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Aims and Scope
Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia is the official, peer-reviewed open-access journal of the Asian Federation of Osteoporosis Societies (AFOS). The journal aims to further research in the areas of osteoporosis, fracture, sarcopenia, frailty, metabolic bone diseases, mineral metabolism, as well as biology, physiology, and pathology of bone and muscle with a specific focus on Asian uniqueness in genetic, ethnic, social, and environmental differences. Despite the journal’s Asian focus, we welcome appropriate submissions from all over the world.
The cover page of the Journal will reflect AFOS joint representation as described with ‘An Official Journal of the AFOS’ and ‘An Official Journal of the Korean Society of Osteoporosis (KSO)’ and ‘An Official Journal of the Taiwanese Osteoporosis Association (TOA)’.
AFOS Journal Editorial Office, the Korean Society of Osteoporosis,
Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Address: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine,
164 Worldcup-ro, Suwon City, Gyeonggi-do, 16499, South Korea
Phone: +82-31-213-2530, +82-31-219-5127
Fax: +82-31-213-2530, +82-31-219-4497
Editor-in-Chief: Yoon-Sok Chung (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Managing Editor: Yong Jun Choi (e-mail: email@example.com)
Editorial Office: Sarah Cha (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Submission of a manuscript implies:
o that the work described has not been previously published (except in the form of an abstract);
o that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere;
o that it has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institute where the work was carried out;
o that, if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of copyright to the Korean Society of Osteoporosis;
o that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without consent from the Korean Society of Osteoporosis;
o that written permission has been obtained by the authors from the copyright holders of material used from other copyrighted sources.
All articles published in the Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Korean Society of Osteoporosis.
Requests for information and orders should be addressed to the Editorial Office. Advertisements are reviewed in light of appropriate ethical considerations before being accepted for publication. The publication of advertisements relies on the responsibility of the advertiser to comply with all legal requirements relating to the marketing and sale of the products or services advertised. The publication of an advertisement neither constitutes nor implies a guarantee or endorsement, by the Korean Society of Osteoporosis, of the product or service advertised, or the claims made for it by the advertiser. The Korean Society of Osteoporosis reserves the right to discontinue any advertisement it so wishes.
While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate at the date of it going to press, the authors, the Korean Society of Osteoporosis and Elsevier, cannot accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. They make no warranty, express or implied, with respect to material contained herein. To the extent permissible under applicable laws, no responsibility is assumed by the Korean Society of Osteoporosis or Elsevier for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a result of any actual or alleged libelous statements, infringement of intellectual property or privacy rights, or products liability, whether resulting from negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any ideas, instructions, procedures, products or methods contained in the material herein. The opinions expressed in this journal belong to the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Korean Society of Osteoporosis and Elsevier.
This paper meets the requirements of KS X ISO9706, ISO 9706-1994 and ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper).
Full-text of articles are available at: www.elsevier.com/locate/afos
Printed in Korea
Types of paper
Editorial:These are manuscripts that are related to materials within an issue; they raise challenging questions or expose controversies. The editor solicits such opinion pieces. The order of the submitted manuscripts includes title page, integrated discussion, conflict of interest, acknowledgments (if applicable) and references. The text should be limited to 1,500 words of body text and 10 references. No figures or tables are included.
Original article: Original articles are papers containing results of basic and clinical investigations, which are sufficiently well documented to be acceptable to critical readers including the text of the manuscript, references, figures, figure legends, tables, and table footnotes. Papers should be structured into headed sections as follows: Title page, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of interest, Acknowledgments and References. Maximum length of manuscript is about 5,000 words of body text, excluding the abstract, references, figures, and tables. These articles are usually limited to 45 references and 6 figures or tables, and up to 10 printed pages.Case reports: Case reports should provide new information that enhances our knowledge of the clinical aspects. In principle, case series of scientific and medical importance will be accepted. Case reports should not exceed 2,000 words and include no more than two supporting figures or tables and 20 references.
Reviews and Perspectives (including Position Papers, Opinion Papers, Guidelines and Consensus Statements): Reviews and Perspectives are usually solicited by the Editor-in-Chief and describe concise review on subjects of importance to medical researchers. Authors who wish to submit an unsolicited review or perspective should contact the Editor-in-Chief to determine the appropriateness of their review for publication. These articles are limited to 10,000 words of body text, excluding the abstract, references, figures, and tables. The Editors also suggest a limit of 100 references, no more than 10 figures up to 20 printed pages.Letters to the Editor: Two styles of Letter to the Editor will be considered for publication: (1) Letters that reference an article published in 'Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia'. Letters are to be submitted online usually no more than 3 months after the date of the issue in which the related article appeared; (2) Discourse that sheds light on the understanding of the study on osteoporosis or sarcopenia. This should be structured as a letter to the Editor. Letters should be brief and contain no more than 500 words. All data presented in the letter must be fully citable and listed as a supporting reference.
Please ensure that you select the appropriate article type from the list of options when making your submission. Authors contributing to special issues should ensure that they select the special issue article type from this list.
Editorial Ethics Committee
The Editorial Board will continuously strive in monitoring / safeguarding research and publication ethics: Registration of Clinical Trial Research / Conflict of Interest / Statement of Informed Consent / Patient Photographic and Videographic Consent / Statement of Human and Animal Rights / Copyright and Licensing / Authorship / Plagiarism / Originality and Duplicate Publication / Secondary Publication. With regard to unjustifiable acts in research and publication ethics, The Editorial Board shall decide whether to take disciplinary action or not after thorough investigation based on various standardized guidelines (including Committee on Publication Ethics, COPE) by the Editorial Ethics Committee.
- Editorial Ethics Committee composition and operation
- Matters that pertain to research ethics shall be deliberated by the Editorial Ethics Committee.
- Deliberation of matters that pertain to research ethics shall be decided when more than half of committee members reaches a majority who vote in favor of the decision.
- Editorial Ethics Committee members who are participants of the pertinent research are prohibited from deliberation of the research in the committee.
- The Editorial Ethics Committee chairperson reserves the right and is vested with the authority to request from the principle investigator or administrative investigator submission/written report of pertinent research data.
- Ethics deliberation of research results
- Editorial Committee members shall strive to request from professionals with knowledge in the respective field of expertise for evaluation of the submitted manuscript so as to attain a fair and objective evaluation of the manuscript.
- Editorial Board and Reviewing editorial members shall be prohibited from dissemination of manuscript author personal details or manuscript contents to persons other than committee members until the submitted manuscript has been accepted for publication.
- Reviewing editorial members are requested to fairly and objectively evaluate manuscripts which should be based not on personal academic interests/opinions or private interests that is related to the authors of the manuscript.
- Reviewing editorial members are prohibited from quoting details of the submitted manuscript that are obtained during review until publication without express consent from the manuscript authors.
Ethics in publishing
Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing https://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics
Duplicate and secondary publication
The papers already published to other scientific journals or periodicals are not considered for publication. The published paper to this journal should not be submitted to other scientific journal. Secondary publication is only possible when it is compatible to the ?Acceptable Secondary Publication? policy suggested in the conditions of secondary publication of the ICMJE Recommendations (http://www.icmje.org/urm_main.html).
Human and animal rights
If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with experiments involving humans and animal experiments at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals at http://www.icmje.org.
Data sharing statements for clinical trials
Clinical trials that begin enrolling participants on or after 1 January 2019 must include a data sharing plan in the trial's registration. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)'s policy regarding trial registration is explained at www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/publishing-and-editorial-issues/clinical-trial-registration.html. If the data sharing plan changes after registration this should be reflected in the statement submitted and published with the manuscript, and updated in the registry record.
Data sharing statements must indicate the following: whether individual deidentified participant data (including data dictionaries) will be shared; what data in particular will be shared; whether additional, related documents will be available (study protocol, statistical analysis plan, etc); when the data will become available and for how long; by what access criteria data will be shared (including with whom, for what types of analyses, and by what mechanism).
Conflict of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also https://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. The Conflicts of Interest form can be downloaded from: https://www.elsevier.com/__data/promis_misc/COI_Disclosure_AFOS.pdf.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service.
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.
For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be published, and (4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Every peer-reviewed research article appearing in this journal will be published open access. This means that the article is universally and freely accessible via the internet in perpetuity, in an easily readable format immediately after publication. The author does not have any publication charges for open access. The Korean Society of Osteoporosis will pay to make the article open access.
A CC user license manages the reuse of the article (see https://www.elsevier.com/about/policies/open-access-licenses). All articles will be published under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.
Please write your text in good English (American English is accepted). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service at http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageservices/languageediting/ available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Submission via online
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.
All manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
The cover letter should briefly outline the major findings of the study and the potential significance of these findings in the fields of bone and muscle research. Additionally, covering letter stating the material is not published previously, and will not be submitted for publication elsewhere, and stating conflicts of interest of all listed authors, if any.
Essential title page information
o Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
o Running title. A short running title (fewer than 40 characters, including spaces) should also be provided in English.
o Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lowercase superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, the e-mail address of each author.
o Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
o Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Original articles must have a structured abstract that states the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study in 250 words or fewer. Divide the abstract with the headings; (1) Objectives, (2) Methods, (3) Results, and (4) Conclusions. Review papers and case reports should have unstructured abstracts of less than 250 or 150 word, respectively.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example,and, of). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. For selecting keywords, refer to the Index Medicus Medical Subject Headings (National Library of Medicine (US). MeSH [Internet]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh).
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
Clearly describe the selection of observational or experimental participants (healthy individuals or patients, including controls), including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. Because the relevance of such variables as age, sex, or ethnicity is not always known at the time of study design, researchers should aim for inclusion of representative populations into all study types and at a minimum provide descriptive data for these and other relevant demographic variables.
Ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors), and, unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex and gender. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity and justify their relevance.
Results should be clear and concise
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section.
Collate acknowledgments in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving their readers one-click access to relevant databases (raw data) that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See https://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking for more information and a full list of supported databases.
All co-authors are recommended to describe about their Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) numbers at the https://orcid.org/.
Systme International (SI) units must be used with the exception of blood pressure, which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for length, area, mass and volume. There should be a space between the numerals and the unit symbol. When indicating time, the 24 hour system should be used.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
o Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
o Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
o Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
o Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
o Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
o Provide captions to illustrations separately.
o Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
o Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions is available.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply ‘as is’ in the native document format.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to ‘gray scale’ (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as ‘in press’ implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
References should be in the Vancouver style or format, especially end-reference list should be written on the basis of National Library Medicine - Citing Medicine (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine). Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present
When using the Vancouver style in-text: (1) Write the reference with an Arabic number in square brackets after the citation. (2) If you cite several sources in one sentence, cite them as [1-3] to refer to sources 1, 2 and 3 and [1-3,6] to refer to sources 1, 2, 3, and 6.
When writing a reference list (end-reference) in Vancouver style: (1) Number all references. (2) Arrange your list in the order in which the references appear in your text. (3) If there are more than 6 authors, list the first 6 authors followed by "et al.", (4) Use official abbreviations for titles of journals (if available). End-reference style follows the NLM citing medicine, but in some cases apply the in-house style.
Please refer to reference samples below.
Reference to a journal publication:
1) Journal article with equal or less than six authors
Dunn JM. A large mesenteric cyst complicating pregnancy. JAMA 1967;200:1129-31.
2) Journal article with more than six authors
Kang BM, Kim MR, Park HM, Yoon BK, Lee BS, Chung HW, et al. Attitudes of Korean clinicians to postmenopausal hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative study. Menopause 2006;13:125-9.
3) Book with a single author
Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany(NY): Delmar Publishes; 1996.
4) Chapter in a multi-authored book with editors
Disaia PJ, Creasman WT. The adnexal mass and early ovarian cancer. In: Disaia PJ, Creaseman WT, editors. Clinical gynecologic oncology. 5th ed. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book; 1997. p.253-61.
5) Conference/meeting presentation
Morrow GR, Ryan JL, Kohli S. Modafinil for persistent posttreatment fatigue: an open label study of 82 women with breast cancer. MASCC international symposia 2006, Abstract 11-070. 6) Internet or electronic resource
AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/. 7) All other references should follow the National Library Medicine - Citing Medicine (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine).
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Supplementary materials such as applications, images and sound clips, are usually not included in the printed journal, but can be published online with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the ‘Track Changes’ option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
o Full postal address
o Telephone and fax numbers
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
o All figure captions
o All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
o Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
o References are in the correct format for this journal
o All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
o Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
o Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval in case of a human study and indicate the IRB approval number in the article
o Conflicts of interest form(s)
o Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
o Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required For any further information please visit our customer support site at https://service.elsevier.com.
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions are sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles.
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online (Le Mans System). Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
You can track your submitted article at https://www.elsevier.com/track-submission. You can track your accepted article at https://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via https://service.elsevier.com.