Guide for Authors


Submission of your manuscript is welcome provided that it or any translation of it has not been copyrighted or published, nor is it being submitted for publication elsewhere.Contributions should be written in English and include a 50 to 100 word abstract.

The manuscript must adhere to the following format:

  • 1. Single column
    2. Double spaced
    3. At least 11 point font
    4. 30 pages or less.
  • No page charge is made. Please make sure that the paper is submitted in its final form. Corrections in the proof stage, other than printer's errors, should be avoided; costs arising from such extra corrections may be charged to the authors.

    Upon acceptance of an article, the author(s) will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher. This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. Authors are responsible for obtaining permissions to reprint previously published figures, tables, and other material. Letters of permission should accompany the final submission.Manuscripts should be prepared for publication in accordance with instructions given below.
    Type of contributions
    The journal welcomes the following types of contributions:

    • Original research articles
    • Review articles, providing a comprehensive review on a scientific topic
    This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review here:
    Submission Policy

    Papers submitted to Pervasive and Mobile Computing (PMC) must containoriginal material. The submitted paper, or any translation of it, mustneither be published, nor be submitted for publication elsewhere. A coverletter must be submitted together with the submitted paper to confirmthat the paper contains original material only. Papers that have beenpreviously published in conference proceedings are suitable forconsideration for PMC publication only if the PMC submission is asubstantial revision of the conference paper containing significant novelmaterial (at least 30% of additional material). In this case, at thesubmission time, the authors must indicate in the cover letter when andwhere the paper has been published, and explain the major differences ofthe PMC submission with respect to earlier publication(s). A copy of theearlier publication(s) should be provided as part of the submission.Violations of these rules will normally result in an immediate rejectionof the submission without further review.
    Submission to the journal

    Electronic Submissions only:

    All manuscripts and any supplementary material should be submitted via the journal's online submission and peer-review systems at follow the instructions given on this site.

    It is essential that authors provide fax and telephone numbers and an e-mail address when submitting a manuscript.

    When special issue papers are submitted, the authors should choose the right article type related to the specific special issue they are submitting to

    Open Access

    This journal offers authors two choices to publish their research;

    1. Open Access
      • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
      • An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    2. Subscription
      • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (
      • No Open Access publication fee

    All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:

    Creative Commons Attribution (CC–BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

    Creative Commons Attribution–NonCommercial–NoDerivs (CC–BY–NC–ND): for non–commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access.

    The Open Access publication fee for this journal is $USD 2400, excluding taxes.

    Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy

    General Author Instructions

    Contributions should be arranged as follows:

    Paper title, authors name, affiliations, full postal address, telephone, fax, and e-mail details. The title should be short, specific and informative.

    Self-contained abstract of no more than 100 words, outlining the aims, scope and conclusion of the paper. Three to five keywords must be included.

    The text, suitably divided under numbered headings (introduction; method; result; discussion)
    Acknowledgements(if any)
    References (following the journal's style)
    Appendix (if any)
    Tables (each on a separate sheet)
    Captions to illustrations (grouped on a separate sheet)

    Illustrations, each on a separate sheet and clearly labelled if not using electronic submissionEnsure that all figures and tables are mentioned in the text. Note that trade name should have a capital letter. Footnotes should be avoided if possible and be brief. They should be numbered consecutively. Abbreviations and acronyms should only be used for unwieldy terms and names that occur frequently. Abbreviation should be consistently throughout the text, and must be clearly defined in full on first use.

    Print the entire manuscript on one side of the paper only, using double spacing and wide (3 cm) margins. (Avoid full justification, i.e., do not use a constant right-hand margin.) Ensure that each new paragraph is clearly indicated. Present tables and figure legends on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. If possible, consult a recent issue of the journal to become familiar with layout and conventions. Number all pages consecutively by Arabic numbers.

    Subdivision of the article
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text.' Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: (Eq. A.1), (Eq. A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, (Eq. B.1) and so forth.

    Equations should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in parentheses. The meaning of all symbols should be explained in the text when they first occur. Journal style for letter symbols is as follows: variables, italic type; constants, roman type; matrices and vectors, bold type.

    Mathematical formulae
    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line, e.g., Xp/Ym rather than Xp Ym

    Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separate from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Tables should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and given a suitable caption. All table columns should have an explanatory heading, and where appropriate units of measurement. Footnotes to table should be typed below the table and referred to by superscript letters. Tables should not duplicate results presented elsewhere in the manuscript.

    Figures should be provided in a form suitable for photographic reproduction and reduction. Lettering should be uniform of size corresponding to the anticipated reduction. Handwritten lettering on figures is not acceptable. Figures should be identified by Arabic numerals and the captions should be typed, double-spaced, on a separate sheet rather than lettered on the figures themselves. Photographs and coloured pictures must be of impeccable quality. Please note that for colour photographs the publisher will charge the printing costs to the author.

    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions on a separate sheet, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Electronic Artwork
    Submitting your illustrations, pictures, tables and other artwork in an electronic format helps us to produce your work to the best possible standards, ensuring accuracy, clarity and a high level of detail. Please refer to for detailed instructions. This site shows how to prepare your artwork for electronic submission and includes: common problems, suggestions on how to ensure the best results, and guidelines for popular applications. See the links under Creating your Artwork for details about using specific artwork software.

    If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web(e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) and the printed version. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves on a separate sheet at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

    Table footnotes. Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.References In the text, indicate references by Arabic numerals in square brackets. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications should not be in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Reports should not be cited unless absolutely necessary.

    To cite a web reference, as a minimum, the full URL should be given. Any further information, if known (author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given.


    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Reference formatting
    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume and issue/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
    Example: '..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones [8] obtained a different result ....'
    List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
    Reference to a journal publication:
    [1] J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2010) 51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    [2] W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, fourth ed., Longman, New York, 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    [3] G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 281–304.-------------------------------------------------------------
    Electronic submission of accepted papers: LaTeX documents

    If the LaTeX file is suitable, proofs will be produced without rekeying the text. The article should preferably be written using Elsevier's document class 'elsart', or alternatively the standard document class 'article'. The Elsevier LaTeX package (which includes detailed instructions for LaTeX preparation) can be obtained from Elsevier's web site: It consists of the files: elsart.cls (use this file if you are using LaTeX2e, the current version of LaTeX), elsart.sty and elsart13.sty (use these two files if you are using LaTeX3.09, the previous version of LaTeX), guidelines for users of elsart, a template file for quick start, and the instruction booklet "Preparing articles with LaTeX." Figures may be inserted in the usual way using an \includegraphics command, at the position in the article where they are cited.Your LaTeX file will be most useful as input for the printed article if you obey the following rules of thumb:Be consistent. If you use a macro for a phrase, use it throughout.Use standard LaTeX mark-up. Do not hardcode your own layout for e.g. section headings, but use the usual LaTeX macro for this purpose.Keep it simple. Do not define macros that accomplish complicated layout. They will also make the input process complicated.
    Electronic submission of accepted papers: Non-LaTeX documents

    Only the final accepted manuscript can be submitted on disk, along with a paper-printed version which is identical to the file. Please label the disk with your name, and mention which word processor you have used. The word-processed text should be in single column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible; in particular, do not use the word-processor's options to justify the text or to hyphenate the words. The list of references, tables and figure legends should be compiled separately from the main text. Do not reserve space for the figures and tables in the text; instead, indicate their approximate locations, either directly in the electronic text or on the manuscript. The final text should be submitted both in manuscript form and on diskette. It is recommended to store the main text, list of references, tables and figure legends in separate text files with clearly identifiable file names (for example, with extensions .TXT, REF, .TBL, .FIG). The format of the files depends on the word-processor used. Essential is that name and version of the word-processing program and the type of computer on which the text was prepared is clearly indicated on the diskette label or the accompanying checklist. The manuscript may contain parts (e.g. formulas or complex tables) or last-minute corrections which are not included in the text on diskette; however, if this is the case then the differences with the diskette version should be clearly marked on the manuscript.Illustrative material (original figures or high-quality glossy prints, or photographs showing a sharp contrast) should be included separately.No changes from the accepted version are permissible, without the explicit approval by the Editors. The Publisher reserves the right to decide whether to use the author's file or not. If the file is sent by e-mail, the full name of the journal should be mentioned in the subject field of the message to identify the paper.Authors should include an ASCII table (available from the Publisher) in their files to enable the detection of transmission errors.

    This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project. Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the “References” section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

    Data linking
    If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that give them a better understanding of the research described. There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page .For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

    Mendeley Data
    This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online. For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page

    Data statement
    To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data statement page.-------------------------------------------------------------
    Keyword Instructions

    Important Notice: please add one to five keywords to your article. Keywords are essential for the accessibility and retrievability of your article. Keywords assigned to articles will be assembled in a keyword index which will be printed in the last issue of each volume for each journal, and in cumulative indexes. In addition, it is planned to make keywords available on Internet. To maximize the consistency with which such keywords are assigned by different authors, the following guidelines have been drawn up.Each keyword (which can be a phrase of more than one word) should describe one single concept. Often words like "and" or "of" should be avoided. Avoid very general keywords which become meaningless once in a keyword list. Examples to avoid are "action", "computer", "mathematics". Check whether the keywords as a whole describe the outlines of the article. Use natural language: for instance "automatic error recovery" rather than "error recovery, automatic".Try to use nouns and adjectives as much as possible (i.e. use "automatic error recovery" rather than "recovering errors automatically"). Do not use nouns in the plural form.Use English rather than American spelling (regardless of the spelling used for the article itself).Avoid the use of abbreviations as much as possible, unless an abbreviation is so well-established that the full term is rarely used (e.g. use "laser" instead of "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation", but use" computer aided design" instead of "CAD").Although these guidelines are not mandatory, they should be adhered to where possible.

    The corresponding author will receive page proofs in PDF format to be checked for typesetting/editing. Corrections should be returned to the Publisher within 48 hours of receipt. Should there be no corrections, this should be indicated. The Publisher reserves the right to proceed with publication if corrections are not communicated.

    Author benefits
    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use.