editor. Failure to return the manuscript within 30 days will lock the author out of re- submitting the revision.

Rejected manuscripts can be resubmitted only with an invitation from the section editor or editor-in-chief. Revised versions of previously rejected manuscripts are treated as new submissions.


Please write your text in good English (American usage). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


No correction to a paper already published will be carried out without an erratum or corrigendum (as applicable), this applies to articles in press and published within an issue. This means that any change carried out to a paper already published online will have a corresponding erratum or corrigendum published with its own separate DOI. Whether as an article in press or in an issue, if an erratum or corrigendum is published, the online version of the original paper will also be corrected online and the correction notice will mention this. Corrections will only be made if the publication record is seriously affected by the academic accuracy of published information.

Authors' corrections to Supplementary Data are made only in exceptional circumstances (for example major errors that compromise the conclusion of the study). Because the Supplementary Data is part of the original paper and hence the published record, the information cannot be updated if new data have become available or interpretations have changed.


Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.


Authors must make it clear that experiments were conducted in a manner that avoided unnecessary discomfort to the animals by the use of proper management and laboratory techniques. Experiments shall be conducted in accordance with the principles and specific guidelines presented in Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching, 3rd edition, 2010 (found here); and, if applicable, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (United States Department of Human Health and Services, National Institutes of Health, Publication Number ISBN 0-309-05377-3, 1996); or Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals, 2nd ed. Volume 1, 1993 (Canadian Council on Animal Care). Methods of killing experimental animals must be described in the text. In describing surgical procedures, the type and dosage of the anesthetic agent must be specified. Intra-abdominal and intrathoracic invasive surgery requires anesthesia. This includes caponization. The editor-in- chief of Poultry Science may refuse to publish manuscripts that are not compatible with these guides. If rejected solely on that basis, however, the paper may be resubmitted for reconsideration when accompanied by a written verification that a committee on animal care in research has approved the experimental design and procedures involved.


As a general rule, permission should be sought from the rights holder to reproduce any substantial part of a copyrighted work. This includes any text, illustrations, charts, tables, photographs, or other material from previously published sources. For more information on third party permissions, visit


All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.


You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online. After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Formatting of funding sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements: Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Elsevier Researcher Academy

Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Author Rights

As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.


This is an open access journal: all articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. To provide open access, this journal has an open access fee (also known as an article publishing charge APC) which needs to be paid by the authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution. Permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Open access fee

The open access publication fee for this journal for research articles and review articles is USD 2000, excluding taxes. The open access publication fee is USD 1500 if the corresponding author is a member of the Poultry Science Association. The open access publication fee for research notes is USD 1000, excluding taxes, or USD 750, excluding taxes, if the corresponding author is a member of Poultry Science Association. (Note: The corresponding author must be a Poultry Science Association member before the article is accepted for the discount to apply.) Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https:///

Shortly after acceptance, the corresponding author will be contacted regarding license options, funding information, and payment of the Open Access fee.




Papers must be written in English. The text and all supporting materials must use American spelling and usage as given in The American Heritage Dictionary, Webster's Third New International Dictionary, or the Oxford American English Dictionary. Authors should follow the style and form recommended in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 2006. 7th ed. Style Manual Committee, Council of Science Editors, Reston, VA.

Preparing the manuscript file

Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced, with lines and pages numbered consecutively, using Times New Roman font at 12 points. All special characters (e.g., Greek, math, symbols) should be inserted using the symbols palette available in this font. Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Tables and figure legends should be placed in a separate section at the end of the manuscript (not placed within the text). Figure files should be uploaded as separate files (not embedded in the manuscript).

Use of word-processing software:

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.

To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.


Major headings

Major headings are centered (except ABSTRACT), all capitals, boldface, and consist of ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION (or RESULTS AND DISCUSSION), ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (optional), APPENDIX (optional), and REFERENCES.

First subheadings

First subheadings are placed on a separate line, begin at the left margin, the first letter of all important words is capitalized, and the headings are boldface and italic. Text that follows a first subheading should be in a new paragraph.

Second subheadings

Second subheadings begin the first line of a paragraph. They are indented, boldface, italic, and followed by a period. The first letter of each important word should be capitalized. The text follows immediately after the final period of the subheading.


The title page shall begin with a running head (short title) of not more than 45 characters. The running head is centered, is in all capital letters, and shall appear on the top of the title page. No abbreviations should be used.

The title of the paper must be in boldface; the first letter of the article title and proper names are capitalized, and the remainder of the title is lowercase. The title must not have abbreviations.

Under the title, names of authors should be typed (first name or initial, middle initial, last name). Affiliations will be footnoted using the following symbols: *, †, ‡, §, #, ||, and be placed below the author names. Do not give authors' titles, positions, or degrees. Numbered footnotes may be used to provide supplementary information, such as present address, acknowledgment of grants, and experiment station or journal series number. The corresponding author should be indicated with a numbered footnote (e.g., Corresponding author: Note: Poultry Science allows a single corresponding author; co-corresponding authors are not permitted.

Note that there is no period after the corresponding author's e-mail address. The title page shall include the name and full address of the corresponding author. Telephone numbers and e-mail address must also be provided. The title page must indicate the appropriate scientific section for the paper (i.e., Animal Well-Being and Behavior; Genetics and Genomics; Immunology, Health and Disease; Metabolism and Nutrition; Molecular and Cellular Biology; Physiology and Reproduction; Processing and Products; Microbiology and Food Safety; Management and Production).

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Once a paper reaches the proof stage, no changes to the author list are permitted.


Author-derived abbreviations should be defined at first use in the abstract and again in the body of the manuscript. The abbreviation will be shown in bold type at first use in the body of the manuscript. Refer to the Miscellaneous Usage Notes for more information on abbreviations.


The Abstract disseminates scientific information through abstracting journals and through convenience for the readers. The Abstract, consisting of not more than 325 words, appears at the beginning of the manuscript with the word ABSTRACT without a following period. It must summarize the major objectives, methods, results, conclusions, and practical applications of the research. The Abstract must consist of complete sentences and use of abbreviations should be limited. References to other work and footnotes are not permitted. The Abstract and Key Words must be on a separate sheet of paper.


The Abstract shall be followed by a maximum of five key words or phrases to be used for subject indexing. These should include important words from the title and the running head and should be singular, not plural, terms (e.g., broiler, not broilers). Key words should be formatted as follows: Key words: . . .



The Introduction, while brief, should provide the reader with information necessary for understanding research presented in the paper. Previous work on the topic should be summarized, and the objectives of the current research must be clearly stated.

Materials and methods

All sources of products, equipment, and chemicals used in the experiments must be specified parenthetically at first mention in text, tables, and figures [i.e., (model 123, ABC Corp., Provo, UT)]. Model and catalog numbers should be included. Information shall include the full corporate name (including division, branch, or other subordinate part of the corporation, if applicable), city, and state (country if outside the United States), or Web address. Street addresses need not be given unless the reader would not be able to determine the full address for mailing purposes easily by consulting standard references.

Age, sex, breed, and strain or genetic stock of animals used in the experiments shall be specified. Animal care guidelines should be referenced if appropriate.

Papers must contain analyzed values for those dietary ingredients that are crucial to the experiment. Papers dealing with the effects of feed additives or graded levels of a specific nutrient must give analyzed values for the relevant additive or nutrient in the diet(s). If products were used that contain different potentially active compounds, then analyzed values for these compounds must be given for the diet(s). Exceptions can only be made if appropriate methods are not available. In other papers, authors should state whether experimental diets meet or exceed the National Research Council (1994) requirements as appropriate. If not, crude protein and metabolizable energy levels should be stated. For layer diets, calcium and phosphorus contents should also be specified.

When describing the composition of diets and vitamin premixes, the concentration of vitamins A and E should be expressed as IU/kg on the basis of the following equivalents:

Vitamin A

1 IU = 0.3 μg of all-trans retinol 1 IU = 0.344 μg of retinyl acetate

1 IU = 0.552 μg of retinyl palmitate

1 IU = 0.60 μg of ß-carotene

Vitamin E

1 IU = 1 mg of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate 1 IU = 0.91 mg of dl-α-tocopherol

1 IU = 0.67 mg of d-α-tocopherol

In the instance of vitamin D3, cholecalciferol is the acceptable term on the basis that 1 IU of vitamin D3 = 0.025 μg of cholecalciferol.

The sources of vitamins A and E must be specified in parentheses immediately following the stated concentrations.

Statistical analysis: Biology should be emphasized, but the use of incorrect or inadequate statistical methods to analyze and interpret biological data is not acceptable. Consultation with a statistician is recommended. Statistical methods commonly used in the animal sciences need not be described in detail, but adequate references should be provided. The statistical model, classes, blocks, and experimental unit must be designated. Any restrictions used in estimating parameters should be defined. Reference to a statistical package without reporting the sources of variation (classes) and other salient features of the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonal contrasts, is not sufficient. A statement of the results of statistical analysis should justify the interpretations and conclusions.

When possible, results of similar experiments should be pooled statistically. Do not report a number of similar experiments separately.

The experimental unit is the smallest unit to which an individual treatment is imposed. For group-fed animals, the group of animals in the pen is the experimental unit; therefore, groups must be replicated. Repeated chemical analyses of the same sample usually do not constitute independent experimental units. Measurements on the same experimental unit over time also are not independent and must not be considered as independent experimental units. For analysis of time effects, use time-sequence analysis.

• Usual assumptions are that errors in the statistical models are normally and independently distributed with constant variance. Most standard methods are robust to deviations from these assumptions, but occasionally data transformations or other techniques are helpful. For example, it is recommended that percentage data between 0 and 20 and between 80 and 100 be subjected to arc sin transformation prior to analysis. Most statistical procedures are based on the assumption that experimental units have been assigned to treatments at random. If animals are stratified by ancestry or weight or if some other initial measurement should be accounted for, they should include a blocking factor, or the initial measurement should be included as a covariate.

• A parameter [mean (μ), variance (ó2)], which defines or describes a population, is estimated by a statistic (x, s2). The term parameter is not appropriate to describe a variable, observation, trait, characteristic, or measurement taken in an experiment.

• Standard designs are adequately described by name and size (e.g., "a randomized complete block design with 6 treatments in 5 blocks"). For a factorial set of treatments, an adequate description might be as follows: "Total sulfur amino acids at 0.70 or 0.80% of the diet and Lys at 1.10, 1.20, or 1.30% of the diet were used in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement in 5 randomized complete blocks consisting of initial BW." Note that a factorial arrangement is not a design; the term "design" refers to the method of grouping experimental units into homogeneous groups or blocks (i.e., the way in which the randomization is restricted).

• Standard deviation refers to the variability in a sample or a population. The standard error (calculated from error variance) is the estimated sampling error of a statistic such as the sample mean. When a standard deviation or standard error is given, the number of degrees of freedom on which it rests should be specified. When any statistical value (as mean or difference of 2 means) is mentioned, its standard error or confidence limit should be given. The fact that differences are not "statistically significant" is no reason for omitting standard errors. They are of value when results from several experiments are combined in the future. They also are useful to the reader as measures of efficiency of experimental techniques. A value attached by "±" to a number implies that the second value is its standard error (not its standard deviation). Adequate reporting may require only 1) the number of observations, 2) arithmetic treatment means, and 3) an estimate of experimental error. The pooled standard error of the mean is the preferred estimate of experimental error. Standard errors need not be presented separately for each mean unless the means are based on different numbers of observations or the heterogeneity of the error variance is to be emphasized. Presenting individual standard errors clutters the presentation and can mislead readers.

• For more complex experiments, tables of subclass means and tables of analyses of variance or covariance may be included. When the analysis of variance contains several error terms, such as in split-plot and repeated measures designs, the text should indicate clearly which mean square was used for the denominator of each F statistic. Unbalanced factorial data can present special problems. Accordingly, it is well to state how the computing was done and how the parameters were estimated. Approximations should be accompanied by cautions concerning possible biases.

• Contrasts (preferably orthogonal) are used to answer specific questions for which the experiment was designed; they should form the basis for comparing treatment means. Nonorthogonal contrasts may be evaluated by Bonferroni t statistics. The exact contrasts tested should be described for the reader. Multiple-range tests are not appropriate when treatments are orthogonally arranged. Fixed-range, pairwise, multiple-comparison tests should be used only to compare means of treatments that are unstructured or not related. Least squares means are the correct means to use for all data, but arithmetic means are identical to least squares means unless the design is unbalanced or contains missing values or an adjustment is being made for a covariate. In factorial treatment arrangements, means for main effects should be presented when important interactions are not present. However, means for individual treatment combinations also should be provided in table or text so that future researchers may combine data from several experiments to detect important interactions. An interaction may not be detected in a given experiment because of a limitation in the number of observations.

• The terms significant and highly significant traditionally have been reserved for P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively; however, reporting the P-value is preferred to the use of these terms. For example, use ". . . there was a difference (P < 0.05) between control and treated samples" rather than ". . . there was a significant (P < 0.05) difference between control and treated samples." When available, the observed significance level (e.g., P = 0.027) should be presented rather than merely P < 0.05 or P < 0.01, thereby allowing the reader to decide what to reject. Other probability (α) levels may be discussed if properly qualified so that the reader is not misled. Do not report P-values to more than 3 places after the decimal. Regardless of the probability level used, failure to reject a hypothesis should be based on the relative con- sequences of type I and II errors. A "nonsignificant" relationship should not be interpreted to suggest the absence of a relationship. An inadequate number of experimental units or insufficient control of variation limits the power to detect relationships. Avoid the ambiguous use of P > 0.05 to declare nonsignificance, such as indicating that a difference is not significant at P > 0.05 and subsequently declaring another difference significant (or a tendency) at P < 0.09. In addition, readers may incorrectly interpret the use of P > 0.05 as the probability of a β error, not an α error.

• Present only meaningful digits. A practical rule is to round values so that the change caused by rounding is less than one-tenth of the standard error. Such rounding increases the variance of the reported value by less than 1%, so that less than 1% of the relevant information contained in the data is sacrificed. Significant digits in data reported should be restricted to 3 beyond the decimal point, unless warranted by the use of specific methods.

Results and discussion

Results and Discussion sections may be combined, or they may appear in separate sections. If separate, the Results section shall contain only the results and summary of the author's experiments; there should be no literature comparisons. Those comparisons should appear in the Discussion section. Manuscripts reporting sequence data must have GenBank accession numbers prior to submitting. One of the hallmarks for experimental evidence is repeatability. Care should be taken to ensure that experiments are adequately replicated. The results of experiments must be replicated, either by replicating treatments within experiments or by repeating experiments.


An Acknowledgments section, if desired, shall follow the Discussion section. Acknowledgments of individuals should include affiliations but not titles, such as Dr., Mr., or Ms. Affiliations shall include institution, city, and state.


    A technical Appendix, if desired, shall follow the Discussion section or Acknowledgments, if present. The Appendix may contain supplementary material, explanations, and elaborations that are not essential to other major sections but are helpful to the reader. Novel computer programs or mathematical computations would be appropriate. The Appendix will not be a repository for raw data.


Citations in text

In the body of the manuscript, refer to authors as follows: Smith and Jones (1992) or Smith and Jones (1990, 1992). If the sentence structure requires that the authors' names be included in parentheses, the proper format is (Smith and Jones, 1982; Jones, 1988a,b; Jones et al., 1993). Where there are more than two authors of one article, the first author's name is followed by the abbreviation et al. More than one article listed in the same sentence of text must be in chronological order first, and alphabetical order for two publications in the same year. Work that has not been accepted for publication shall be listed in the text as: "J. E. Jones (institution, city, and state, personal communication)." The author's own un- published work should be listed in the text as "(J. Smith, unpublished data)." Personal communications and un- published data must not be included in the References section.

References section

To be listed in the References section, papers must be published or accepted for publication. Manuscripts submitted for publication can be cited as "personal communication" or "unpublished data" in the text.

In the References section, references shall first be listed alphabetically by author(s)' last name(s), and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors' names. As with text citations, two or more publications by the same author or set of authors in the same year shall be differentiated by adding lowercase letters after the date. The dates for papers with the same first author that would be abbreviated in the text as et al., even though the second and subsequent authors differ, shall also be differentiated by letters. All authors' names must appear in the Reference section. Journals shall be abbreviated according to the conventional ISO abbreviations given in journals database of the National Library of Medicine. One-word titles must be spelled out. Inclusive page numbers must be provided. Sample references are given below. Consult recent issues of Poultry Science for examples not included below.

N.B. - The online version of Poultry Science uses a reference format that differs from that prescribed by the journal. The Guide for Authors is the sole source for the reference format. Any papers that do not follow this format risk rejection.


Bagley, L. G., and V. L. Christensen. 1991. Hatchability and physiology of turkey embryos incubated at sea level with increased eggshell permeability. Poult. Sci. 70:1412-1418.

Bagley, L. G., V. L. Christensen, and R. P. Gildersleeve. 1990. Hematological indices of turkey embryos incubated at high altitude as affected by oxygen and shell permeability. Poult. Sci. 69:2035- 2039.

Witter, R. L., and I. M. Gimeno. 2006. Susceptibility of adult chickens, with and without prior vaccination, to challenge with Marek's disease virus. Avian Dis. 50:354-365. doi:10.1637/7498-010306R.1


Metcalfe, J., M. K. Stock, and R. L. Ingermann. 1984. The effects of oxygen on growth and development of the chick embryo. Pages 205- 219 in Respiration and Metabolism of Embryonic Vertebrates. R. S. Seymour, ed. Dr. W. Junk, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.

Federal Register:

Department of Agriculture, Plant and Animal Health Inspection Service. 2004. Blood and tissue collection at slaughtering and rendering establishments, final rule. 9CFR part 71. Fed. Regis. 69:10137-10151.


Choct, M., and R. J. Hughes. 1996. Long-chain hydrocarbons as a marker for digestibility studies in poultry. Proc. Aust. Poult. Sci. Symp. 8:186. (Abstr.)

Dyro, F. M. 2005. Arsenic. WebMD. Accessed Feb. 2006. http://

El Halawani, M. E., and I. Rosenboim. 2004. Method to enhance reproductive performance in poultry. Univ. Minnesota, as- signee. US Pat. No. 6,766,767.

Hruby, M., J. C. Remus, and E. E. M. Pierson. 2004. Nutritional strategies to meet the challenge of feeding poultry without antibiotic growth promotants. Proc. 2nd Mid-Atlantic Nutr. Conf., Timonium, MD. Univ. Maryland, College Park.

Luzuriaga, D. A. 1999. Application of computer vision and electronic nose technologies for quality assessment of color and odor of shrimp and salmon. PhD Diss. Univ. Florida, Gainesville.

Peak, S. D., and J. Brake. 2000. The influence of feeding program on broiler breeder male mortality. Poult. Sci. 79(Suppl. 1):2. (Abstr.)


Tables must be created using the MS Word table feature and inserted in the manuscript after the references section. When possible, tables should be organized to fit across the page without running broadside. Be aware of the dimensions of the printed page when planning tables (use of more than 15 columns will create layout problems). Place the table number and title on the same line above the table. The table title does not require a period. Do not use vertical lines and use few horizontal lines. Use of bold and italic typefaces in the table should be done sparingly; you must define such use in a footnote. Each table must be on a separate page. To facilitate placement of all tables into the manuscript file (just after the references) authors should use "section breaks" rather than "page breaks" at the end of the manuscript (before the tables) and between tables.

Units of measure for each variable must be indicated. Papers with several tables must use consistent format. All columns must have appropriate headings. Abbreviations not found on the inside front cover of the journal must be defined in each table and must match those used in the text. Footnotes to tables should be marked by superscript numbers. Each footnote should begin a new line. Superscript letters shall be used for the separation of means in the body of the table and explanatory footnotes must be provided [i.e., "Means within a row lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0.05)."]; other significant P-values may be specified. Comparison of means within rows and columns should be indicated by different series of superscripts (e.g., a,b,… in rows; x-z … in columns) The first alphabetical letter in the series (e.g., a or A) shall be used to indicate the largest mean. Lowercase super- scripts indicate P ≤ 0.05. Uppercase letters indicate P ≤ 0.01 or less.

Probability values may be indicated as follows: *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001, and †P ≤ 0.10. Consult a recent issue of Poultry Science for examples of tables.

Generally, results should be presented to the significant figure of the instrument used to collect the data. For example, results should not be presented to 5 digits when the instrument used only reads to 2 digits.


• Abbreviations shall not be used in the title, key words, or to begin sentences, except when they are widely known throughout science (e.g., DNA, RNA) or are terms better known by abbreviation (e.g., IgG, CD). A helpful criterion for use of abbreviation is whether it has been accepted into thesauri and indexes widely used for searching major bibliographic databases in the scientific field. Abbreviations may be used in heads within the paper, if they have been first defined within the text. The inside back cover of every issue of the journal lists abbreviations that can be used without definition. The list is subject to revision at any time, so authors should always consult the most recent issue of the journal for relevant information. Abbreviations are allowed when they help the flow of the manuscript; however, excessive use of abbreviations can confuse the reader. The suitability of abbreviations will be evaluated by the reviewers and editors during the review process and by the technical editor during editing. As a rule, author-derived abbreviations should be in all capital letters. Terms used less than three times must be spelled out in full rather than abbreviated. All terms are to be spelled out in full with the abbreviation following in bold type in parentheses the first time they are mentioned in the main body of the text. Abbreviations shall be used consistently thereafter, rather than the full term.

• The abstract, text, each table, and each figure must be understood independently of each other. Therefore, abbreviations shall be defined within each of these units of the manuscript.

• Plural abbreviations do not require "s." Chemical symbols and three-letter abbreviations for amino acids do not need definition. Units of measure, except those in the standard Poultry Science abbreviation list, should be abbreviated as listed in the CRC Handbook for Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, 2000 Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, FL, 33431) and do not need to be defined.

• The following abbreviations may be used without definition in Poultry Science:

A adenine
ADG average daily gain
ADFI average daily feed
AME apparent metabolizable energy
AMEn nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy
ANOVA analysis of variance
B cell bursal-derived, bursal-equivalent derived cell bp base pairs
BSA bovine serum albumin
BW body weight
C cytosine
cDNA complementary DNA
cfu colony-forming units
CI confidence interval
CP crude protein
cpm counts per minute
CV coefficient of variation
d day
df degrees of freedom
DM dry matter
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetate
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent antibody assay
EST expressed sequence tag
g gram
g gravity
G guanine
GAT glutamic acid-alanine-tyrosine
GLM general linear model
h hour
HEPES N-2-hydroxyethyl piperazine-N'-ethane-sulfonic acid
HPLC high-performance (high-pressure) liquid chromatography
i.m. intramuscular
i.p. intraperitoneal
i.v. intravenous
ICU international chick units
Ig immunoglobulin
IL interleukin
IU international units
kb kilobase pairs
kDa kilodalton
L liter*
L:D hours light:hours darkness in a photoperiod (e.g., 23L:1D)
m meter
μ micro M molar
MAS marker-assisted selection
ME metabolizable energy
MEn nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy
MHC major histocompatibility complex
mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid min minute
mo month
MS mean square
n number of observations
N normal
NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADH reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NRC National Research Council
NS not significant
PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PBS phosphate-buffered saline
PCR polymerase chain reaction
pfu plaque-forming units
ppm parts per million
QTL quantitative trait loci
r correlation coefficient
r2 coefficient of determination, simple
R2 coefficient of determination, multiple
RH relative humidity
RIA radioimmunoassay
RNA ribonucleic acid
rpm revolutions per minute
s second
s.c. subcutaneous
SD standard deviation
SDS sodium dodecyl sulphate
SE standard error
SEM standard error of the mean
SRBC sheep red blood cells
SNP single nucleotide polymorphism
T thymine
TBA thiobarbituric acid
T cell thymic-derived cell
TME true metabolizable energy
TMEn nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy
Tris tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
TSAA total sulfur amino acids
U uridine
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
UV ultraviolet
vol/vol volume to volume
vs. versus
wt/vol weight to volume
wt/wt weight to weight
wk week
yr year

*Also capitalized with any combination, e.g., mL.

International words and phrases

Non-English words in common usage (defined in recent editions of standard dictionaries) will not appear in italics (e.g., in vitro, in vivo, in situ, a priori). However, genus and species of plants, animals, or bacteria and viruses should be italicized. Authors must indicate accent marks and other diacriticals on international names and institutions. German nouns shall begin with capital letters.


Breed and variety names are to be capitalized (e.g., Single Comb White Leghorn).

Number style

Numbers less than 1 shall be written with preceding zeros (e.g., 0.75). All numbers shall be written as digits. Measures must be in the metric system; however, US equivalents may be given in parentheses. Poultry Science requires that measures of energy be given in calories rather than joules, but the equivalent in joules may be shown in parentheses or in a footnote to tables. Units of measure not preceded by numbers must be written out rather than abbreviated (e.g., lysine content was measured in milligrams per kilogram of diet) unless used parenthetically. Measures of variation must be defined in the Abstract and in the body of the paper at first use. Units of measure for feed conversion or feed efficiency shall be provided (i.e., g:g).

Nucleotide sequences

Nucleotide sequence data must relate to poultry or poultry pathogens and must complement biological data published in the same or a companion paper. If sequences are excessively long, it is suggested that the most relevant sections of the data be published in Poultry Science and the remaining sequences be submitted to one of the sequence databases. Acceptance for publication is contingent on the submission of sequence data to one of the databases. The following statement should appear as a footnote to the title on the title page of the manuscript. "The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper have been submitted to Embank Submission (Mail Stop K710, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, NM 87545) nucleotide sequence database and have been assigned the accession number XNNNNN." Publication of the description of molecular clones is assumed by the editors to place them in the public sector. Therefore, they shall be made available to other scientists for research purposes.

Nucleotide sequences must be submitted as camera- ready figures no larger than 21.6 x 27.9 cm in standard (portrait) orientation. Abbreviations should follow Poultry Science guidelines.

Gene and protein nomenclature

Authors are required to use only approved gene and protein names and symbols. For poultry, full gene names should not be italicized. Gene symbols should be in uppercase letters and should be in italics. A protein symbol should be in the same format as its gene except the protein symbol should not be in italics.

General usage

• Note that "and/or" is not permitted; choose the more appropriate meaning or use "x or y or both."

• Use the slant line only when it means "per" with numbered units of measure or "divided by" in equations. Use only one slant line in a given expression (e.g., g/d per chick). The slant line may not be used to indicate ratios or mixtures.

• Use "to" instead of a hyphen to indicate a range. Insert spaces around all signs (except slant lines) of operation (=, -, +, x, >, or <, etc.) when these signs occur between two items.

• Items in a series should be separated by commas (e.g., a, b, and c).

• Restrict the use of "while" and "since" to meanings related to time.

• Appropriate substitutes include "and," "but," or "whereas" for "while" and "because" or "although" for "since."

• Leading (initial) zeros should be used with numbers less than 1 (e.g., 0.01).

• Commas should be used in numbers greater than 999.

•Registered (®) and trademark (©) symbols should not be used, unless as part of an article title in the References section. Trademarked product names should be capitalized.


General points

• Submit each illustration as a separate file.

• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.

• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.

• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.

• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.

• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.

• Provide captions to illustrations separately.

• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.

You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.


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Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.

TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.

TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.

TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

Please do not:

• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;

• Supply files that are too low in resolution;

• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services

Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Ensure that the supplementary material is referred to in the main manuscript at an appropriate point in the text. Supplementary material will be available online only and will not be copyedited, so ensure that it is clearly and succinctly presented, and that the style conforms to the rest of the paper. Also ensure that the presentation will work on any Internet browser. It is not recommended for the files to be more than 2 MB each, although exceptions can be made at the editorial office's discretion.



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