Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Your Paper Your Way
• Types of paper
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Contributors
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• New guidance for randomised controlled trials
• Reporting clinical trials (CONSORT)
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Informed consent and patient details
• Submission
• Referees
PREPARATION
• NEW SUBMISSIONS
• Double-blind review
• REVISED SUBMISSIONS
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Structured abstract
• Highlights
• Keywords
• Acknowledgements
• Additional information required for Research articles, Reviews and Masterclass articles
• Artwork
• References
• Supplementary material
• AudioSlides
• Submission Checklist
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Proofs
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES

Your Paper Your Way

We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.

The editor, Zoe Hudson, PhD, welcomes the submission of articles for publication in the journal.

Types of paper

Original Research: Provide a full length account of original research and will not normally exceed 4000 words.
Review Papers: Provide an in-depth and up to date critical review of a related topic and will not normally exceed 4000 words.
Case Studies: A case report providing clinical findings, management and outcome with reference to related literature.
Masterclasses: Usually a commissioned piece by an expert in their field. If you would like to submit a non-commissioned article, please check with the editorial office beforehand. Please note Masterclass articles should be submitted as "Feature Article" on the Editorial system
Professional Issues: An occasional series which aims to highlight changes in guidelines or other professional issues.

These word counts include Keywords, Acknowledgements and the references contained within the article. The reference list at the end of the article, the Abstract, figures/tables, title and author information and Appendices are not included in the word count.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki); Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html. Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964, amended by the 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975, the 35th World Medical Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983, and the 41st World Medical Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989. EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. The manuscript should contain a statement that has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed and that subjects gave informed consent to the work. Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with institution guidelines. Patients' and volunteers' names, initials, and hospital numbers should not be used.
In a case report, the subject's written consent should be provided. It is the author's responsibility to ensure all appropriate consents have been obtained.
Photographs of human participants are acceptable if the authors have received appropriate permission for publication of the photographs, or taken appropriate measures to disguise the individual's identity.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Contributors

Those who meet some but not all of the criteria for authors can be identified as 'contributors' at the end of the manuscript with their contribution specified. All those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., collecting data, providing language help, writing assistance or proofreading the article, etc.) that do not meet criteria for authorship should be acknowledged in the paper.

Authorship

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

In the covering letter to the editorial office, we ask you make a true statement that all authors meet the criteria for authorship, have approved the final article and that all those entitled to authorship are listed as authors.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

New guidance for randomised controlled trials

Physical Therapy in Sport has adopted the proposal from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (see a recent Editorial in Manual Therapy http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1356689X1200238X, Editorial: "Clinical trial registration in physiotherapy journals: Recommendations from the International Society of Physiotherapy Journal Editors"), which requires, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause and effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g. phase I trials) would be exempt. Further information can be found at http://www.icmje.org. Clinical Trials that commence after 1st June 2013 must be registered to be considered for publication in Physical Therapy in Sport. Authors will be asked to state the trial registration number during the submission system as well as at the end of the manuscript file. From January 2014 Physical Therapy in Sport will not be able to accept any unregistered Clinical Trial papers. By 2015 the journal will not be able to publish any Clinical Trials that are unregistered prior to recruitment of the first participant.

Reporting clinical trials (CONSORT)

Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, it may be helpful to authors to complete the CONSORT checklist and flow chart. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram can be found on http://www.consort-statement.org.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/yptsp.

Referees

Please supply the names of two potential reviewers for your manuscript. Please provide their full name, position and e-mail address. Please do not suggest reviewers from your own institution, previous or current collaborators. Please note, the final choice of reviewers is that of the Editor and the journal reserves the right not to use reviewers which have been suggested by the authors.

Authors are required to submit manuscripts according to the requirements of this Guide for Authors. Please note that papers not formatted in this manner will be returned to the author for amendment before entering into the editorial and peer review process. In particular please take care to follow the instructions for the formatting of references.

NEW SUBMISSIONS

Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.

References
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

Formatting requirements
There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.

Double-blind review

This journal uses double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author name(s) are not allowed to be revealed to one another for a manuscript under review. The identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. For more information please refer to To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details):This should include the title, authors' names and affiliations, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address. For original submissions the title page should also include any Acknowledgments.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.


Within the manuscript authors should also ensure that the place of origin of the work or study, and/or the organization(s) that have been involved in the study/development are not revealed in the manuscript; the letter X can be used in the manuscript and details can be completed if the manuscript is processed further through the publication process.

REVISED SUBMISSIONS

Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Presentation of manuscripts
All manuscripts must comply with the following:
• Your article should be typed on A4 paper, double-spaced with margins of at least 3cm
• Number all pages consecutively beginning with the title page

Manuscripts
Each of the following sections should begin on a new page:
• Title page
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Text
• References
• Tables, Illustrations and Figures

Further instructions regarding the Text
• Do not use 'he', 'his' etc. where the sex of the person is unknown; say 'the participant', etc. Avoid inelegant alternatives such as 'he/she'. Avoid sexist language.
• Headings should be appropriate to the nature of the paper. The use of headings enhances readability. Three categories of headings should be used:
1. major headings should be typed in capital letters in the centre of the page and underlined;
2. secondary headings should be typed in lower case (with an initial capital letter) at the left-hand margin and underlined; and
3. minor headings should be typed in lower case and italicized.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Acknowledgments. Acknowledgments should be noted on the title page for original submissions. Should revisions be requested post-review, any revised manuscripts will require Acknowledgments to be moved to the Blinded manuscript file.

Structured abstract

An abstract of your manuscript, summarizing the content in no more than 200 words, should be provided. Abstracts should follow a structured format. For empirical studies, this will usually involve these headings: Objectives, Design, Setting, Participants, Main Outcome Measures, Results, Conclusions.

For Review articles, a structured abstract should contain the headings: Objective, Methods, Results and Conclusions. Authors are advised to refer to a recent example in the journal for further detail.

For Masterclass articles, a structured abstract giving a Basic Summary and purpose statement should be given, headings are not required - please see example below and recent Masterclass articles published in the journal.

Abstract

Articular cartilage is a unique biphasic material that supports a lifetime of compressive and shear forces across joints. When articular cartilage deteriorates, whether due to injury, wear and tear or normal aging, osteoarthritis and resultant pain can ensue. Understanding the basic science of the structure and biomechanics of articular cartilage can help clinicians guide their patients to appropriate activity and loading choices. The purpose of this article is to examine how articular cartilage structure and mechanics, may interact with risk factors to contribute to OA and how this interaction provides guidelines for intervention choices This paper will review the microstructure of articular cartilage, its mechanical properties and link this information to clinical decision making.

Highlights

Highlights are mandatory for original research and review papers; they are not required for any other article type. They consist of a short collection of 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point) that convey the core findings of the article. 'Highlights' should be included in the manuscript file between the keywords and the main body text of the article. See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

Keywords

Please list 3 or 4 keywords on the first page of your manuscript, after the Abstract and before the Highlights. The purpose of these is to increase the likely accessibility of your paper to potential readers searching the literature. Therefore, ensure keywords are descriptive of the study. Refer to a recognised thesaurus of keywords (e.g. CINAHL, MEDLINE) wherever possible.

Acknowledgements

Collate Acknowledgements on the title page in original sumissions. Please list those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.) Please do not include any acknowledgements within your main manuscript file until the revisin stages, when it should be placed after the statement of Funding (see below).

Additional information required for Research articles, Reviews and Masterclass articles

Each article should contain the following statements at the end of the manuscript file, before the reference list, in the following order (please refer to a recent issue of the journal for examples):

Conflict of Interest

Ethical Approval

Funding

Conflict of Interest
Any conflicts of interest should be stated here (please refer to Declaration of Interest section above). If there are no conflicts of interest please state "None declared".

Ethical Approval
A statement should be made that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed and that subjects gave informed consent to the work. If Ethical Approval was not required please make a statement to this effect or state "None declared".

Funding
Funding sources should be noted at the end of the manuscript file. List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

This work was supported by XXXXX [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; XXXXX [grant number zzzz]; and XXXXX [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include one of the following sentences:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors

Or

None declared

Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.

Artwork

Illustrations and tables that have appeared elsewhere must be accompanied by written permission to reproduce them from the original publishers. This is necessary even if you are an author of the borrowed material. Borrowed material should be acknowledged in the captions in the exact wording required by the copyright holder. If not specified, use this style: `Reproduced by kind permission of . . . (publishers) from . . . (reference).' Identifiable clinical photographs must be accompanied by written permission from the patient.

Additional Information required for Research articles, Reviews and Masterclass articles
Each article should contain the following statements at the end of the manuscript file, before the reference list, in the following order (please refer to a recent issue of the journal for examples):

Conflict of Interest
Ethical Approval
Funding

Conflict of Interest
Any conflicts of interest should be stated here (please refer to Declaration of Interest section above). If there are no conflicts of interest please state "None declared".
Ethical Approval
A statement should be made that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed and that subjects gave informed consent to the work. If Ethical Approval was not required please make a statement to this effect or state "None declared".

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

References

Citation in Text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Avoid using references in the abstract. Avoid citation of personal communications or unpublished material. Citations to material "in press" is acceptable and implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Citation of material currently under consideration elsewhere (e.g. "under review" or "submitted") is not.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
http://open.mendeley.com/use-citation-style/physical-therapy-in-sport
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference formatting
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

Reference Style
Text: Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association. You are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5, copies of which may be ordered from http://books.apa.org/books.cfm?id=4200067 or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, USA or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, UK.
Examples of in text references:
Single author (Graham, 2001)
Two authors (Geyer & Braff, 1999)
Three to six authors (Lehman, Stohr, & Feldon, 2000) for the first citation and (Lehman et al., 2000) for subsequent citations.
More than six authors (Karper et al., 1996)
Please separate references in the text in parentheses by using a semi-colon.
List: references should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
Examples of listed references:
Reference to a journal publication:
Herrington, L., and Munro, A. (2010). Drop jump landing knee valgus angle; normative data in a physically active population. Physical Therapy in Sport, 11, 56-59
Reference to a book:
Magee, D.J. (1997). Orthopaedic physical assessment. (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Hudson, Z., & Brown, A. (2003). Athletes with disability. In: G. S. Kolt, & L. Snyder-Mackler (Eds.), Physical therapies in sport and exercise (pp. 521-304). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages.

AudioSlides

The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Submission Checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Phone numbers
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations

• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
• Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
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