Your Paper Your Way
We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.
E. Steve Roach, MD
Department of NeurologyOhio State University and Nationwide Children’s Hospital
700 Children’s DriveColumbus, OH 43205
Telephone: 614-722-4691; 614-722-4689Fax: 614-722-4633 Assistance with EVISE
The journal utilizes Elsevier’s manuscript submission platform (EVISE). Should you experience any difficulty uploading your manuscript with this new system, please contact the journal manager at Pn.U@Elsevier.com.
An excellent journal should consistently influence the future development of the field, not merely catalogue information. Pediatric Neurology will enhance the exchange of ideas and provide essential information to individuals who treat children with neurological disorders.
Review articles should synthesize new and established information on an important clinical subject. Unsolicited review article contributions will be considered, but we suggest that contributors contact the editors regarding the suitability and scope of review article ideas prior to submitting an unsolicited manuscript. Review articles should not exceed 4000 words or 125 references unless approved in advance by the editor. An abstract is required but it need not be structured.
These articles report clinical or laboratory studies of clinical relevance. Original articles typically describe clinical trials, case-control studies, intervention trials, epidemiological studies, cohort studies, meta-analyses, quality improvement studies, consensus statements, or methodological design summaries from clinical trials. These manuscripts should not exceed 4000 words exclusive of references unless approved in advance by the editors. Up to 65 references may be included, and a structured abstract is required.
Research letters provide short, focused presentations of original research. Any of the study categories shown in Original Articles may be submitted as Research Letters. These manuscripts should not exceed 600 words exclusive of references. They may include one or two small figures or tables, up to six authors, six references, and four key words. An abstract is not required, and online supplemental material is not allowed. Manuscripts in this category should be submitted as short communication papers.
Clinical observations are focused reports that typically present a small case series (single case reports are unlikely to be accepted), limited chart review, pilot trial or other clinically relevant studies. These reports should describe new or unusual conditions or provide new insight into a disorder's diagnosis, treatment, or pathophysiology. Clinical observations should not exceed 1500 words and 15 references. A structured abstract is required. Manuscripts in this category should be submitted as short communication papers.
Clinical letters provide a short, focused presentation of novel observations based on a single patient or a small case series. They should not exceed 600 words exclusive of references. They may include one or two small figures or tables, up to six authors, four key words, and up to six references. An abstract is not required, and online supplemental material is not allowed. Manuscripts in this category should be submitted as short communication papers.
Perspectives in Pediatric Neurology features commentaries about provocative or rapidly evolving issues that affect the practice of child neurology or clinical training. These essays may also examine the interface between cultural and medical issues or unveil new hypotheses. These submissions must have fewer than 1200 words, no more than two authors, and ten or fewer references. An abstract is not required. Manuscripts in this category should be submitted as opinion papers.
These photoessays feature remarkable pictures or a video illustrating a physical finding or a test result. Visual diagnosis submissions must have instructive value and clinical relevance but need not include new observations. These manuscripts should have no more than 350 words (inclusive of references and figure legends), a maximum of four references, 3-4 key words, and up to three authors. A typical submission consists of a one paragraph patient summary, a one to two paragraph discussion, and up to two images depicting physical signs, radiographic abnormalities, or pathological specimens. An abstract is not required.
We consider papers that describe the key contributions of individuals or trace the development of disease concepts. Historical vignettes that are likely to be longer than 1200 words exclusive of references should be discussed with the editors prior to submission. Manuscripts in this category should be submitted as opinion papers. An abstract is required but need not be structured.
Letters to the editor:
Letters to the editor are published in the on-line pages but not included in the print journal. Letters to the editor typically offer comments on material published in Pediatric Neurology during the past few months or introduce. Letters should not exceed 500 words and 5 references. Responses to published letters must meet similar requirements.
The editors encourage publication by physicians in training and have developed a pathway to facilitate such scholarly endeavors to the extent possible. To be considered for this program, submit with the manuscript a letter from your residency or fellowship program director stating the date of training completion, confirming that the work described in the manuscript was done during the individual's training, and attesting that the program director has read and approved the manuscript prior to submission. Presently, the enhanced review process described below is offered only to North American neurology and neurosurgery residents and fellows, although we welcome routine submissions from individuals from all regions.
The trainee must be the first author of the submitted manuscript and have at least one senior physician serving as a co-author and project mentor. The manuscript should summarize work done during training, but it may be submitted up to one year following completion of training. Submissions from residents and fellows undergo an initial review by an editor, who will then either forward the manuscript for peer review, return the manuscript to the authors with suggested changes prior to peer review, or provide the authors with a detailed explanation of why the manuscript cannot be published. We ask peer reviewers to provide constructive written feedback containing practical suggestions for improving the manuscript. We sometimes allow multiple revisions when additional changes might realistically lead to publication.These measures are designed to create a constructive and less threatening process for less experienced authors. Despite this collaborative approach, many trainee manuscripts cannot be accepted. Each accepted manuscript must meet the same standards as the journal's other articles. For this reason, articles accepted via this program will not be specifically identified as trainee submissions at the time of publication.
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Include keywords
• Indicate the word count on the title page
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.
Human and animal rights
If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
The authors should have access to all of a study's relevant data. The first draft of each manuscript should be written by one or more of the listed authors. Paid editors are allowed, but the source of their funding and the nature of any work they performed should be fully disclosed. Similarly, the affiliation and funding source of statisticians or data analysts who are not listed authors should be disclosed.
Ghost-written papers are not permitted.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Public Access Policy Compliance
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) policy requires that NIH-funded investigators submit any final peer-reviewed manuscripts to PubMed Central (PMC) and that these appear on PMC no later than 12 months after final publication. To comply with this NIH Public Access Policy, Elsevier will submit the final peer-reviewed manuscripts (reflecting any changes made by the authors in response to the peer-review process) to PMC on behalf of authors reporting NIH funding of the submitted work. Elsevier will authorize the manuscript's public access posting 12 months after final its publication. Authors should declare their NIH funding when completing the copyright transfer form.
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of the two). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Informed consent and patient details
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Submit your article
Please submit your article via https://www.evise.com/profile/api/navigate/PNU.
Authors who are unable to submit electronically should contact the editorial office (email@example.com) to discuss alternative means of submission.
The authors should submit a cover letter containing an assurance that (1) all coauthors have read and agreed to the content of the manuscript, (2) a description of any commercial involvement in the study design or manuscript preparation or other conflicts of interest by any of the author, and (3) an explanation of any unusual circumstances that could influence the assessment of the manuscript.
Manuscript Review Process
All manuscripts are initially reviewed by a Pediatric Neurology editor. Submissions that are clearly outside the scope of Pediatric Neurology will be declined without further review. Manuscripts that are so poorly written or incomplete that it hampers the review process will also be declined but with the option of resubmission if the concerns have been addressed. All submitted manuscripts are analyzed with plagiarism detection software prior to undergoing editorial review.
E-publication Ahead of Print
All accepted manuscripts are subject to copyediting. Before publication, page proofs are sent to the corresponding author, who is responsible for verifying the final manuscript contents, including all copyediting changes. Once a manuscript has been typeset, copyedited, and approved by the editor and the authors, it will soon appear online in our “Articles in Press” section.
Authors may request rapid review and expedited publication of manuscripts they consider to be of vital significance to the field. To initiate the rapid review process, the authors should submit an e-mail to the editor-in-chief outlining the reasons why the manuscript is important. The editor will ensure a rapid review and editorial decision, and successful manuscripts will be considered for publication in the next available issue of the journal. NEW SUBMISSIONS
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.
There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections.
Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file. The corresponding caption should be placed directly below the figure or table.
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Manuscripts that are potentially suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
Manuscripts should be written in idiomatic English using appropriate scientific terms. Authors whose native language is not English should seek assistance from a colleague who is proficient in English for help with spelling, syntax, and style issues.
Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.
For manuscripts requiring statistical analysis, please provide a subsection on statistical methodology at the end of the Methods section that describes the statistical analysis employed for the data presented in the manuscript. In this section, please also identify any the statistical software package that was utilized. Data should be cited with mean +/- Standard Deviation (SD) or Standard Error (SE). If a P value is cited, the authors should indicate the statistic (e.g., 2-tailed T test, Chi square test, Fisher test). P-values larger than 0.01 should be reported to two decimal places, those between 0.01 and 0.001 to three decimal places, and those smaller than 0.001 should be reported as p<0.001.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
• Please list the manuscript's word count.
• The complete title of the manuscript (should not to exceed 120 characters and spaces) and a shorter running title (not to exceed 35 characters and spaces) should both appear on the title page.
Up to three authors may be granted joint first authorship if they have shared equally in the work. Any individual who is designated as an author must have participated actively in the design or conduct of the study, analysis of data, and writing or revising the article for scientific content. Joint first authorship will be designated by a footnote indicating that the individuals “were equally responsible for the work described in this paper.”
A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.
An abstract should be a single paragraph of no more than 250 words for review papers and longer original articles and comparatively shorter for case reports and brief reports.
Please include four to eight key words. These may be listed at the bottom of the abstract page. For manuscripts that do not require an abstract, list the key words on a separate page following the title page.
We minimize the use of abbreviations, especially in the abstract. All abbreviations, even those for common terms such as CT and MRI, must be defined by writing the full name of the abbreviated term followed by the abbreviation in parentheses at the point of first mention within the body of the manuscript.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Commercial Products
Please utilize generic names for pharmacologic agents, proprietary techniques, or other commercial products. If for some reason it is necessary to include a proprietary name for a product, list the brand name parenthetically after the first use of the generic name. Thereafter, continue to utilize the generic name.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.
Any digital enhancement techniques applied to figure images must be described in detail in the figure legend. Please also include a comparison copy of the same image prior to the modification.
All figures must be cross-referenced within the manuscript text and numbered in the order they are mentioned. Figure legends should describe its illustration in sufficient detail that a reader can interpret the illustration without repeated reference to the manuscript’s text. Figure legends should be placed in the manuscript after the list of references.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
The journal encourages authors to supplement in-article microscopic images with corresponding high resolution versions for use with the Virtual Microscope viewer. The Virtual Microscope is a web based viewer that enables users to view microscopic images at the highest level of detail and provides features such as zoom and pan. This feature for the first time gives authors the opportunity to share true high resolution microscopic images with their readers. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/about/content-innovation/virtual-microscope. Authors of this journal will receive an invitation e-mail to create microscope images for use with the Virtual Microscope when their manuscript is first reviewed. If you opt to use the feature, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org for instructions on how to prepare and upload the required high resolution images.
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
For purposes of the initial manuscript review, the table formatting is unimportant provided that the material is easily interpretable by the reviewer. After a manuscript has been accepted for publication, we may request that you convert tables into a different format that use spaces, not vertical lines, to separate columns. You may need to convert or copy data from statistical or spreadsheet software into a Microsoft Word file in order to preserve the manuscript’s formatting.
Number the table pages consecutively with the rest of the manuscript. Tables must be cited within the text. Multiple tables should be identified with Arabic numerals (for example, Table 1 and Table 2) in the order of their text appearance. Please provide a concise title for each table. Some tables will benefit from a brief legend explaining its organization and content. Explanatory notes, and definitions of abbreviations, and source attribution for borrowed material should appear immediately underneath the table’s legend. Table footnotes should be designated by symbols (such as *, †, ‡, §, ¶, #, ††, or ‡‡).References
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.
A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.Web References
Cited web pages should include the last date accessed by the authors. We recommend that the authors print a file copy of the accessed pages in case the site later becomes dysfunctional.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:
Pediatric Neurology uses the same reference format as the AMA journals.
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
 Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a book:
 Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
 Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13 March 2003].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset]  Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB in total. Any single file should not exceed 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Every video submitted for an article must be accompanied by a corresponding video still that is cited as a figure in the body of the submission. The figure caption for this still should reference the video.
Video illustrations are subject to the same documentation of patient or family consent as photographic illustrations.
Please read and follow the Multimedia section of the Author Artwork Instructions PDF guide to be found at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.Supplementary material
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.
The journal encourages authors to supplement in-article microscopic images with corresponding high resolution versions for use with the Virtual Microscope viewer. The Virtual Microscope is a web based viewer that enables users to view microscopic images at the highest level of detail and provides features such as zoom and pan. This feature for the first time gives authors the opportunity to share true high resolution microscopic images with their readers. More information and examples. Authors of this journal will receive an invitation e-mail to create microscope images for use with the Virtual Microscope when their manuscript is first reviewed. If you opt to use the feature, please contact email@example.com for instructions on how to prepare and upload the required high resolution images.
We prefer not to re-use previously published tables or figures in original articles in Pediatric Neurology, although previously printed illustrations may be suitable for reviews, historical vignettes, and selected other papers. Authors who intend to include previously published material must submit written permission to republish the items from both the copyright holder and the author. The source of any republished material should be listed in the bibliography and this entry cited in the appropriate portion of the manuscript along with an appropriate notation that the material was “reprinted with permission from…..”
Previously unpublished material that belongs to an individual other than the authors should be acknowledged in the manuscript at the point where the material is used (e.g. “photograph courtesy of Dr. John Smith”) and accompanied by written permission to publish the material from the donor.Any cost associated with the republication is the responsibility of the authors. Online proof correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
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