Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology is required reading for anyone in the fields of oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology or advanced general practice dentistry. It is the only major dental journal that provides a practical and complete overview of the medical and surgical techniques of dental practice in four areas. Topics covered include such current issues as dental implants, treatment of HIV-infected patients, and evaluation and treatment of TMJ disorders. The official publication for nine societies, the Journal is recommended for initial purchase in the Brandon Hill study, Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library.
The Journal is ranked 43rd of 90 journals by impact factor in the Dentistry, Oral Surgery and Medicine category on the 2017 Journal Citation Reports®, published by Thomson Reuters.
Section Scope Statements
The Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Section aims to publish an extensive range of original articles that advances patient care through enhanced understanding of diagnosis, surgical and adjunctive treatment of diseases, and injuries and defects involving both the functional and esthetic aspects of the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial regions. The section also seeks research regarding both the basic science of and management of persons with oral and maxillofacial conditions. Articles presenting ethical, original, well-documented, and reproducible research are given preference.
The Oral Medicine Section aims to publish a broad range of original articles that help clinicians understand more thoroughly the pathobiology, etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and management of oral conditions related to underlying medical conditions, including diseases of the head, neck, and oral mucosal structures, orofacial pain conditions, salivary gland disorders, and taste disorders. The section also seeks research regarding the dental management of persons with medical problems and/or complicated medical conditions. The published findings must contribute substantively to the body of oral medicine literature and should lead to improved clinical decision-making and enhanced care of medically-related disorders or conditions affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. Articles presenting original, well-documented, and reproducible research are preferred.
The Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Section encourages the submission of original articles of high scientific quality that investigate the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. Submitted manuscripts may summarize findings from clinical, translational, or basic research in the broad field of oral and maxillofacial pathology but must contribute substantively to the body of knowledge in this field and should be of obvious clinical and/or diagnostic significance to the practicing oral and maxillofacial pathologist. Areas of focus may include the investigation of disease pathogenesis, the diagnosis of disease using microscopic, clinical, radiographic, biochemical, molecular, or other methods as well as the natural history and management of patients with various conditions of the head, neck, and oral mucosal structures. Diagnostic accuracy studies should conform to the principles of the STARD document http://www.stard-statement.org. Articles presenting novel and reproducible research that introduce new knowledge and observations are especially encouraged. This section also welcomes the submission of topical review papers on relevant subjects.
The Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Section publishes original peer-reviewed contributions to the advancement of diagnostic clinical oral and maxillofacial radiology and related imaging sciences. The section considers original clinical and experimental research papers, technological developments, extensive systematic reviews of the literature, comprehensive pictorial reviews, special reports, and invited papers on subjects that will appeal to clinicians involved in the diagnostic imaging of hard and soft tissue maxillofacial pathology, selection criteria, computer-assisted diagnosis, craniofacial analysis, image-guided surgical navigation, image processing, dosimetry, radiation physics, biology, and safety.
The section also seeks extensive case series representing various expressions of particular conditions, descriptions of innovative imaging technique applications to these series, and description of novel imaging features to assist imaging specialists develop clinical protocols and interpretive knowledge based on multiple observations. Only papers contributing substantively to the body of knowledge in oral and maxillofacial imaging and performed with scientific rigor will be considered. These papers should assist clinicians in developing evidence-based practice and provide improved clinical decision-making regarding the performance of specific techniques and interpretation of resulting images affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. Diagnostic accuracy studies should conform to the principles of the STARD document http://www.stard-statement.org).
1. Original Research Article. Reports of original research (preclinical, clinical, or translational) that are well-documented, novel, and significant. Original research manuscripts will be organized into six parts: (1) Abstract; (2) Introduction; (3) Materials and Methods; (4) Results; (5) Discussion; (6) References.
2. Review article. Manuscripts that review the current status of a given topic, diagnosis, or treatment. These manuscripts should not be an exhaustive review of the literature but rather should be a review of contemporary thought with respect to the topic. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses manuscripts should follow PRISMA (http://www.prisma-statement.org) and the Institute of Medicines' guidelines (http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2011/Finding-What-Works-in-Health-Care-Standards-for-Systematic-Reviews/Standards.aspx).3. Clinicopathologic Conference (CPC). Manuscripts that document interesting, challenging, or unusual cases that present unexpected or interesting diagnostic challenges. The presentation should simulate clinical work-up, including the formulation of a detailed and well thought out differential diagnosis. The complete diagnostic evaluation, management, and follow-up must be included. CPC articles must be organized into six parts: (1) Title: Provide a descriptive clinical title that does not reveal the final diagnosis. (2) Clinical presentation: Describe the clinical and imaging characteristics of the lesion. Use clinical photographs and radiographs as appropriate. (3) Differential diagnosis: List and discuss lesions to be considered as reasonable diagnostic possibilities. The authors are reminded that the most important part of the CPC manuscript is the clinical differential diagnosis, where the authors guide the readership through their own diagnostic thought process. This will require the formulation of a list of the most probable diagnostic possibilities (ideally at least 5-6 entities) based on the clinical presentation, medical history, and/or radiographic studies. (4) Diagnosis: Histopathologic findings illustrated with appropriate photomicrographs. (5) Management: Describe the treatment of the patient and response to treatment. (6) Discussion: Concentrate on the most interesting aspect(s) of the case. No abstract is needed for CPC manuscripts. Limit the number of references to no more than 25.
4. Medical Management and Pharmacology Update (MMPU). This section is intended to provide concise, current reviews of medical problems and how they relate to dentistry. Manuscripts should include a good review of the clinical aspects of the disease, stressing the impact of the disease on the dental management and dental treatment of the patient. Emphasis should be placed on new developments, new research, or new approaches to therapy or management. Manuscripts should not be an exhaustive review of the literature but rather a review of contemporary thought with respect to the topic. Likewise, the bibliography need not be all inclusive but rather should include only seminal, contemporary references deemed by the author to be most pertinent. The desired format for manuscripts submitted for the MMPU section includes: (1) abstract; (2) topic introduction/overview; (3) epidemiology/demographics; (4) etiology and pathogenesis; (5) clinical presentation/physical findings; (6) diagnosis (laboratory tests, diagnostic imaging, etc.); (7) medical management and treatment; (8) complications; (9) prognosis; oral manifestations/dental implications and significance; and (10) dental management (of patients with the disease). Manuscripts should not exceed 12 pages in 12-point, double-spaced Times New Roman (tables and figures count toward the 12-page limit).
5. Pharmacology Update is a component of the MMPU section that offers the reader the opportunity to obtain concise information regarding drugs used in the practice of medicine, clinical dentistry, and dental specialties. Manuscripts should present clearly and concisely the background information regarding the disease or condition that is managed, the indications, rationale for and approved uses of the specific drugs or class of drugs, the advantages and benefits of the drug or drug class over previous drugs, mechanism of action, criteria for selection, usual dosage, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, drug interactions, and oral health and dental management considerations. Emphasis should be placed on new developments, effectiveness in clinical trials, therapeutic outcomes, and safety. Manuscripts should reflect contemporary thought with respect to the topic. Use of figures to illustrate the mechanism of action and tables to present therapeutic outcomes, drug interactions, and adverse effects are encouraged. Manuscripts should utilize the MMPU categories for formatting the paper. Text should not exceed 3,000 words. Font should be 12-point, double-spaced Times New Roman. A maximum of 50 references is recommended.
General inquiries and communications regarding editorial management should be addressed to Alice M. Landwehr, Managing Editor: tripleOjournal@gmail.com.
General correspondence to the Editor-in-Chief, Mark W. Lingen, DDS, PhD: Mark.Lingen@uchospitals.edu
Publisher-specific inquiries should be addressed to: Jane Ryley, Elsevier Inc., 3251 Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, MO 63043; e-mail: J.Ryley@Elsevier.com.
Issue Manager, Elizabeth Rajesh; e-mail: e.rajesh@Elsevier.com. Ethics in publishing
Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
If there is any overlap between the submission and any other material, published or submitted, detail the nature of and reason for the overlap for the editors' assessment. Although poster presentations and abstracts are not considered duplicate publication, they should be stated on the title page. Further information about Elsevier's standards for publication ethics is available at https://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
All authors must have seen and approved the submission of the manuscript and be willing to take responsibility for the entire manuscript. All persons listed as authors must meet the criteria for authorship according to the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication" available at http://www.icmje.org. All persons who are identified as authors must have made substantial contribution to the manuscript through significantly contributing to the conception, design, analysis or interpretation of data; drafting or significantly revising the manuscript; and providing final approval of the manuscript throughout all its iterations. All three of these conditions must be met by each author. No additional authors can be added after submission unless editors receive agreement from all authors and detailed information is supplied as to why the author list should be amended. Persons who contribute to the effort in supporting roles should not be included as authors; they should be acknowledged at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments below).
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Registration of clinical trials
Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in this journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors recommendations. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration.
In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.
Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or Academia.edu, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The gold open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2250, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in standard, grammatical English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site ( https://service.elsevier.com) for more information. Such assistance does not guarantee acceptance but may enhance the review, improve the chance of acceptance, and reduce the time until publication if the article is accepted.
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.If the manuscript is accepted, the Editors reserve the right to determine whether it will be published in the print edition or solely in the Internet edition of the Journal.
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/tripleo. Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
You are recommended to use the Elsevier article class elsarticle.cls to prepare your manuscript and BibTeX to generate your bibliography.
Our LaTeX site has detailed submission instructions, templates and other information.
Essential Title Page Information
The title page of the manuscript should include the title of the article, the full name of the author(s), academic degrees, positions, and institutional affiliations. The corresponding author's address, business and home telephone numbers, fax number, and e-mail address should be given. Disclosures must appear on the title page (see Disclosures).
• Author names, academic degrees, positions, and institutional affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
• Disclosures must appear on the title page (see “Conflict of Interest” above).
Include on the title page a word count for the abstract (if relevant to article type), a complete manuscript word count (to include body text and figure legends), number of references, number of figures/tables, and number of supplementary elements, if any.Highlights
Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.
Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).Statement of Clinical Relevance
For Original research, Review, and MMPU manuscripts, please provide a brief statement of no more than 40 words that succinctly summarizes the clinical relevance of the findings described in your manuscript.
"The risk of postoperative bleeding complications in patients in whom anticoagulation is continued for dental surgery is exceedingly small and is outweighed by the small risk of serious and sometimes fatal embolic events when anticoagulation is interrupted for dental surgery." (Wahl et al. 119(2) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2014.10.011)Abstract
A structured abstract, limited to 200 words, must be used for data-based research articles. The structured abstract is to contain the following major headings: Objective(s); Study Design; Results; and Conclusion(s). The Objective(s) reflects the purpose of the study, that is, the hypothesis that is being tested. The Study Design should include the setting for the study, the subjects (number and type), the treatment or intervention, and the type of statistical analysis. The Results include the outcome of the study and statistical significance if appropriate. The Conclusion(s) states the significance of the results. For nondata-based submissions, the abstract should be an unstructured summary of less than 150 words. No abstract is needed for submissions to the CPC section.
Subdivision - unnumbered sectionsDivide your article into the following clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.
State the problem being investigated, summarize the existing knowledge to place the problem in context, and describe the hypothesis and general experimental design. Avoid a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
As relevant, the Materials and Methods section should describe in adequate detail the experimental subjects, their important characteristics, and the methods, apparatus, and procedures used so that other researchers can reproduce the experiment. When the manuscript submitted reports on research in which humans are involved as experimental subjects directly or indirectly, the Materials and Methods section must indicate that the protocol was reviewed by the appropriate institutional review board (IRB), is in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration, and that each subject in the project signed a detailed informed consent form. Authors should verify compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) before submission. Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference; only relevant modifications should be described.
Animals. Please indicate that protocols were reviewed by the appropriate institutional committee with respect to the humane care and treatment of animals used in the study.Results
Results should be clear and concise and presented in a logical sequence. Tables and illustrations may be helpful in clarifying the findings and can reduce the length of the manuscript.
The Discussion states the significance of the results and limitations of the study. Authors should discuss their findings in the framework of previously published research. They should explain why their results support or contradict existing knowledge. If appropriate, the authors may suggest further research to follow up on their findings.
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.
Dental Nomenclature. Because of competing dental nomenclature systems, confusion can be eliminated by identifying teeth by their name, rather than a number or letter. Be consistent throughout the manuscript.
Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
The names of persons who have contributed substantially to a manuscript but who do not fulfill the criteria for authorship, along with their conflicts of interest, funding sources, and industry relations, if relevant, are to be listed in the Acknowledgment section. This section should include individuals who provided any writing, editorial, statistical assistance, etc. Collate acknowledgments in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. Do not include statements of the authors' funding, conflicts, or other disclosures in the Acknowledgments; these must appear on the title page.
Citation in text
References should be complete and reflect the current state of knowledge on the topic. Make sure all references have been verified and are cited consecutively in the text (not including tables) by superscript numbers. The reference list should be typed double-spaced on a separate page of the manuscript file and numbered in the same order as the reference citations appear in the text.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
If accepted, the reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Make sure the information in each reference is complete and correct. To see the format used by the journal, refer to a recent issue.
Journal abbreviation source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. Electronic artwork
Illustrations should be numbered with Arabic numerals in the order of appearance in the text and accompanied by suitable legends (see Figure Captions).
A reasonable number of halftone illustrations or line drawings will be reproduced at no cost to the author. At the editors' discretion, color illustrations may be published in grayscale with the color image available in the online edition of the Journal; elaborate tables and extra illustrations, if accepted, may also appear as supplementary material in the online edition only. Typewritten or freehand lettering on illustrations is not acceptable. All lettering must be done professionally, and letters should be in proportion to the drawings or photographs on which they appear.Figures must be submitted in electronic figure file format. For best reproduction, images should be submitted in .tif format. Figures in .jpg format may be acceptable if they meet minimum resolution guidelines. Images embedded in programs such as PowerPoint or Word will not be accepted. Photographic images must be submitted at 300 ppi (pixels per inch) with the following dimensions: Full page 5" wide (1,500 pixels wide) or half page 3" wide (900 pixels wide). Screen capture resolutions (typically 72 ppi) will not provide adequate reproduction quality. Line-art images (charts, graphs) must be submitted at 1200 ppi with the following dimensions: Full page 5" wide (6000 pixels wide) or half page 3" wide (3600 pixels wide).
Avoid background gridlines and other formatting that do not convey information (e.g., superfluous use of 3-dimensional formatting, background shadings). All images should be cropped to show only the area of interest and the anatomy necessary to establish a regional frame of reference. Although multipart figures are not preferred, if they are used, label multipart figures with capital letters (e.g., A, B, C, etc); do not exceed nine parts to one figure. If images are to be combined in one figure, they should be the same height and magnification to facilitate reproduction.For advice on image enhancement and annotation refer to Corl FM, et al. A five-step approach to digital image manipulation for the radiologist. RadioGraphics 2002;22:981-992.
For further information, please see https://www.elsevier.com/artwork.
See also Permissions.Color artwork
If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print), please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Each illustration must be accompanied by a legend. These should be typed double-spaced on a separate page. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. If an illustration has been taken from published or copyrighted material, the legend must give full credit to the original source and accompanied by signed, written permission from the copyright holder (see Permissions below).
Artwork: General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations to appear as a separate page in the manuscript file.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 ppi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1200 ppi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Number tables consecutively using Roman numerals in accordance with their appearance in the text.
Each table should be submitted as a separate file. Tables should be self-explanatory and should supplement, not duplicate, the text. All table reference citations should be repeats of numbers assigned within the text, not initial citations. A concise title should be supplied for each table. All columns should carry concise headings describing the data therein. Type all footnotes immediately below the table and define abbreviations (see also Dental Nomenclature above). If a table or any data therein have been previously published, a footnote to the table must give full credit to the original source and accompanied by signed, written permission from the copyright holder (see Permissions below).
To save print pages and/or shorten an article to a readable length while allowing for detailed information to be available to interested readers, authors are encouraged to provide information that is essential for the discussion of the results of the submission in the submission itself and utilize supporting information to describe experimental details and nonessential but useful information as Supplementary Material. If the manuscript is accepted for print publication, a reference to the online material will appear in the print version.
Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Upload material, figures, and tables for online publication under the submission item "Supplementary Material" through the EES system. Be sure to change the description of the Supplementary Material to reflect the content; for example, Supplementary Detailed Methodology, Supplementary Figure Sx, Supplementary Table Sx.
Please order material such as Figures and Supplemental Figures separately in order of the callouts/first mentions in the text. For example: Figure 1, Figure 2; Supplemental Figure S1, Supplemental Figure S2, etc.
In the text be sure that you add behind the reference to the supplemental material "(Supplemental Table Sx; available at [URL/link*])." *To be provided by the production department.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Text: Indicate references by superscript number(s) in the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
Example: '..... as demonstrated.3,6 Barnaby and Jones8 obtained a different result ....'
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
1. J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2010) 51–59.
Reference to a book:
2. W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, fourth ed., Longman, New York, 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
3. G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 281–304.
[dataset] 5. Oguro, M, Imahiro, S, Saito, S, Nakashizuka, T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1. Data visualization
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
If your paper contains images generated from DICOM data, you may receive an invitation from the Section editor(s) after submission inviting you to complement your online article by providing volumetric radiological data of a case, a specific example, or multiple datasets in DICOM format. Readers will be able to interact, adjust, display, and view the DICOM data using an interactive viewer embedded within your article. Specifically, the viewer will enable users to explore the DICOM data as 2D orthogonal MPR series, 3D volume rendering and 3D MIP. Specific enhancements include zoom, rotate and pan 3D reconstructions, section through the volume, and change opacity and threshold level. Each DICOM dataset will have to be zipped in a folder and uploaded to the online submission system via the "DICOM dataset" submission category. The recommended size of a single uncompressed dataset is 200 MB or less. Please provide a short informative description for each dataset by filling in the 'Description' field when uploading each ZIP file. Note: All datasets will be available for download from the online article on ScienceDirect, so please ensure that all DICOM files are anonymized before submission. For more information see: https://www.elsevier.com/about/content-innovation/radiological-data
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. . In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Upload written permissions from the copyright holder to republish previously published material. Authors are responsible for obtaining and uploading any needed permissions and for clearly and completely identifying any overlapping material and/or quoted or paraphrased passages with proper attribution in the text to avoid plagiarism (including self-plagiarism). The Permissions FAQ for Authors is available at https://www.elsevier.com/authors/permission-seeking-guidelines-for-elsevier-authors. For assistance, please contact Elsevier's Permissions Helpdesk: +1-800-523-4069 x 3808; +1-215-239-3805; email@example.com
Written, signed permission(s) from the patient or legal guardian is/are required for publication of recognizable photographs. Clearly state in your cover letter that patient consent has been obtained and has been uploaded under "Permission/s." If it is impossible to obtain a consent form, the image(s) must be removed or sufficiently cropped to the area of interest only or otherwise changed so the patient cannot be recognized. However, blurring or placing bars over the eyes is no longer acceptable to eliminate the need for a signed consent form. The restrictions for photos have become very strict.
For more information, refer to https://www.elsevier.com/about/company-information/policies/patient-consent.
Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor should be a succinct comment pertaining to a paper(s) published in the Journal within the past year or to related topics. Provide a unique title for the Letter on the title page with complete contact information for the author(s). Double-space the text of the Letter. References, including reference to the pertinent article(s) in the Journal, should conform to style for manuscripts (see References). If accepted, the author(s) of the pertinent article(s) may be contacted to prepare a response to the comment.
Announcements must be received by the Editorial Office at least 10 weeks before the desired month of publication. Items published at no charge include those received from a sponsoring society of the Journal; courses and conferences sponsored by state, regional, or national dental organizations; and programs for the dental profession sponsored by government agencies. All other announcements selected for publication by the Editor carry a charge of $60 US, and the fee must accompany the request to publish.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
__ Letter of submission, to include disclosure of any previous publications or submissions with any overlapping information
__ Statement of clinical relevance (uploaded separately)
__ Title page
__ Title of article
__ Full names(s), academic degree(s), affiliation(s) and titles of author(s)
__ Author to whom correspondence, proof, and reprint requests are to be sent, including address and business and home telephone numbers, fax number, and e-mail address
__ Any conflict of interest statement(s), disclosure(s), and/or financial support information, including donations
__ Word count for the abstract (if relevant to article type), a complete manuscript word count (to include body text and figure legends), number of references, and number of figures/tables
__ Structured abstract (double-spaced as part of manuscript file), as relevant to article type
__ Article proper (double-spaced)
__ Statement of IRB review and compliance with Helsinki Declaration (stated in Methods section of manuscript, as relevant)
__ References (double-spaced on a separate page of the manuscript file)
__ Figure legends (double-spaced, on a separate page of the manuscript file)
__ Tables (double-spaced, uploaded separately as word processing [eg, .doc] files)
__ Illustrations, properly formatted (uploaded as separate files)
__ Video/computer graphics, properly formatted (uploaded as separate files)
__ Signed permission to reproduce any previously published material, in all forms and media (scanned in as a file and uploaded as Permission)
__ Signed permission to publish photographs of identifiable persons from the individual or legal guardian specifying permission in all forms and media (scanned in as a file and uploaded as Permission)
For any further information please visit our customer support site at https://service.elsevier.com. Proofs
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.