Pain Management Nursing is a refereed journal and the official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nursing. The purpose of the journal is to provide pain management professionals, particularly nurses, with excellent articles providing insights in the areas of research, evidence-based clinical practice, quality improvement, education, administration, and advocacy. Additional journal features include practice guidelines and pharmacology updates. Submissions must include a specific description of how the content applies to pain management nursing practice.
“Feature” articles provide an opportunity to address important topics affecting pain management nursing practice. These articles are typically 3000 to 6500 words (double spaced in APA format) and provide an opportunity to address important topics affecting pain management nursing practice. Topics can vary tremendously and focus on a variety of areas such as reports of research findings, quality improvement projects, review articles, administrative or leadership challenges, special care considerations for selected patient/family populations (e.g., diabetic, obese, orthopedic, pediatric, older adult etc.), clinical consultations, book reviews, and/or assessment tools used in pain management nursing practice. Within PMN, there are also continuing education opportunities. If your submission does not fit into these formats, please contact the editor to determine if you should submit your work.Research Articles:
Articles reporting original research are welcomed. These submissions when applicable must adhere to recognized reporting guidelines relevant to research design used in the article.
- Manuscripts reporting randomized control trials should refer to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines are available at http://www.consort-statement.org/ when prepared.
- For quasi-experimental/non randomize studies, the TREND (Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-Randomized Designs available at https://www.cdc.gov/trendstatement/pdf/trendstatement_TREND_Checklist.pdf
- Authors of qualitative studies should also refer to the guidelines known as COREQ (Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research) http://cdn.elsevier.com/promis_misc/ISSM_COREQ_Checklist.pdf
- Observational study reports (i.e., case control, cohort, and cross sectional studies) are referred to the STROBE Guidelines at http://www.strobe-statement.org/index.php?id=strobe-homewhere checklists are also available.
- For quality improvement articles, use the SQUIRE guidelines and include all elements listed. These guidelines are obtained at http://www.squire-statement.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=Page.ViewPage&PageID=471.
The journal accepts integrative as well as systematic reviews of qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research. For systematic and meta-analysis reviews, it is strongly recommended that authors follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, available at: http://www.prisma-statement.org/ in the development of their reviews. Authors presenting meta-syntheses should access the COREQ guidelines already mentioned. As part of any review, authors are expected to include a statement early in their work about the type of review they are presenting and follow the stipulated guidelines. All reviews must contain clearly formulated research questions, explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, report how data were collected and analyzed data along with a results section, conclusion, and implications of the findings to pain management practice. Meta-analysis (statistical techniques to integrate the results of included studies) may or may not be used to analyze and summarize the results.Clinical Consultation Articles
The Clinical Consultation is designed to address important, recurrent, and challenging clinical practices for pain management professionals. The primary purpose of this feature is to stimulate discussion and advance pain management nursing and interprofessional practice. Readers should be able to take the practical, evidence-based information contained in the Clinical Consultation article and use it to more effectively manage a persistent clinical practice dilemma. The manuscript should include the following:
- Clinical situation (presented as a question and description of an exemplary case study). Example question: What are most salient factors to consider in pain management of older adults following a hip fracture repair? How do you determine if your patient is depressed?
- Description of major current evidence-based interventions
- Concluding paragraph describing what evidence still needs to be developed and the rationale
- References to support your rationale for action
- Tables and figures may be used, but are not necessary unless they illuminate the content
Format and Style of Manuscript
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 6th edition has the format for references, headings, and other matters. Check here for additional information about APA style: http://www.apastyle.org/faqs.html. Note below that PMN guidelines differ slightly from APA guidelines, for example, the PMN requirements of structured abstract and additional information about authors differ.
- Articles should be in a 12-point font, double-spaced, in either Times New Roman or Courier and as a Word document or as Rich Text (this includes all tables and figures) with standard margins (about 1 inch). Fancy typefaces, italics, underlining, and bolding should not be used except as prescribed in the APA guidelines. Articles should be submitted with numbered lines (formatted in the Word document) and the lines should be continuous throughout the document.
- The majority of articles should be no more than 6500 words including abstract, text, references, tables, and figures, except for the Clinical Consultation that is approximately2500 words in length. The author is responsible for compliance with APA format and for the accuracy of all information, including citations and verification of all references with citations in the text. Spelling should be in American English.
- Credentials Authors should list their credentials in the following order:
- Highest degree held, professional licensure, certifications in the order they were received, fellowships in order received (with FAAN listed last, if this is one of the credentials). For nurses, if the highest degree held is not in nursing, the highest nursing degree should also be listed.
Typical article content format includes:
- Title Page
Title Page Upload separately from body of the manuscript. Title page must include the following:
Title: The title should indicate the focus of the article in as few words as possible. It should not contain a colon or other complex structure. Titles should not exceed 10–12 words.
Running head: The running head is an abbreviated wording of the title; it usually is not more than four or five words and printed at the top of the pages of a manuscript. Prepare according to APA guidelines.
Author information: Indicate for each author: (a) name; (b) degrees and certifications (c) title or position, institution, and location; and (d) to whom correspondence should be sent, with full address, phone and fax numbers, and E-mail address; provide E-mail addresses for all coauthors.
Acknowledgements: If any acknowledgements are to be included, they should be briefly stated, such as name of funding source and grant number.
Abstract: A structured abstract that summarizes the content, is required and to be no more than 250 words (not applicable to the Clinical Consultation). The abstract should be on a separate page and not contain references or abbreviations.
- Abstracts for research articles and quality improvement articles should include Purpose; Design; Methods; Results, Conclusions, and Clinical Implications.
- Review article abstracts should provide a summary under the following headings, where possible: Objectives; Design; Data sources; Review/Analysis methods; Results, Conclusions, and Nursing Practice Implications.
- Clinical Consultations: This abstract is 100 words or less and has only two headings: specific clinical issue, major practice recommendations based on best evidence.
- Abstracts are not required for Editorials or papers about contemporary issues.
Keywords: A three to five key words that are recommended for use in indexing should be listed at the end of the abstract. Please use words listed in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The searchable MeSH database can be found at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh
Key Practice Points: 3-4 complete sentences describing the main points of the article.
Text: When preparing a manuscript, make sure your purpose statement occurs early in the document (usually page 1 or 2). In addition, your manuscript must coherently flow from beginning to the end as well as contain correct information, spelling and grammar.
References: All citations in the text must be listed in the references, and all references should be cited in the text. References should be no older than 10 - 15 years (excluding classic references). Please use the most current references where possible - preferably within the last 5 years. Precisely follow the APA reference format adhering to rules for italic and plain font and uses of spaces, commas, and periods. Include DOI numbers for all sources for which they are available.
Tables and Figures: Each table and figure should be presented and submitted separately. Each table and figure should include enough information to show the specific measures, units, and statistical manipulations.
Permission to Quote: The author is responsible for securing written permission of first author and publisher for quotation or reproduction of any materials that require such permission. This documentation of permission should be included with the manuscript at the time of submission as a separate upload.
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
- A one-page cover letter must accompany all submitted manuscripts. In addition to the request for publication, the cover letter should address the reason the author seeks publication in this particular journal. The cover letter should also provide the name, complete address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address of the corresponding author. This letter should also state if Institutional Review Approval (IRB) has been obtained and that this submission has not been submitted elsewhere at the same time.
- The article was prepared according to format for articles and all sections included.
- All necessary files have been uploaded:Manuscript:
- Include keywords and abstract as appropriate
- All figures (include relevant captions)
- All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
- Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
- Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts/Key Point files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
- Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked' for American-style English.
- All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa and must be in the 6th edition of American Psychological Association (APA) format.
- Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
- Relevant declarations of interest have been correctly documented.
- Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed (e.g. ethics in publishing, informed consent of study participants, etc.).
For further information, visit our Support CenterHuman and animal rights
If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.
All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.
Pain Management Nursing requires authorship to include a registered nurse as part of the paper to be considered for acceptance.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Please write your text in American English. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/ or visit our customer support site http://support.elsevier.com for more information.
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Please submit your article via https://www.evise.com/profile/api/navigate/PMN.
A one-page cover letter must accompany all submitted manuscripts. In addition to the request for publication, the cover letter should address the reason the author seeks publication in this particular journal. The cover letter should also provide the name, complete address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address of the corresponding author.
This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.
The content of your paper should determine the level headings used. For quantitative research papers the level headings should include the usual layout such as Background (including problem, purpose and significance); Literature Review; Methods (including research question, design, & procedures); Data/Results; Discussion; Implications for nursing education, practice and research; and Conclusions. Be sure to refer to the APA manual for the proper placement of level headings within the manuscript (see APA, 6th ed., p. 62). For reviews, the level headings should include, insofar as possible: Objectives, Design; Data sources; Review methods; Results; Implications for nursing; and Conclusions. Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described. Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. Appendices
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
The abstract should appear on a separate page and should not exceed 250 words. The abstract should not include references of abbreviations. Abstracts for research papers should be structured to include Background; Aims; Design; Settings; Participants/Subjects; Methods; Results and Conclusions. Abstracts for reviews should provide a summary under the following headings, where possible: Objectives; Design; Data sources; Review/Analysis methods; Results and Conclusions. Abstracts are not allowed for Editorials or papers about contemporary issues
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.
Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights are optional and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.
Include a maximum of 6 key words for indexing purposes. The purpose of key words is to increase the accessibility of your paper to potential readers searching the literature. Refer to a recognized thesaurus of keywords whenever possible, such as Medical Subject Headings (MESH) thesaurus or Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) headings (see http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html). Key words are placed a few lines below the abstract on the same page
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.
A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Text: Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association. You are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5, copies of which may be ordered online or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, USA or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, UK.
List: references should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
Reference to a journal publication:
Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J., & Lupton, R. A. (2010). The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163, 51–59.
Reference to a book:
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (2000). The elements of style. (4th ed.). New York: Longman, (Chapter 4).
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam, G. R., & Adams, L. B. (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, & R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age (pp. 281–304). New York: E-Publishing Inc.
Reference to a website:
Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK. (2003). http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/ Accessed 13 March 2003.
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T. (2015). Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
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This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
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